Ústav fyziky materiálů

Nejnovější přírůstky:
2018-10-02
14:38
LOW CYCLE FATIGUE BEHAVIOR AND FATIGUE CRACK INITIATION IN MAR-M247 AT 700 °C
Šulák, Ivo ; Obrtlík, Karel ; Hrbáček, K.
The second generation nickel-based superalloy MAR-M247 offers a satisfying combination of fatigue and creep properties and oxidation and corrosion resistance that are required for application at elevated temperatures in hostile environments. The microstructure consists mainly of the face centred cubic γ matrix and ordered γ´ strengthening precipitates (L12 crystal structure). The present work focuses on low cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviour of polycrystalline nickel-based superalloy MAR-M247 at high temperature. LCF tests were conducted on cylindrical specimens in a symmetrical push-pull cycle under strain control with constant total strain amplitude and strain rate at 700 °C in ambient air. Cyclic stress-strain curves and fatigue life curves in the representation of plastic strain amplitude vs. stress amplitude and stress amplitude vs. the number of cycles to failure, respectively, were plotted and compared with data obtained on Inconel 713LC. Special attention was paid to the investigation of crack initiation in MAR-M247 during low cycle fatigue. Crack initiation sites were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in dual beam microscope TESCAN LYRA 3 XMU FESEM equipped with focus ion beam (FIB). Specimens’ surface observations revealed the formation of pronounced surface relief indicating localisation of plastic deformation. Observations in transmission electron microscope (TEM) confirmed localisation of cyclic plastic deformation in persistent slip bands along {111} slip planes. Fractographic analysis revealed fatigue crack initiation sites. Fatigue crack propagation in stage I was typical of smooth facets up to 500 μm long.

Úplný záznam
2018-03-09
13:20
Application of the Williams expansion near a bi-material interface
Malíková, Lucie ; Seitl, Stanislav
A simplified model of a crack approaching a bi-material interface is modelled by means of the finite element method in order to investigate the significance of the higher-order terms of the Williams expansion for the proper approximation of the opening crack-tip stress near the bi-material interface. The discussion on results is presented and the importance of the higher-order terms proved.

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2018-03-09
13:20
Comparison of calibration functions for short edge cracks under selected loads
Seitl, Stanislav ; Miarka, Petr ; Malíková, Lucie ; Krejsa, M.
Attention to the fatigue cracks in steel structures and bridges has been paid for long time. In spite to efforts to eliminate the creation and propagation of fatigue cracks throughout the designed service life, cracks are still revealed during inspections. Note, that depending on location of initial crack, the crack may propagate from the edge or from the surface. The theoretical model of fatigue crack progression is based on linear fracture mechanics. Steel specimens are subjected to various load (tension, three- and four-point bending, pure bending etc.). The calibration functions for short edge cracks are compared for various load and the discrepancies are discussed.

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2018-03-09
13:20
Effect of the load eccentricity on fracture behaviour of cementitious materials subjected to the modified compact tension test
Seitl, Stanislav ; Ríos, J. D. ; Cifuentes, H. ; Veselý, V.
Fracture properties of quasi-brittle cementitious composites are typically determined from the load–displacement response recorded during a fracture test by using the work-of-fracture method or possibly other relevant fracture models. Our contribution is focused on a set of experimental tests which are used to study the fracture behaviour on notched dog-bone-shaped specimens made of cementitious materials. These specimens are subjected to modified compact tension (ModCT) test under a specific range of eccentricity of the tensile load. This type of test generates a stress state in the specimen ligament which combines a direct tension with a defined level of bending due to eccentricity of the tensile load. Several values of relative notch length are also considered. While the crack propagates, a variety of stress states, resulting in variations in the crack-tip stress and deformation constraint, appears in the ligament zone because of the changes in the eccentricity of the applied load, which influences the fracture behaviour of the investigated specimens. The K-calibration, T-stress, CMOD and COD curves for ModCT specimens are introduced and variations of these curves with varying load eccentricity are discussed.

Úplný záznam
2018-03-09
13:20
Fatigue Crack Initiation in Nickel-Based Superalloy MAR-M247 at High Temperature
Šulák, Ivo ; Obrtlík, Karel
The present work is focused on the study of crack initiation during low cycle fatigue (LCF) loading of the second generation nickel-based superalloy MAR-M247 treated with hot isostatic pressing. LCF tests were conducted on cylindrical specimens in symmetrical push-pull cycle under strain control with constant total strain amplitude and strain rate at 800 °C in air atmosphere. Selected specimens were electrolytically polished to facilitate surface relief observations. Crack initiation sites were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in dual beam microscope TESCAN LYRA 3 XMU FESEM equipped with focus ion beam (FIB). The microstructure of the material is characterised by coarse dendritic grains with numerous carbides and small casting defects. The average grain size was 2.1 ± 0.3 mm. Fractographic analysis revealed the fatigue crack initiation sites and their relation to the casting defects and material microstructure. Casting defects, carbide inclusions and interdendritic areas were found to be important crack nucleation sites. Specimens’ surface observations revealed the formation of pronounced surface relief with short worm-like markings. Fatigue crack initiation in these places is documented and discussed.

