National Repository of Grey Literature 13 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Sparse restricted perception equilibrium
Audzei, Volha ; Slobodyan, Sergey
In this paper we study model selection under bounded rationality and the impact of monetary policy on the equilibrium choice of forecasting models. We use the concept of sparse rationality (developed recently by Gabaix, 2014), where paying attention to all possible variables is costly and agents can choose to over- or under-emphasize particular variables, even fully excluding some of them. Our main question is whether an initially mis-specified equilibrium (the restricted perceptions equilibrium, or RPE) is compatible with the equilibrium choice of sparse weights describing the allocation of attention to different variables by the agents inhabiting this RPE. In a simple New Keynesian model, we find that the agents stick to their initial mis-specified AR(1) forecasting model choice when monetary policy is less aggressive or inflation is more persistent. We also identify a region in the parameter space where the agents find it advantageous to pay attention to no variable at all.
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Essays on Macroeconomics with Financial Frictions
Audzei, Volha ; Slobodyan, Sergey (advisor) ; Wouters, Rafael (referee) ; Benigno, Pierpaolo (referee)
This dissertation analyzes how relaxing the assumption of rational expectations modifies the output of macroeconomic models. In particularly we show how imperfect information among the financial agents modifies their risk-taking decisions, the effect of monetary policy on banks' lending or equilibrium selection. In the first paper we incorporate a model of the interbank market into a standard DSGE model, with the interbank market rate and the volume of lending depending on market confidence and the perception of counterparty risk. As a result, a credit crunch occurs if the perception of counterparty risk increases. Changes in market confidence then can generate credit crunches and contribute to the depth of recessions. We conduct an exercise to mimic some central bank policies: targeted and untargeted liquidity provision, and reduction of the reserve rate. Our results indicate that policy actions have a limited effect on the supply of credit if they fail to influence agents' expectations. A policy of a low reserve rate worsens recessions due to its negative impact on banks' revenues. Liquidity provision stimulates credit slightly, but its efficiency is undermined by liquidity hoarding. The second paper is devoted to a problem of excessive risk-taking by financial agents. Recent central banks' policies...
Monetary and Fiscal Policy in Emerging Open Economics
Algozhina, Aliya ; Slobodyan, Sergey (advisor) ; Galuščák, Kamil (referee) ; Lewis, Vivien (referee)
Title: "Monetary and Fiscal Policy in Small Open Economies" Abstract This dissertation studies monetary and fiscal policies jointly, with their respective policy rules in a small open economy. Policy interactions have attracted new research interest since the 2008 crisis due to a global increase in fiscal debt. The first chapter extends the standard New Keynesian model of a small open economy with the structural specifics relevant for emerging market countries: two instruments of monetary policy - interest rate and foreign exchange interventions, two instruments of fiscal policy - public consumption and public investment, two types of households - forward-looking and rule-of- thumb consumers, and foreign debt via collateral constraint. Imperfect capital mobility is assumed, as foreign borrowings are restricted and there is a positive steady state difference between the domestic and foreign interest rates, due to more impatient households in the domestic economy. Parameters are calibrated for Hungary and the model's simulation is compared between two cases: with and without a collateral constraint. The results show that fiscal and monetary policy shocks transmit to the economy differently from the standard Mundell-Fleming model. A positive public investment shock can cause exchange rate depreciation and...
Essays on Shadow Banking and Asset Pricing
Kuncl, Martin ; Slobodyan, Sergey (advisor) ; Nikolov, Kalin (referee) ; Malherbe, Frédéric (referee)
This dissertation deals with the topics related to securitization and with pricing of finan- cial assets in general. The topics are analyzed from a macroeconomic perspective using various theoretical and empirical methods. The first chapter studies the efficiency of financial intermediation through securitiza- tion with asymmetric information about the quality of securitized loans. In this theoret- ical model I show that, in general, by providing reputation-based implicit recourse, the issuer of a loan can credibly signal its quality. However, in boom stages of the business cycle, information on loan quality remains private, and lower quality loans accumulate on balance sheets. This deepens a subsequent downturn. The longer the duration of a boom, the deeper the fall of output in a subsequent recession will be. I present empir- ical evidence from securitization deal level data consistent with this result. Finally, the model suggests that excessive regulation which requires higher explicit risk-retention by the originators of loans can adversely affect both quantity and quality of investment in the economy. The second chapter presents a Markov-switching DSGE model which focuses on the adverse selection on re-sale markets for securitized products. The complexity of secu- ritized assets, which make it...
