National Repository of Grey Literature 25 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Cellular scaling rules for dog brains: Effect of domestication and miniaturization of dog breeds
Salajková, Veronika ; Němec, Pavel (advisor) ; Chaloupková, Helena (referee)
The process of domestication of the grey wolf (Canis lupus) resulted in more than 350 dog breeds attesting for an immense phenotypic plasticity of this species, reflected in the enormous variation of sizes, shapes and behavioural profiles of today's dogs. The differences in body size can be 50-fold, which exceeds the body size variation of all recent canids. The differences in brain size are significantly smaller, only about 2.5-fold. It is also well known that, compared to their wolf ancestor, dogs, and especially small breeds, have reduced brain size. However, up till now, no comparative data about neuron numbers in different dog breeds are available. In this thesis, I use the isotropic fractionator to assess number of neurons and glial cells in eight dog breeds and three species of wild canids. When compared across dog breeds analysed, the differences in neuron numbers are lower than the differences in brain size - it seems that small breeds compensate for smaller brains with higher neuronal density. Interestingly, miniaturization of dog breeds is associated with brain size reduction that is smaller than expected from brain-body scaling reported for wild canids and seems to be accompanied by compensatory increase of neuronal density. Thus, brains of small dogs are bigger and harbour more neurons...
Vocal Expressions of Dogs, their Understanding and Interpretation in Connection with the Age of the Child
Hefferová, Marcela ; Chaloupková, Helena (advisor) ; Jozífková, Eva (referee)
The aim of this thesis was to investigate how does child's age affect the identification and categorization of audio and audio-visual recordings of dog barks expressing the emotion of anger, sadness and happiness. The key importance was in to reveal in what age is the child able to distinguish safely among dog's emotions and the situations during which the recordings were taken. Moreover, the study also researches in what age is the child able to match the typical expressions of the human's facial muscles. The study also aimed to research the influence of gender, experience with the dog and type of the recording (audio/video) on respondent's final decision. 265 children from nursery and primary schools in the age of 4 to 12 years were included in the study. The same version of the questionnaire was given to all of the respondents and every one of them evaluated identical recordings. The questionnaire and secondary material were arranged in the form of illustrations and coloured codes due to the lower age limit of children. It has been shown that age and type of emotion captured in the recording played important role when children were identifying and categorizing them. The success of correct responds was rising with the higher age of children, whereas concrete misinterpretations appeared among...
Crate and alternative housing systems of lactating sows
Kocourková, Zuzana ; Chaloupková, Helena (advisor) ; Kristýna, Kristýna (referee)
The aim of this work was to compare weight gain, mortality of piglets, and sows and piglets activity using permanent or temporary crating during lactation. Recently, animal breeding places great emphasis on improving welfare, by accepting their biological and behavioral needs. It was predicted that there will be no differences in piglet mortality in both housing systems. There was predicted an increase in short-term effect of activity in sows at day 4 after opening the farrowing crate. 27 sows were included in this study. Sow activity was measured by changing her positions at Day 3, 4, 5 and day 25 and the level of cortisol at Day 5 and 25. Piglets were weighted at day3, 4, 5 and 25 and mortality was analyzed every day. The short-term (day 5th after farrowing) and long-term effect (on the 25th day after farrowing) after opening the farrowing crate was analyzed. All statistical models included the housing, parity sows and litter size. On the fifth day, the activity of sows freely in the pen was higher (p=0.002). Litter size had an effect on growth rate of piglets (p<0.001) and the frequency of "rolling" of the sows (p=0.009). Parity of sows had an influence on the activity of sows (p=0.04). Measurements on the 25th of day after farrowing showed the effect of parity of sows (p=0.013) and litter size (p<0.001) on weight gain of piglets, piglet mortality should only be affected by litter size (p=0.001). Type of crating had only a short-term effect on the activity of sows in the whole experiment. Cortisol levels between groups of sows did not differ. The type of crating had no significant effect on mortality and growth of piglets. Temporary crating does not diminish the economic indicators of litter and also more provides welfare to sows and piglets. It would therefore be appropriate if permanent crating would be replaced by a temporal crating in the future.
Welfare assessment of cattle on the farms
Chárová, Karolína ; Chaloupková, Helena (advisor) ; Ilona, Ilona (referee)
This thesis is focused on evaluation of welfare quality in dairy cows at 10 farms (factory farming) in the Czech Republic. Studies concerned with this topic are showing that the quality of welfare and the farm environment has a significant influence on their efficiency. Welfare evaluation in this thesis was done in accordance to European project Welfare Quality. In processing of this thesis was evaluated ten of totally twelve criterions; absence of prolonged hunger and thirst, comfort around resting, ease of movement, absence of injuries, diseases and painful procedures, expression social and other behaviours, and good human animal relationship. From four principles based on criterions above, i.e. good feeding, good housing, good health and appropriate behaviour, were only three evaluated. Most of the farms had a low scoring of good feeding including part of very lean cows and bad access to the water. Favourable was evaluation of good housing, because 60% of farms had above-standard results. Lower evaluation was in the principle of good health due to dehorning on all monitored farms. Czech farms had significantly higher percent of very lean cows comparing to foreign breeds. Lameness in the Czech Republic was different in comparison with foreign studies. Small part of cows suffering of discharge, cough, or hampered respiration was detected. Number of animals suffering from diarrhoea is comparable to foreign studies. Expression of agonistic behaviour was minimal in monitored farms. That is displayed in excellent evaluation of criteria expression of social behaviour. Almost all farms had acceptable evaluation of good human animal relationship. Hypothesis, that in farms with lower quality of environment is higher percentage of cows that hobble, than in farms with better quality of environment, was not confirmed. Another hypothesis was partly confirmed. The farms with higher percentage of cows with health issues struggle with problems during the rest time, than the farm with lower percentage of cows with health issues. Part of cows that lameness correlate with part of cows with patches and part of very lean cows is affiliated to part of cows with diarrhoea. Welfare quality in monitored herds, were at an acceptable level. Most need to improve the area of good feeding, but for accurate results it would be appropriate to evaluate a greater number of farms.
