National Repository of Grey Literature 112 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
The Perception of Women in Terrorist Organizations: A Comparative Study of the Islamic state and Al Qaeda
Antonínová, Aneta ; Ditrych, Ondřej (advisor) ; Záhora, Jakub (referee)
The thesis aims to analyze the role of women in the Islamic State and Al Qaeda and determine which factors can account for the differences in their perception of women. Although the phenomenon of terrorism has been the focus of many researchers in the field of international relations, the amount of attention paid to women as perpetrators of terrorist violence is significantly smaller. Both of the studied terrorist organizations follow the radical interpretation of Islam which results in many shared views concerning female roles in society in general and in jihad in particular. However, it is possible to find differences in their opinions of women, especially in relation to a more active involvement in the groups' combat and martyrdom operations. In regards to methodology, comparative case study was chosen as the best possible method to explain these differences. The results of the analysis show that it is the worsening security context and increasing threats to the group's survival that are able to account for the acceptance of female combatants in the case of the Islamic State. On the other hand, Al Qaeda's relatively strong position does not create similar pressure for the group to change its position regarding women. Keywords Terrorism, Role of Women, Islamic State, Al Qaeda
Contested Meanings of the Norm Against Chemical Weapons: CWC and the Issue of "Non-Lethal" Agents
Martínková, Hana ; Smetana, Michal (advisor) ; Ditrych, Ondřej (referee)
This thesis deals with the debate on non-lethal chemical weapons under the Chemical Weapons Convention regime. I examine the evolution of the debate between 2002 and 2017 and use a modified theory of the cycle of normative change to analyse it. Apart from identifying main actors and actions taken by them, I identify the rule structure, rule tensions and arguments that are central to the issue of riot control agents and incapacitating chemical agents, later re-branded as central nervous system acting chemicals. In addition, I highlight the importance of (re-)framing and issue decoupling as successful strategies for norm- entrepreneurs to employ when gathering support.
Securitization of education in contemporary Europe
Lehutová, Kristína ; Ditrych, Ondřej (advisor) ; Hynek, Nikola (referee)
The aim of the thesis is to analyze the current state of policies proposed to address the issue of radicalization in Europe. More specifically, the thesis deals with the topic of the fight against radicalization through education. The paper highlights how security debate in Europe is changing the understanding of educational institutions and their role in anti-radicalization policies. In the past, states in Europe had to deal with various forms of violence caused by either separatist movements or other radical and extremist ideologies. Unfortunately, the problem of the occasional outbreak of violence has not been resolved yet in Europe. In relation to the theme of radicalization, the role of educational institutions is perceived as significant to counter the process. They are considered to be the main institutions able to support the social inclusion and critical thinking of students during the globalization and modernization of Internet technologies. For these reasons, educational institutions should be responsible for protecting European students and pupils and preventing them from being drawn to extremism. This work, however, points out that this understanding is not the only way promoted by governments to tackle radicalization through the sector of education. The role of educational...
Mundane Self-Legitimizations of Power: Distribution of the Sensible in the Israeli Settlements in the West Bank
Záhora, Jakub ; Ditrych, Ondřej (advisor) ; Barša, Pavel (referee) ; Yacobi, Haim (referee)
Bibliographic Record ZÁHORA, JAKUB. Mundane Self-Legitimizations of Power: Distribution of the Sensible in the Israeli Settlements in the West Bank. Prague, 2017. 277 p. Doctoral dissertation (Ph.D.) Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Political Studies. Thesis supervisor: PhDr. Ondřej Ditrych, MPhil., Ph.D. Abstract: In this doctoral thesis I am looking into mechanisms, practices and political technologies that work to depoliticize contested and potentially disturbing realities. To make sense of these processes, I am utilizing the theoretical and conceptual apparatus derived from Foucault's and Rancière's respective works. Following Rancière, I conceptualize depolitization as a "distribution of the sensible", a particular ordering of what is presented to the senses and thus made intelligible, "obvious" and "natural". Understanding such arrangements in terms of a governmental programme, I focus mostly on material and visual elements of the dispositif that promotes this depoliticizing rationality. Empirically, I am investigating the case of the Israeli so-called non-ideological settlements in the West Bank. Despite some popular misconceptions, these communities attract Israelis by offering cheap public services and housing rather than for their religious-nationalistic...
Methods of Recruitment and Propaganda Activities Carried Out by Terrorist Groups Inspired by the Ideology of Salafi Jihadism
Kubrina, Ekaterina ; Ditrych, Ondřej (advisor) ; Ludvík, Zdeněk (referee)
The diploma thesis is focused on the issue of radicalization of young people, who join terrorist organizations inspired by the ideology of Salafi Jihadism. Terrorist groups are one of the greatest global threats of the 21st century, and the recruitment of new fighters is their basic factor of success and growth. Therefore, the aim of the thesis is to compare the methods and techniques of recruitment used by Salafi Jihadist groups and to identify successful strategies of terrorist groups, leading to the radicalization of certain populations. The work deals with two concrete terrorist groups - the "Islamic State" and Al-Qaeda, because these groups operate globally, have sympathizers around the world, and attract different people to join them. The basis of the research is an application of different radicalization models that have been developed up to now on the observed methods and strategies of terrorist recruiters. The result of this research is a revealing of the most used methods of recruitment, the reasons of successful recruitment cases and a summarizing of the qualities of potential recruits and the factors facilitating radicalization of these persons.