Essays on Economics of Adaptive Learning and Imperfect Monitoring
Janjgava, Batlome ; Slobodyan, Sergey (advisor) ; McGough, Bruce (referee) ; Kasa, Kenneth (referee)
The topic of this dissertation is equilibrium selection in models with incomplete and imperfect information. The dissertation consists of three chapters. In the first two chapters, I focus on firms' decision problems with a structural uncertainty and imperfect monitoring. In the first chapter, co-authored with Sergey Slobodyan, we study a market with two firms competing in quantities. Firms are uncertain about demand parameters and have to learn them using price signals. Although the Cournot output is the Nash equilibrium in the model, we identify conditions when cooperative behavior may arise due to learning and find an endogenous price threshold that triggers such behavior. We show that cooperation is more probable in markets with higher precision of firm-specific shocks. In the second chapter, I investigate the social efficiency of free entry in homogeneous product markets. In general, free entry is considered desirable for a society from a social welfare point of view and thus, represents traditional wisdom among economic professions. However, many economists have challenged this view and shown that under Cournot oligopoly with fixed setup costs, the free entry equilibrium always delivers excessive entry in homogeneous product markets, known as the excess entry theorem. In this chapter, I reexamine the...
Essays in Heterogeneous Learning
Bogomolova, Anna ; Slobodyan, Sergey (advisor) ; McGough, Bruce (referee) ; Molnar, Krizstina (referee)
5 Abstract Essays in Heterogeneous Learning by Anna Bogomolova My dissertation makes a contribution to the …eld of heterogeneous adaptive learning in macroeconomic models. This contribution is presented in the form of three research papers that constitute di¤erent chapters of my thesis. In the …rst chapter of my dissertation, "E-stability That Does Imply Learnability", I provide criteria and su¢ cient conditions for the stability of a structurally heterogeneous economy under the heterogeneous learning of agents, extending the results of Honkapohja and Mitra [36], Bogomolova and Kolyuzhnov [5], and Kolyuzhnov [40]. I provide general criteria (in terms of the corresponding Jacobian matrices) for stability under heterogeneous mixed RLS/SG learning for four classes of models: models without lags and with lags of the endogenous variable and with t- or t 1- dating of expectations, and provide su¢ cient conditions for stability for some simpler cases, where simpli…cations include either the diagonal structure of the shock process behaviour or the heterogeneous RLS learning. I also provide su¢ cient conditions for stability in terms of the structural heterogeneity independent of heterogeneity in learning ( -stability) in terms of E-stability of a suitably de…ned aggregate economy for all four classes of models...
Four Essays on Macroeconomic Aspects of the Transition Process
Brůha, Jan ; Slobodyan, Sergey (advisor) ; Zamulin, Oleg (referee) ; Cobham, David (referee)
This dissertation is a sample of my research on macroeconomic aspects of the transition process in the Central European countries. During my doctoral studies, I have been especially interested in two issues: (1) environmental regulation and policy and (2) macroeconomic convergence. The first paper The decomposition and econometric analysis of air emissions in a transition country: the case of the Czech Republic is from the field of environmental economics and is empirically oriented. It analyzes air emissions of four classical pollutants in the Czech Republic during the transition period. The next three papers are macroeconomic papers based on theoretical modeling. The paper Real Exchange Rate in Emerging Economies: The Role of Different Investment Margins (written jointly with Jiří Podpiera) inquires about the mechanism of the strong pace of the real exchange rate appreciation observed in Central European transition economies. The paper introduces a quality investment margin and shows that the margin is needed for replicating the observed pace of the real exchange rate appreciation. The paper basically compares the steady state of the model for various levels of development of a converging country. The next paper The Dynamics of Economic Convergence: The Role of Alternative Investment Decisions...
Essays on Monetary Policy and Estimation of DSGE Models
Rychalovska, Yuliya ; Slobodyan, Sergey (advisor) ; Žák, Milan (referee) ; Hlédik, Tibor (referee)
The thesis is motivated by current practice of policy conduct implemented by many monetary institutions. In particular, a new operational framework, inflation targeting, has been introduced by the most advanced central banks. In addition, DSGE models became widely used for systematic evaluation of macroeconomic effects of monetary policy and forecasting. In the first chapter of the thesis, I assess possible risks and challenges of implementing inflation targeting strategy in more complicated, but at the same time more realistic, DSGE model economies. I focus on analysis of optimal monetary policy and welfare in a DSGE model of a small open economy with multiple domestic sectors, which have different structural characteristics. The findings suggest that openness to trade as well as sector-specific features do matter for monetary policy design thus generating important implications for optimal stabilization objectives and social welfare. The ranking of simple rules indicates that flexible CPI targeting regime is able to closely replicate the optimal solution and outperform the policy of domestic inflation stabilization. Finally, the sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the presence of sectoral asymmetries may alter the relative performance of alternative policy rules. The second part of the thesis...
Specific and general human capital in an endogenous growth model
Vourvachaki, E. ; Jerbashian, Vahagn ; Slobodyan, Sergey
In this paper, we define specific (general) human capital in terms of the occupations whose use is spread in a limited (wide) set of industries. We analyze the growth impact of an economy’s composition of specific and general human capital, in a model where education and R&D are costly and complementary activities. The model suggests that a declining share of specific human capital, as observed in the Czech Republic, can be associated with a lower rate of long run growth. We also discuss optimal educational policies in the presence of market frictions.

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