Úplný záznam
2018-03-09
13:20
Quantum-mechanical study of tensorial elastic and high-temperature thermodynamic properties of grain boundary states in superalloy-phase Ni3Al
Friák, Martin ; Všianská, Monika ; Holec, D. ; Šob, Mojmír
Grain boundaries (GBs), the most important defects in solids and their properties are crucial for many materials properties including (in-)stability. Quantum-mechanical methods can reliably compute properties of GBs and we use them to analyze (tensorial) anisotropic elastic properties of interface states associated with GBs in one of the most important intermetallic compounds for industrial applications, Ni3Al. Selecting the Sigma 5(210) GBs as a case study because of its significant extra volume, we address the mechanical stability of the GB interface states by checking elasticity-based Born stability criteria. One critically important elastic constant, C 55, is found nearly three times smaller at the GB compared with the bulk, contributing thus to the reduction of the mechanical stability of Ni3Al polycrystals. Next, comparing properties of Sigma 5(210) GB state which is fully relaxed with those of a Sigma 5(210) GB state when the supercell dimensions are kept equal to those in the bulk we conclude that lateral relaxations have only marginal impact on the studied properties. Having the complete elastic tensor of Sigma 5(210) GB states we combine Green's-function based homogenization techniques and an approximative approach to the Debye model to compare thermodynamic properties of a perfect Ni3Al bulk and the Sigma 5(210) GB states. In particular, significant reduction of the melting temperature (to 79-81% of the bulk value) is predicted for nanometer-size grains.

Úplný záznam
2018-03-09
13:20
Influence of the Upper Die and of the Indenter Material on the Time to Rupture of Small Punch Creep Tests
Andrés, D. ; Dymáček, Petr ; Lacalle, R. ; Álvarez, J. A.
The Small Punch Creep test has proven to be a suitable technique for assessing the\nproperties of in-service components. It is a reliable, efficient and cost-effective test for predicting\nthe behaviour of the material. The aim of this paper is to analyse the influence of different factors\non the Small Punch Creep (SPC) tests. The influence of the specimen clamping has been studied,\nexperimentally and by means of finite element models on different materials. In the analysed\nconditions, it has been proven that the influence of the upper die on the tests results is generally\nrelatively insignificant, even in the absence of upper die.\nFurthermore, the use of different materials at the punch has also been analysed. In order to achieve\nthis goal, SPC tests have been carried out on two light alloys (AZ31 and AlSi9Cu3) at 473 and\n523K. Three different balls have been employed: ceramic, tungsten-carbide and steel balls. It has\nbeen proven that for the creep ductile alloy (AZ31), there is no apparent effect on the specimen\nresponse. On the other hand, for the creep brittle alloy (AlSi9Cu3), a different trend of the material\nresponse is shown, dependent on the ball used. As a result, there seems to be a significant influence\nof the friction between the punch and the specimen on the tests results, related to the material\nbehaviour.

Úplný záznam
2018-03-09
13:20
Detecting plasticity in al thin films by means of bulge test
Holzer, Jakub ; Pikálek, Tomáš ; Buchta, Zdeněk ; Lazar, Josef ; Tinoco, H.A. ; Chlupová, Alice ; Náhlík, Luboš ; Sobota, Jaroslav ; Fořt, Tomáš ; Kruml, Tomáš
The Bulge test proved to be a useful tool for measuring elastic properties of thin films and\nfree standing membranes, particularly Young’s modulus and residual stress. The basic principle\nof bulge test is application of differential pressure on one side of the a membrane, measurement of\nthe shape of bulged surface as a function of pressure, in this case via laser interferometer, and\nevaluation of a pressure-deflection relationship. In this study, bilayer membrane consisting of a\nsilicon nitride supporting layer and an aluminium layer deposited by means of magnetron\nsputtering is subjected to the bulge test. The results clearly show signs of a non-linear behavior\nthat is caused by plastic deformation in the aluminium layer. Finite element analysis is being\ndeveloped to describe this behavior because analytical model using deflection of central point and\npressure relation falls apart in case of non-linearity.

Úplný záznam
2018-03-09
13:20
Spin-dependent electrical transport at finite temperatures from the first principles
Wagenknecht, David ; Carva, K. ; Turek, Ilja
A theoretical method for finite-temperature electronic transport properties of metallic systems is presented. The developed formalism is applied to pure platinum and to random Cu-Ni alloys.

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2018-03-09
13:20
LCF behaviour of 301LN steel: coarse-grained vs. UFG-bimodal structure
Man, Jiří ; Chlupová, Alice ; Kuběna, Ivo ; Kruml, Tomáš ; Man, O. ; Järvenpää, A. ; Karjalainen, L. P. ; Polák, Jaroslav
Low-cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviour of metastable austenitic 301LN steel with different grain sizes – coarse-grained (14 µm) and UFG (1.4 µm) with a grain bimodality – produced by reversion annealing (RA) was investigated. Symmetrical push-pull LCF tests were conducted on flat sheet specimens at room temperature with constant strain rate of 2×10–3 s–1 and constant total strain amplitude ranging from 0.4% to 0.8%. After completion of fatigue tests a ferritescope was adopted for quantitative assessment of volume fraction of deformation induced martensite (DIM). Microstructural changes, distribution and morphology of DIM in the volume of material were characterized at different scales by colour etching, TEM and EBSD techniques. Experimental data on microstructural changes are confronted with the stress-strain response and with the chemical heterogeneity present in the material.

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