National Repository of Grey Literature 75 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Karyotype evolution of African clades of theraphosid mygalomorphs
Košátko, Prokop ; Král, Jiří (advisor) ; Nguyen, Petr (referee)
Karyotypes of mygalomorph spiders are not satisfactorily known. This thesis is focused on the basic cytogenetic analysis of selected species of African clades of theraphosid mygalomorphs. It includes four subfamilies: Eumenophorinae, Harpactirinae, Ischnocolinae and Stromatopelminae. Diploid numbers, chromosome morphology, sex chromosome systems and chromosome behaviour in male germline in the selected species of African theraphosid subfamilies were studied. The findings support published results, that refer of high karyotype diversity in Theraphosidae. Diploid chromosome number reduction is probably a basic trend of theraphosid karyotype evolution. The majority of analysed species exhibited one, two or three sex chromosomes. In some species neo-sex chromosome systems were found. In some species one or two sex chromosome pairs (SCP), composed of chromosomes which lack morphological differentiation were detected. Nucleolus organizer regions were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization in several species. Constitutive heterochromatin detection was performed by C-banding in two species. Keywords: constitutive heterochromatin, diploid number, karyotype, fluorescence in situ hybridization, Mygalomorphae, nucleolus organizer region, SCP, sex chromosome, spider, Theraphosidae
Analysis of sex chromosomes and gene clusters in selected mygalomorph and araneomorph spiders
Pappová, Michaela ; Král, Jiří (advisor) ; Johnson Pokorná, Martina (referee)
1 Abstract: The diploma thesis focuses on study of sex chromosomes evolution and repetitive organized genes of chosen mygalomorph and araneomorph spiders. Spiders are characterized by complexicity of sex chromosome systems, their karyotypes contain multiple sex chromosomes X. Besides multiple X chromosomes they also contain a pair or two pairs of nondiferentiated sex chromosomes X and Y. The used methods include methods of classical cytogenetics (preparation of chromosome slides, C-banding) and methods of molecular cytogenetics (fluorescent in situ hybridization and comparative genome hybridization). Complex sex systems were discovered in the studied Theraphosidae spiders. In Theraphosidae spiders Atropothele socotrana and Poecilotheria vittata neo-sex chromosomes were found. Analysis of molecular differentiation of sex chromosomes suggests low differentiation of Y chromosome in neo-sex chromosomes and pair of nondifferentiated sex chromosomes XY. In haplogyne spider Kukulcania aff. hibernalis (X1X2Y), the Y chromosome was significantly differentiated, male specific signal covered the whole chromosome. Detection of 18S rDNA showed that karyotypes of majority of analysed Theraphosidae spiders and haplogyne spiders contain low number (1 or 2) of nucleolar organizing regions localized terminally, which...
Karyotype analysis of mesothelid spiders
Prokopcová, Lenka ; Král, Jiří (advisor) ; Zrzavá, Magda (referee)
Cytogenetics of mesothelid spiders is largely unkown. The presented diploma thesis is focused on the karyotype evolution of these spiders. As it is the most basal group of spiders, the analysis of its cytogenetics can bring important data about ancestral spider karyotype. In the framework of my thesis, I analysed diploid chromosome numbers, chromosome morphology, meiotic division, sex chromosomes and the pattern of selected molecular markers that were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization. According to my results, mesothelid spiders have a high number of chromosomes and the prevalence of monoarmed chromosomes. Unlike other spiders, mesothelids have little differentiated sex chromosomes. Key words: evolution, spider, chromosome, karyotype, fluorescence in situ hybridization, nucleolar organiser region, sex chromosomes
Transgenic mosquitos as a tool for lower incidence of malaria
Čermáková, Eliška ; Schierová, Michaela (advisor) ; Král, Jiří (referee)
Malaria is an infectious disease causing high lethality, mainly in tropic and subtropic Africa. The disease is caused by unicellular Plasmodium and transmitted by infected Anopheles mosquito females. Genetic manipulations in mosquitos are promising approach in malaria vector control. There are two important ways of genetic manipulations in mosquitos: reduction and substitution strategies. In the former one, transgenic male mosquitos are used to achieve long term mosquito population size reduction. The aim of different substitution strategies is the production of transgenic mosquitos refractory to Plasmodium infection, unable to ensure Plasmodium development. These transgenic insects should replace the original mosquito population. Both strategies are under proposals and testing in laboratory conditions. Key words: Transgenic mosquitos, vector, Plasmodium, malaria
