Ústav fyziky materiálů

Nejnovější přírůstky:
2017-04-28
14:22
Magnetic properties of 42CrMo4 steel
Bulín, T. ; Švábenská, Eva ; Hapla, Miroslav ; Roupcová, Pavla ; Ondrušek, C. ; Schneeweiss, Oldřich
Low alloyed high-grade chrome-molybdenum ferritic steel was investigated from the point of views of magnetic properties in dependence on heat and mechanical treatment. This steel can be used as components of magnetic circuits or some parts in electrical equipment. The basic information on structure and phase composition was obtained by optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray Powder Diffraction and Mössbauer Spectroscopy. The temperature stability of the material was proved by measurements of temperature dependences of magnetic moment. The magnetic parameters were obtained by measuring of magnetic hysteresis loops in dependence on saturation field and their frequencies. The results are discussed from the point of view of possible applications as a magnetic material in the very extremely environment, where high mechanical stresses and elevated temperatures can occur.

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2017-03-17
18:38
ATOMISTIC SIMULATIONS OF TWIN BOUNDARIES FACETING IN HCP MATERIALS
Ostapovets, Andriy
Deformation twinning is frequently observed in materials with hexagonal crystal lattice. It plays important role in plastic deformation of such materials. Twin regions have often lamellar shape and twin boundaries are usually oriented along invariant planes. However, non-invariant plane twin interfaces are also observed. Occurrence of such interfaces can be connected with interactions between twinning disconnections. Mechanisms of such interactions are discussed on the basis of atomistic simulations.

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2017-03-17
18:38
THE EFFECTS OF HIGH TEMPERATURE HELIUM GAS ON THE FRACTURE BEHAVIOUR OF ODS MA957
Rozumová, L. ; Hojná, A. ; Kalivodová, J. ; Bublíková, P. ; Hadraba, Hynek ; Di Gabriele, F.
Oxide-dispersion-strengthened steel (ODS) MA957 has been studied as a candidate material for Tritium Breeding Blanket for fusion reactors with helium coolant, where temperatures 250-650 degrees C are expected. Helium is one of type as primary coolant in High Temperature Reactor and Gas Cooled Fast Reactor with working temperature 500-1000 degrees C. \n\nThis work presents results of the study of behaviour of ODS (MA957) under influence of high temperature helium environment. Microstructure of the material and the interaction with He was investigated. The average exposure temperature was held at 720 degrees C. Subsequently, the surface changes were determined. Impact testing and material surfaces were studied in detail by means of SEM and TEM microscopy. It is essential to understand the He effect on microstructure and mechanical properties of structural materials since the He embrittlement in TBB may be significant.

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2017-03-17
18:38
The effect of σ-phase formation on long-term durability of SUPER 304H steel
Horváth, J. ; Král, Petr ; Janovec, J. ; Sklenička, Václav
This work presents results of the analysis of phases formed in a SUPER 304H steel during a medium-term static isothermal ageing (675 degrees C/15000 h). The investigations of the precipitates were especially focused on the occurrence of sigma-phase because its formation leads to the serious embrittlement. \nThe evaluation and distribution of brittle sigma-phase were determined on macroscopic level by using light microscopy/colour etching. The microstructure was also investigated on microscopic level by scanning electron microscopes Tescan Lyra 3 and JEOL JSM 5410 equipped by electron backscatter diffraction unit and by transmission electron microscope Jeol 2100F. This work also investigates the effect of sigma-phase formation on the impact strength of an aged state of SUPER 304H steel. For comparison reasons the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the initial as-received) state were also investigated. It was found that the formation of brittle sigma-phase in the aged and therefore degraded microstructure led to the significant decrease of the impact strength. The influence of brittle sigma-phase on long-term durability of the degraded steel regarding its insufficient impact strength is discussed.

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2017-03-17
18:38
MAGNETIC AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF 41CRMO4 STEEL
Bulín, T. ; Hapla, Miroslav ; Roupcová, Pavla ; Ondrůšek, Č. ; Schneeweiss, Oldřich
We have measured magnetic parameters and electrical resistivity of 41CrMo4 steel. It consist ferrite, Cr7C3 and Cr23C6 type of carbides. The\nmeasurements of temperature dependences of magnetic moments and electrical resistivity confirm phase stability of ferrite. The room temperature resistivity, saturation magnetization at room temperature, as well as AC measurements was measured. The power losses are strongly dependent on frequency and excitations.

