National Repository of Grey Literature 6 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Risk factors during the prenatal period
Krátká, Michaela ; Šulová, Lenka (advisor) ; Šivicová, Gabriela (referee)
This bachelor's thesis is focused on risk factors during the prenatal period and is divided into two main parts: a theoretical section, which is the principal part of the thesis, and a practical section. The theoretical section is primarily a literature overview and aims to present the main group of risk factors that may already affect the child in the prenatal period. The conclusion of this theoretical section is concerning with ways of monitoring the effects of these risk factors, especially genetic ones. The practical section is focused on designing a research project aimed at monitoring the relationship between prenatal maternal stress and any subsequent occurrence of infantile colic of the infant. Keywords: risk factors, prenatal period, infantile colic, prenatal stress
Effects of early life stress on brain development
Hanišová, Lucie ; Kubová, Hana (advisor) ; Hejnová, Lucie (referee)
Adverse life experience during so called critical developmental periods is known to exert detrimental effects on central nervous system. Early stress may predispose to cognitive impairment, depression or other mental problems as well as to aggravation of existing neuropsychiatric problems. Consequences of early stress are highly age-dependent and affected by sex, genetic predispositions and type of stressor. In addition to prenatal stages, also postpartum period and adolescence are considered as periods of increased sensitivity to environmental disturbances of various origins (chemical, hormonal, physical and particularly social). Utilization of animal models is a direct approach to find out whether exposure to specific stressor alters mental functions and increases risk of behavioral problems. Animal studies also enable to study stress-induced molecular, cellular and structural changes and their role in later development of behavioral alterations.
Effects of early life stress on brain development
Hanišová, Lucie ; Kubová, Hana (advisor) ; Hejnová, Lucie (referee)
Adverse life experience during so called critical developmental periods is known to exert detrimental effects on central nervous system. Early stress may predispose to cognitive impairment, depression or other mental problems as well as to aggravation of existing neuropsychiatric problems. Consequences of early stress are highly age-dependent and affected by sex, genetic predispositions and type of stressor. In addition to prenatal stages, also postpartum period and adolescence are considered as periods of increased sensitivity to environmental disturbances of various origins (chemical, hormonal, physical and particularly social). Utilization of animal models is a direct approach to find out whether exposure to specific stressor alters mental functions and increases risk of behavioral problems. Animal studies also enable to study stress-induced molecular, cellular and structural changes and their role in later development of behavioral alterations.
Risk factors during the prenatal period
Krátká, Michaela ; Šulová, Lenka (advisor) ; Šivicová, Gabriela (referee)
This bachelor's thesis is focused on risk factors during the prenatal period and is divided into two main parts: a theoretical section, which is the principal part of the thesis, and a practical section. The theoretical section is primarily a literature overview and aims to present the main group of risk factors that may already affect the child in the prenatal period. The conclusion of this theoretical section is concerning with ways of monitoring the effects of these risk factors, especially genetic ones. The practical section is focused on designing a research project aimed at monitoring the relationship between prenatal maternal stress and any subsequent occurrence of infantile colic of the infant. Keywords: risk factors, prenatal period, infantile colic, prenatal stress
Prenatal stress in the farm animals
Tylová, Barbora ; Chaloupková, Helena (advisor) ; Hradec, Michal (referee)
This bachelor thesis presents summary information about prenatal stress in farm animals, more precisely in ruminants. The thesis is based on scientific papers and literature. Prenatal stress is divided according to stressors that can affect animals in agriculture like transport, manipulation, diet restriction, isolation, social instability and heat stress. The work describes principles of how the stress is transmitted from mother to the fetus, how the stress affects them and to what extent. Scientific articles confirmed the effect of prenatal stress on placental development (Baxter et al., 2016 ; McCrabb and Bortolussi, 1997) birth weight (Roussel et al., 2004; Duuvaux Ponter et al., 2003) nervous system (Weinstock, 2001; Baxter et al. 2016) and the offspring behavior (Roussel Huchette et al., 2008; Laporte Broux et al., 2012; Coulon et al., 2011). As pregnant females were in most of the cases exposed to a mild stress (compared to previous experiments on laboratory animals) the effect on offspring had a little impact on the body that proved to be beneficial. Some studies showed that abnormalities that were measured after birth were not proven at later age.
An effect of environmental factors on foetal development in mammals
Sedláčková, Lucie ; Bartoš, Luděk (advisor) ; Bučková, Katarína (referee)
The development of fetus begins with merging of male and female sex cells, of the sperm with the egg, and with the formation of zygote. This moment triggers a complex process of prenatal development, a period very sensitive to changes and adverse conditions in the mothers surroundings. Such circumstances may include poor nutrition, sudden changes in the mothers social environment, a high occurrence of predators, stressful experiences due to inadequate handling and many other factors. All of these are connected by a frequently spelled term - stress. It is stress that causes excessive discharge of glucocorticoid hormones, for example cortisol. This glucocorticoid is necessary for fetal growth and for induction of certain enzymes, such as lung surfactants. Under certain conditions, maternal cortisol can reach abnormal values. Consequently, the excess of cortisol impacts the fetus in high concentrations, which may negatively influence the growth of the fetus and its development. In mammals, the mothers stress during her pregnancy not only increases her own cortisol levels, but also decreases the expression and activity of glucocorticoid barrier enzyme 11beta-HSD2 in the placenta; therefore, the fetus is less protected. On the other hand, this affects placental production and metabolism of other proteins and hormones sensitive to glucocorticoid, such as prostaglandins, progesterone, estrogens, glucose transporter and placental lactogen. Additionally, inhibition of 11beta-HSD2 by prenatal stress might contribute to low birth weight and to pregnancy diseases, such as premature birth. Prenatal stress mainly affects brain development. The effects of prenatal stress in mammals have been observed with increased latency for games, indirect locomotion behavior, anxiety and impaired memory. Prenatal stress is also associated with greater volatility and attention disorders, which are also connected with a reduced learning ability. It has been ascertained that prenatally stressed individuals may exhibit increased aggressive behavior, demasculinized and feminized behavior has been observed in males. The effects of prenatal stress are transmissible to the next generation and there is evidence that these are manifested to a greater extent in the following generations.

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