Molecular composition and ultrastructure of holokinetic chromosomes
Šejgunovová, Nikola ; Král, Jiří (advisor) ; Dalíková, Martina (referee)
Holokinetic chromosomes are a specific type of chromosomes which differentiate from standard (monocentric) chromosomes especially by a diffuse form of domain which binds microtubules (holocentromere). It is related to changes on an ultrastructural and molecular level. These changes are shown in modifications in mitotic and meiotic division and in evolution of karyotypes. Holokinetic chromosomes don't have a primary constriction with a localized centromere and therefore neither an inner centromere domain which would connect sister chromatids. Kinetochore structure of holokinetic chromosomes seems to be simpler than kinetochore structure of monocentric chromosomes. Kinetochore covers most of the surface of mitotic chromosomes. There have been described several variants of meiosis of holokinetic chromosomes which differentiate by position of kinetochore on chromosomes. On a molecular level holokinetic chromosomes differentiate from monocentric chromosomes by a distribution of proteins of a centromere-kinetochore complex, which cover most of the surfaces of mitotic and meiotic chromosomes. This applies, for example, to centromeric histone H3 (CENH3), whose amount and distribution changes during interphase and nuclear division, which is unique in comparison to monocentric chromosomes. The distribution...
Karyotype evolution of the family Araneidae
Pajpach, Filip ; Král, Jiří (advisor) ; Sember, Alexandr (referee)
Orb-weavers (Araneidae) are a diversified spider family comprising more than 3,100 species in more than 170 genera. Together with 13 other families, they con- stitute to superfamily Araneoidea. The presented thesis focuses on karyotype evo- lution of Araneidae, including its comparison with a related family Tetragnathidae. The results obtained from 19 araneid and four tetragnathid species confirm previ- ously postulated hypothesis that the ancestral karyotype of Araneoidea (including Araneidae) consists of 24 acrocentric chromosomes in males, including two acro- centric X chromosomes of system X1X20. However, there is a tendency of 2n decrease in some araneids due to centric fusions. In these cases, centric fusions affected most autosomes (and sometimes gonosomes as well); number of chromosome pairs de- creased from 11 to six. Three independent reduction events were detected in this thesis. Furthermore, pattern of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) was studied in this thesis using fluorescent in situ hybridization, since data on evolution of this marker are scarce in spiders. Striking variability in NORs number was discovered, ranging from one to 13 loci. Remarkably, multiple centric fusions were always ac- companied by considerable increase of NORs number. In araneids and tetragnathids possessing...
Analysis of dosage effect of speciation gene Prdm9 on fertility of mouse hybrids
Flachs, Petr ; Trachtulec, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Stopka, Pavel (referee) ; Král, Jiří (referee)
(eng) The phenomenon of hybrid sterility represents one of the evolutionary mechanisms that enables speciation. Only a few speciation genes have been uncovered. The only one found in mammals is Prdm9 (PR-domain 9). Data in the literature on the involvement of Prdm9 in decreased fertility of various semifertile hybrid males of house mouse subspecies were scarce before the results of this thesis were completed, despite that such males are much more frequent in nature than the fully sterile ones. Utilizing a panel of genetic tools and a battery of phenotyping tests, this thesis shows a central role of Prdm9 in fecundity of hybrids, including many fertility disorders and age dependency. Both increasing and reducing the Prdm9 gene dosage significantly elevated fertility parameters. Surprisingly, even the allele that in one copy causes full hybrid sterility increased F1 hybrid fertility when present in multiple copies. The PRDM9 protein also plays a role in identifying the sites of meiotic recombination. This study also points out the principles of allelic competition in determination of the sites of preferred recombination (hotspots), which suggests a possible link between both previously described Prdm9 roles. This thesis summarizes a set of three logically interconnected publications with the ambition...

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See also: similar author names
2 KRÁL, Josef
9 Král, Jakub
27 Král, Jan
1 Král, Jan (Ing.)
1 Král, Jan (RNDr.)
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2 Král, Jindřich
2 Král, Josef
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