Russia's Critique of Western Liberalism under Vladimir Putin
Frenzel, Stefanie ; Franěk, Jakub (advisor) ; Ditrych, Ondřej (referee)
While most of the states have embraced capitalist market economy, liberal and democratic norms face resistance in large parts of the world. The \enquote{liberal West} under the leadership of the United States has to face critique of his democratization practices and alleged hypocrisy when dealing with the enforcement of its own norms. One of the loudest critics is Russia under President Vladimir Putin. The first objective of my thesis is to understand the rationale behind Russia's Foreign Policy because without that, no efficient and deescalating policies towards Russia can be developed. I do this by means of an ideological discourse analysis of some of the most famous of Putin's speeches. The concepts of the German philosopher Carl Schmitt serve as a frame for tracing the ideas expressed in the speeches of the Russian President. The analysis concludes that, at least rhetorically, democracy, trust, disarmament, freedom of speech, balance of power and the UN as universal institution have a central place for both the Western World and Russia. NATO expansion, U.S. intervention in the Middle East and, related to that, the alleged non--respect of sovereignty are the most dividing issues between Russia and the Western liberal democracies. It becomes clear that Russia has the impression that Western liberal...
Comparing U.S. Counterterrorist Policies against Al-Qaeda and the Islamic State
Kopecká, Anna - Marie ; Ditrych, Ondřej (advisor) ; Doboš, Bohumil (referee)
The thesis deals with comparison of the United States counterterrorist policies against al- Qaeda and the Islamic state. It compares the approaches of two U.S. administrations in period from 11th September 2001 to end of the year 2014, when the Operation Enduring Freedom came to its end, and in period from July 2014, when the Operation Inherent Resolve was launched, to the end of the year 2016. The thesis characterizes similarities and differences between both strategies. It also aims to answer the question whether the U.S. approach to al- Qaeda was tougher than the one to the Islamic state. Counterterrorist policies are being compared here based on three criteria: military means employed, cooperation with international actors and extra-legalism. The first part of the thesis copes with concepts of terrorism and counter-terrorism. In the next part both approaches are analyzed separately and compared subsequently. In the conclusion the results are summarized and causes of differences between approaches are interpreted.
US-Russia Relations and the Mass Media: The Representation of Vladimir Putin in the American Media
Alikina, Valeriia ; Karásek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Ditrych, Ondřej (referee)
Russian-American Relations and the Mass Media Securitization of Vladimir Putin and Donald Trump in the American Press by Valeriia Alikina This thesis is focused on two issues relevant to Security Studies and Political Science: relations between the Russian Federation and the United States of America, which are currently experiencing yet another decline, and problematics of political journalism. It reviews the process of securitization of Russia through speech acts in the mass media of its historical opponent, the United States. First, the thesis provides a theoretical framework, securitization theory, introducing its main principles. To prove that the process of securitization indeed occurs, the method of discourse analysis is employed. The third chapter provides background information on the relations between the Soviet Union/Russia and the United States since the end of the World War II; this information is completed by the role mass media had in their affairs. The next chapter frames the issue of propaganda, elaborating on the meaning behind this concept, the "fake news" narrative, and the idealistic idea of media objectivity. In the fifth chapter, the case study, two processes of securitization are reviewed. The first one is the American mainstream media, namely ​The New York Times​ and ​The...
Securitization of the Veteran Effect of Foreign Fighters from ISIS in Europe
Pěčková, Miroslava ; Ditrych, Ondřej (advisor) ; Ludvík, Zdeněk (referee)
The aim of this Master's thesis is to examine the securitization discourse used to construct the security threat coming from the veteran effect of the Islamic State's foreign fighters in Europe, and to see what kind of policies were adopted to counter it so far. The phenomenon of departing European citizens, who are becoming foreign fighters in the Syrian conflict, joining the ranks of the Islamic State, and then return back to their country of origin after having acquired combat experience or other training, has become a hot topic of discussion not only for academics, but also for politicians and ordinary citizens. To precise, this thesis is working with three main case studies, whose securitization discourse and security policies are analysed. These are: European Union, United Kingdom and France. The author was interested in finding out what similarities and differences can be found between the analysed countries, plus, whether there is some pattern of influence between the European Union and its member states in this area. The author of this thesis chose to use a comparative case study as a research design. It is useful to realize a contrast of contexts and therefore to discover specifics of the analysed cases. Two tables were created in order to clarify the operationalization of the analysed...

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