The effect of the pre-weaning play on the coping ability of piglets
Večlová, Barbora ; Chaloupková, Helena (advisor) ; Fuchs, Roman (referee)
This diploma thesis is focused on animal play behaviour, it's features and factors that influence it. It also shows how play can be used as an animal welfare indicator and moreover that play may also improve welfare. Play is interesting from physiology and neurology point of view as well because it is able to trigger positive emotions. This thesis also describes the main hypotheses explaing evolutionary functions of play. The newest hypothesis claims that play may be a "training for the unexpected"(Špinka et al., 2001). Our experiments tested this hypothesis. We investigated if play of piglets before weaning could improve their coping with stress and reduce agonistic behaviour after weaning and later in life. Results show that play in an extra space before weaning does not influence pig's behaviour very much, but it seems to have some impact. Results also show other factors influencing agonistic behaviour of pigs - groupsize, gender and weight gain.
The progress of self-regulation of journalism in slovakia after 1989 with special emphasis on slovak journalist syndicate's role
Šafránek, Ondřej ; Moravec, Václav (advisor) ; Chaloupková, Helena (referee)
This work describes the evolution of journalistic self-regulatory environment in the Slovak Republic since 1989 and records all the important elements that influence this process and systematically organize them. These elements are primarily a press council, codes of ethics as a normative-ethical elements, educational system of Slovak journalists and members of the journalistic community institutionalization of professional organizations. The institutionalization as an essential element of professional autonomy implies an emphasis on detailed description of the Slovak Syndicate of Journalists as the largest and most influential journalist organization in the Slovak Republic. The main objective was to describe the self-regulatory structure of the media landscape during one generation replacement, that has undergone a sudden change in political environment. Implementation of the capture of this particular development process is based on media- generated theoretical framework, which was created as interconnection of views of leading experts of mass media theory, media ethics and law.
Selected court decisions in ethically problematic cases of czech journalism since 1989
Resler, Jan ; Moravec, Václav (advisor) ; Chaloupková, Helena (referee)
The thesis deals with ethical standards in journalism from the perspective of the law and with their practical application. The text explains the basic problems of normative influence on journalism and it is focused on case interpretation. The author has chosen relevant cases of failure of the Czech media after 1989 (e.g. Rejžek vs. Vondráčková, Horký vs. Reflex or the "Kuřim case") where the breach of the law occured and a judicial or administrative decision was given. The important facts of each case are presented and generally applicable points of the decisions are analysed. Afterwards, these points are summarized and related to other cases. The thesis is structured from the general definition of normative theories, ethical standards, legal provisions and their comparison to case analysis.
Media policy of council of europe focusing on the new media
Vondráková, Tereza ; Šmíd, Milan (advisor) ; Chaloupková, Helena (referee)
Tereza Vondráková Bachelor thesis: Media Policy of Council of Europe Focusing on the New Media - Abstract Bachelor thesis "Media Policy of Council of Europe Focusing on the New Media" summarizes all crucial documents concerning new media that have been adopted by Council of Europe. Council of Europe's main concern is protection and promotion of human rights and freedoms. One of its tasks is a surveillance of media and its evolution. Permanent technological development has major influence on media landscape and leads to new communication platforms. Council of Europe decided to examine those platforms to decide whether they can be included among other media. And therefore if they could have the same responsibilities and rights as the traditional media. Bachelor thesis focuses on description of Council of Europe and its status as an international organization. First part of the thesis addresses the explanation of terms new media and social networks. Second part of the thesis describes media policy of Council of Europe from its very beginning and emphasizes interesting historical events concerning new media. Internet and new media as whole are the crucial issues of the last part of this bachelor thesis which analyses documents adopted by Council of Europe in different fields such as new notion of media,...
Evaluation of animal assisted therapy in hospitals
Zoulová, Kateřina ; Machová, Kristýna (advisor) ; Chaloupková, Helena (referee)
This work deals with the use of Animal- assisted activities (AAA) and Animal- assisted therapy (AAT) in hospitals in the world and in the Czech Republic. There is a general overview of the use of this therapy in children´s hospitals, hospitals with acute care for people with dementia, patients with acute schizophrenic, cancer and neurological diseases, in this work. There is description of locating and real course of these programs in this work and presentation of specific dog use units in patients with various types of diseases. There is a description of research results, which was conducted in hospitals throughout the Czech Republic in the practical part of this work. Correspondents replies are divided into two sections. The first section contains the responses from the hospital staff and coordinators in volunteer centers, who are performing the therapy in hospital facilities. These answers relate to insurance, legal inquiries and practical implementation of therapy. Responses in the second section of this work desribe canisterapy directly as it takes place in a different facilities. The way, how the therapy is proceeding, which methods and departments are used.The questionnaire was posted to 30 hospitals, of which the positive feedback provided 8. The answer came from 15 canistherapists of these hospitals.

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