Institute of Physics of Materials

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2019-12-09
08:15
DETEKCE PORUCH POMOCÍ AKUSTICKÉ EMISE (AE) V PODMÍNKÁCH VYSOKOTEPLOTNÍHO CREEPU
Dvořák, Jiří ; Sklenička, Václav ; Král, Petr ; Kvapilová, Marie ; Svobodová, M. ; Šifner, J. ; Koula, V.
Současné aplikace akustické emise (AE) jsou přednostně orientovány na průběžný monitoring provozu strojních komponent. AE je perspektivní nedestruktivní metodou pro včasnou predikci a identifikaci poruch materiálu dříve než dojde k havárii sledovaných zařízení. Příspěvek analyzuje naměřená data a rozbor signálů na úrovni jednotlivých emisních událostí v průběhu creepové zkoušky mědi na základě výsledků předchozí mikrostrukturní a fraktografické analýzy jejího creepového porušení a lomu. Cílem modelové studie je přispět k úspěšné aplikaci AE pro reálné provozní komponenty energetických zařízení a tím ke zvýšení jejich provozní bezpečnosti.

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2019-12-09
08:15
HYDROGEN SORPTION IN ORDERED Mg-In ALLOYS
Čermák, Jiří ; Král, Lubomír ; Roupcová, Pavla
Hydrogen storage (HS) performance of three Mg- x In- y CB alloys (CB - amorphous carbon, x = 55, 64, 73 y =\n10 wt%) was studied. Indium concentration covered an area of ordered β structures. Alloys were prepared by\nball-milling in hydrogen atmosphere. Kinetic curves and PCT isotherms were measured in the temperature\ninterval from 200 °C to 325 °C. X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) was used for structure investigation. Alloy\nwith x = 73 wt% In ( β ’’ structure) showed reversible amorphization during temperature cycling between about\n100 °C and 350 °C. Hydrogen sorption experiments were done by the Sieverts method under the hydrogen\ngas pressure ranging from 0.1 MPa to 2.5 MPa. It was found that hydrogen sorption capacity varied between\n0.47 and 1.1 wt% H 2 . Hydride formation enthalpy ∆H calculated from desorption PCT experiments was\nsignificantly lower than ∆H , known for pure Mg. This invoked an idea that atomic order of Mg-based HS\nmaterials might decrease the high thermodynamic stability of hydride phase.

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2019-12-09
08:15
CALIBRATION FUNCTIONS FOR EDGE CRACKS UNDER SELECTED BENDING LOADS.\n\n
Seitl, Stanislav ; Miarka, Petr
Fatigue cracks are found during the regular structural inspections. To precisely\ndescribe/suggest of fatigue cracks propagation throughout structure and for designed\nservice life, the knowledge of calibration functions is important. The cracks usually\npropagate from the edge or the surface of the structural element. The theoretical model\nof fatigue crack propagation is based on linear fracture mechanics (Paris law). Steel\nstructural elements are subjected to various bending load (three- and four-point bending,\npure bending etc.). The calibration functions for the edge cracks are calculated for\nvarious load and appropriate polynomial function independent on the distance are\nproposed for 3PB and 4PB load.

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2019-11-25
10:16
ANALYTICAL ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF DILUTED CU-CO ALLOYS
Buršík, Jiří ; Svoboda, Milan
The work is focused on characterization of diluted model Cu-Co alloys with Co content from 2 to 4 wt.% after various thermal treatment. After initial annealing at 1273 K followed by water cooling, further annealing of the oversaturated solid solution in the range 773 to 1073 K generated a fine distribution of Co-rich precipitates. Parameters of microstructure were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis.

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2019-11-25
10:16
HYDROGEN STORAGE PROPERTIES OF GRAPHENE OXIDE MATERIALS PREPARED BY DIFFERENT WAYS
Král, Lubomír ; Čermák, Jiří ; Bytesnikova, Z.
Graphene-based materials show unique properties. These single layered materials consist of 2D structure of carbon atoms, belong to the strongest known materials, that are very mechanically flexible, optically transparent and that are excellent electrical and thermal conductors. Recently, several studies on these types of materials have highlighted the potential of this material for hydrogen storage (HS) and raised new hopes for the development of an effective solid-state HS media. In the present paper, the structure and HS properties of graphene oxide (GO) and chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) produced by different procedures were studied. Hydrogen sorption characteristics of GO and rGO were measured using the Sieverts-type gas sorption analyzer PCT-Pro Setaram Instrumentation. The study of HS was carried out at temperature range from 198 K to 423 K under hydrogen pressure from 1x10(-4) to 4 MPa. \n\nFor the HS point of view, the advantage of GO or rGO compared to graphene, is the presence of multiple chemical groups that can be used for introducing modifiers and their superior spreading on the materials surface. The suitably functionalized GO or rGO materials could potentially exhibit outstanding HS properties.