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2017-03-17
18:38
Chemical Wet Synthesis and Characterization of Copper-Silver Nanoparticles
Zobač, O. ; Sopoušek, J. ; Vykoukal, V. ; Buršík, Jiří ; Roupcová, Pavla
AgCu nanoparticles (NPs) of near-eutectic composition were prepared by various route of wet synthesis. Nanoparticles suspended in nonpolar solvents were synthesized by solvothermal synthesis from metalloorganic precursors. AgCu colloids in aqueous solution were obtained by the hydride reduction of Ag and Cu nitrates under action of different stabilization agents. Chemical characterizations of as-synthesized AgCu NPs were done using inductively-coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The optical properties of nanoparticles were monitored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The size of colloid nanoparticles were measured by both dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) method in some extra cases.

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2017-03-17
18:38
Ab initio study of {101-2} twinning transition in magnesium
Káňa, Tomáš ; Ostapovets, Andriy
Twinning is an important deformation mode in materials with the hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structures. The shear deformation combined with shuffling of atomic planes can lead to a transition between the Mg hcp structure and a twinned hcp structure. Studying such a transition by means of ab initio methods should bring more insight into the twinning mechanism in magnesium where the {1012} planes are the twinning planes. Comparison of ab initio results with those obtained using the semi-empirical embedded atom method is provided. It can help improve the fitted parameters of the embedded atom method.

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2017-03-17
18:38
GRAIN REFINEMENT EFFECT ON FATIGUE PROPERTIES OF AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL WITH DEFORMATION INDUCED MARTENSITE FORMATION
Chlupová, Alice ; Man, Jiří ; Polák, Jaroslav ; Škorík, Viktor ; Karjalainen, J.
Fatigue properties of metastable austenitic 301LN steel with coarse and ultrafine-grained microstructures were investigated at ambient temperature and the effect of grain refinement was evaluated. Two different microstructural states of material were introduced by different annealing conditions during special thermo-mechanical treatment. Fatigue life curves were obtained and compared for both coarse-grained and ultra-fine-grained states of austenitic stainless steel. Magnetic measurements before, during and after cyclic loading were performed to reveal structural changes, i.e. formation of deformation-induced martensite. Relationship between microstructure refinement, phase composition and fatigue properties was discussed.

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2017-01-20
16:14
Fatigue crack growth in 316L under uniaxial and torsional loading
Karol, Michal ; Chlupová, Alice ; Mazánová, Veronika ; Kruml, Tomáš
A study of fatigue crack initiation and growth in 316L austenitic stainless steel is reported. Fatigue experiments were performed at room temperature on full cylindrical specimens cycled axially (tension-compression) and on hollow cylindrical specimens tested in reversed torsion. Microstructure and damage evolution (crack initiation and growth) on the surface of mechanically and electrolytically polished specimens were observed using light and electron microscopy. An analysis of the orientation of microcracks and macrocracks which led to failure was made. Axially loaded specimens exhibited presence of several microcracks which resulted in macrocrack propagating perpendicularly to specimen axis. In the case of torsional loading, orientation of macrocrack propagation was dependent on applied load and presence of notches. High amount of short cracks initiated parallel to specimen axis. Long cracks exhibited a tendency to bifurcate with crack branches oriented at approximately 45° to the specimen axis.

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2017-01-04
16:16
HYDROGENATION PROPERTIES OF BALL-MILLED Mg-Ti-C-Zr COMPOSITE
Král, Lubomír ; Čermák, Jiří ; Roupcová, Pavla
The hydrogen storage properties of ball-milled Mg-Ti-Zr-C composite (1.8 wt.% Ti, 1.9 wt.% Zr and 0.2 wt.% C) were investigated. It has been previously shown, that the addition of Ti, Zr and C improved its storage properties. This beneficial effect of additives upon hydrogen storage properties can be explained by catalysis by the particles rich in Ti or Zr located on the surface of Mg grains. They provide effective pathways for the hydrogen diffusion into the MgH2. The morphological and microstructural characteristics were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and by X-ray diffraction. The hydrogen sorption was measured by Sieverts method using Setaram PCT-Pro device. In this paper, sorption behaviour of the composite after ball-milling and after aging on the air was compared. The ball-milled composite adsorbed 3.5 wt.% H2 within 10 min at 623 K. However, hydrogen storage capacity of the composite aged on the air for 7 months remarkably decreased: The aged composite adsorbed within 10 min only 2 wt.% H2 at 623 K and the sorption capacity decreased from 4.7 wt.% H2 to 2.1 wt.% H2.

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