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2019-11-25
10:16
MICROSTRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF FINE PARTICLES RELEASED BY CAR BRAKING
Švábenská, Eva ; Roupcová, Pavla ; Pizúrová, Naděžda ; Schneeweiss, Oldřich
Vehicular traffic is connected with large volume of fine particles released during brake processes of cars. Our research is focused on the phase, structure and chemical analysis of the fine particles taken from some car brake parts by their services. The information on structure and phase composition was obtained by X-Ray Powder Diffraction, Mossbauer Spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy with EDX and transmission electron microscopy. The results of the wear debris analysis are compared with original brake materials components. Most of recognized particles are based mainly on iron oxides. Wear brake particles are discussed in the relation to the potential risk to the environment and human health.

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2019-11-25
10:16
ON THE ENERGY RELEASE RATE OF THE CRACK EMANATING FROM THE INCLUSION INTERPHASE
Profant, T. ; Hrstka, M. ; Klusák, Jan ; Kersner, Z.
The problem of the crack emanating from the interphase region of the circular inclusion is investigated. The problem combines an application of dislocation distribution technique for a crack modelling and the method of boundary integral equations to approximate the loading along the boundary of the domain containing an inclusion. The topological derivative method provides the combination of both approaches and results to the evaluation of the energy release rate of the arbitrary oriented microcrack emanating from the inclusion and matrix interphase. The fundamental solution intended to the boundary integral method such as the continuously distributed dislocation technique is based on the application of Muschelishvili complex potentials in the form of the Laurent series. The coefficients of the series are evaluated from the compatibility conditions along the interfaces of inclusion, interface and matrix.

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2019-11-25
10:16
CHANGES IN ELECTRICAL STEEL SHEETS INDUCED BY HEAT TREATMENT
Bulín, Tomáš ; Švábenská, Eva ; Hapla, Miroslav ; Ondrušek, C. ; Schneeweiss, Oldřich
Surface coating of electrical steel sheets is very important due to minimizing eddy current losses in electrical machines. The quality of coating can differ according to the composition. The coating layer has limited heat stability and after crossing of the guaranteed temperature it can be significantly degraded and its insulation properties may change importantly. The aim of this study is to describe changes in parameters of magnetic behavior of the non-oriented Si electrical steel sheet due to degradation of the coating by annealing in air. The parameters were acquired from the measuring of magnetic hysteresis loops on two types of samples with different excitation. The basic information on structure was obtained by optical microscopy. Acquired data are compared between samples with the damaged coating layer by annealing and the original coating layer. The results are discussed from the point of view of the possibility of using sheets with damaged insulation in electrical machines.

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2019-11-25
10:16
MICROSTRUCTURAL INVESTIGATION AND MECHANICAL TESTING OF AN ULTRAFINE-GRAINED AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL
Chlupová, Alice ; Man, Jiří ; Polák, Jaroslav ; Karjalainen, L. P.
Special thermomechanical treatment based on high degree deformation followed by reversion annealing was applied to 301LN austenitic stainless steel to achieve ultrafine-grained (UFG) structure with considerably enhanced mechanical properties. Two different conditions of the thermomechanical treatment were adopted and resulting microstructures with different grain sizes were characterised by optical and high resolution scanning electron microscopy (FEG SEM). Hardness measurements and tensile tests were performed to characterize mechanical properties. To reveal structural changes induced during thermomechanical treatment and during tensile tests a magnetic induction method was additionally applied. Experimental study validated the ability of the treatment to produce an austenitic stainless steel with the grain size of about 1.4 mu m which exhibits tensile strength of around 1000 MPa while ductility remains close to 60 %. The results obtained for both thermomechanical conditions are compared and the relationship between microstructure refinement, phase content and mechanical properties is discussed.

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2019-11-25
10:15
Low cycle fatigue behaviour and fatigue crack initiation in MAR-M247 at 700 °c
Šulák, Ivo ; Obrtlík, Karel ; Hrbáček, K.
The second generation nickel-based superalloy MAR-M247 offersa satisfying combination of fatigue and creep properties and oxidation and corrosion resistance that arerequired for application at elevated temperatures in hostile environments. The microstructure consists mainly oftheface centred cubic γ matrix and ordered γ ́ strengthening precipitates (L12crystal structure). The present work focuses on low cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviour of polycrystalline nickel-based superalloy MAR-M247 at high temperature. LCF tests were conducted on cylindrical specimens in symmetrical push-pull cycle under strain control with constant total strain amplitude and strain rate at 700 °C in ambientair. Cyclic stress-strain curvesand fatigue life curves in the representation ofplastic strain amplitude vs. stress amplitude andstress amplitude vs. the number of cycles to failure, respectively,were plotted and compared with data obtained on Inconel 713LC. Special attention waspaid to the investigation of crack initiation in MAR-M247 during low cycle fatigue. Crack initiation sites were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in dual beam microscope TESCAN LYRA 3 XMU FESEM equipped with focus ion beam (FIB). Specimens’ surface observations revealed the formation of pronounced surface relief indicating localisation of plastic deformation.Observations in transmission electron microscope (TEM)confirmed localisation of cyclic plastic deformation in persistent slip bands along {111} slip planes. Fractographic analysis revealed fatigue crack initiation sites. Fatigue crack propagation in stage I was typical of smooth facets up to 500 μm long.

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