National Repository of Grey Literature 458 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
ECB monetary policy and commodity prices
Aliyev, S. ; Kočenda, Evžen
We analyze the impact of the ECB monetary policies on global aggregate and sectoral commodity prices using monthly data from January 2001 till August 2019. We employ a SVAR model and assess separately period of conventional monetary policy before global financial crisis (GFC) and unconventional monetary policy during post-crisis period. Our key results indicate that contractionary monetary policy shocks have positive effects on the aggregate and sectoral commodity prices during both conventional and unconvetional monetary policy periods. The effect is statistically significant for aggregate commodity prices during post-crisis period. In terms of sectoral impact, the effect is statistically significant for food prices in both periods and for fuel prices during post-crisis period; other commodities display positive but statistically insignificant responses. Further, we demonstrate that the impact of the ECB monetary policy on commodity prices increased remarkably after the GFC. Our results also suggest that the effect of the ECB monetary policy on commodity prices does not transmit directly through market demand and supply expectations channel, but rather through the exchange rate channel that influences the European market demand directly.
A Macroeconomic Forecasting Model of the fixed exchange rate regime for the oil-rich Kazakh economy
Hlédik, Tibor ; Musil, Karel ; Ryšánek, Jakub ; Tonner, Jaromír
This paper presents a semi-structural quarterly projection open-economy model for analyzing monetary policy transmission and macroeconomic developments in Kazakhstan during the period of the fixed exchange rate regime. The model captures key stylized facts of the Kazakh economy, especially the important role of oil prices in influencing the economic cycle in Kazakhstan. The application of the model to observed data provides a reasonable interpretation of Kazakh economic history, including the global crisis, through to late 2015, when the National Bank of Kazakhstan introduced a managed float. The dynamic properties of the model are analyzed using impulse response functions for selected country-specific shocks. The model’s shock decomposition and in-sample forecasting properties presented in the paper suggest that the model was an applicable tool for monetary policy analysis and practical forecasting at the National Bank of Kazakhstan. In a general sense, the model can be considered an example of a quarterly projection model for oil-rich countries with a fixed exchange rate.
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Legality of the Monetary Policy of the European Central Bank throughout the European Debt Crisis.
Matas, Martin ; Tomášek, Michal (advisor) ; Vondráčková, Aneta (referee)
1 Abstract The thesis analyses and critically appraises within a broad context legal disputes concerning the activity of the ECB during the European debt crisis. The analysis is based on legal norms regulating the European monetary union and the political and economic circumstances of their creation. The thesis consists of seven chapters. The first chapter concerns the history of genesis of the Economic and Monetary Union. The second chapter portrays the institutional status, objectives, tasks and instruments of the ECB. It also depicts the components of ECB independence as its key atribute. The third chapter adds some economic thought and theories connected to monetary unions. The theory of optimum currency areas is introduced as well as the costs and benefits of membership in a monetary union. The fourth chapter contains a brief account of the beginnning of the European debt crisis and the measures taken by Member States and the ECB in response to it, particularly the EFSF and ESM mechanisms of financial stability and non-standard monetary policy measures of the ECB. The fifth, sixth and seventh chapters are dedicated to specific proceedings conducted before the CJEU. These are the Pringle, Gauweiler and Weiss cases in which CJEU confirmed that the actions of Member States and the ECB were in accordance...
Price Level Targeting with Imperfect Rationality: A Heuristic Approach
Molnár, Vojtěch ; Holub, Tomáš (advisor) ; Horváth, Roman (referee)
Price Level Targeting with Imperfect Rationality: A Heuristic Approach Vojtěch Molnár Abstract The thesis compares price level targeting and inflation targeting regimes in a New Keynesian model without rational expectations hypothesis. Economic agents instead form their expectations using heuristics-they choose between a few simple rules based on their past forecasting performance. Two main specifications of the price level targeting model are examined-the agents form expectations either about price level or about inflation, which is ex ante not equivalent because of sequential nature of the model. In addition, several formulations of the forecasting rules are considered. According to the results, price level targeting is preferred in the case with expectations created about price level under the baseline calibration; but it is sensitive to some model parameters. Furthermore, when expectations are created about inflation, price level targeting over time loses credibility and leads to divergence of the economy. On the other hand, inflation targeting model functions stably. Therefore, while potential benefits of price level targeting have been confirmed under certain assumptions, the results suggest that inflation targeting constitutes significantly more robust choice for monetary policy.
Quantifying the natural rate of interest in a small open economy : the Czech case
Hlédik, Tibor ; Vlček Jan
We identify the natural rate of interest in the Czech Republic as the real rate consistent with output at its equilibrium level and inflation at the target. To identify the rate, we use a (semi-)structural model featuring rational expectations and a forward-looking interest rate rule. Compared to the mainstream literature, the model provides a comprehensive set of cross-restrictions with respect to unobserved variables, including that of the natural rate. Furthermore, we argue that the natural rate of interest in a small open economy is a function of equilibrium real growth adjusted for equilibrium real exchange rate appreciation. Our findings suggest that the natural interest rate in the Czech Republic was around 1 percent in 2017. The current decline of the natural rate from its peak in 2015 mainly reflects the renewed appreciation of the equilibrium real exchange rate on the back of robust real GDP growth.
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Spillovers from euro area monetary policy: a focus on emerging Europe
Benecká, Soňa ; Fadajeva, Ludmila ; Feldkircher, Martin
This paper investigates the international effects of a euro area monetary policy shock, focusing on countries from Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe (CESEE). To that end, we use a global vector autoregressive (GVAR) model and employ shadow rates as a proxy for the monetary policy stance during normal and zero-lower-bound periods. We propose a new way of modeling euro area countries in a multi-country framework, accounting for joint monetary policy, and a novel approach to simultaneously identifying shocks. Our results show that in most euro area and CESEE countries, prices adjust and output falls in response to a euro area monetary tightening, but with a substantial degree of heterogeneity.
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Firm investment, financial constraints and monetary transmission: an investigation with Czech firm-level data
Babecká Kucharčuková, Oxana ; Pašalićová, Renata
This project investigates the effect of financial constraints and monetary policy on firms’ investment behaviour using Czech firm-level data. The empirical specification is based on the dynamic neoclassical investment model, which explains investment by sales and cash flow. In addition, it includes financial constraints and other factors. We differentiate firms according to their size and type of economic activity. We find that indebtedness and availability of liquidity have significant effects on investment. In the post-crisis period firms obtained less additional credit due to greater riskiness and tended to accumulate more liquidity. Expectations about future GDP growth and business sentiment are positively related to investment. At the same time, we observe considerable heterogeneity of the results across sectors. The impact of the short-term real interest rate is highly significant for firms of all sizes and in all important sectors of the Czech economy, reflecting monetary policy effectiveness.
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Essays on Macro Imbalances, Monetary Policy and Exchange Rates
Hájek, Jan ; Horváth, Roman (advisor) ; Hartwell, Christopher (referee) ; Komárek, Luboš (referee) ; Kapounek, Svatopluk (referee)
The dissertation consists of four empirical papers in the field of monetary economics. The first paper examines the extent of real exchange rate misalignment in the selected euro area countries, the next two papers shed light on macroeconomic spillovers in the remaining EU countries which are not part of the single currency area, while the last paper focuses on the exchange rate pass-through in the Czech Republic.
The Effects of Monetary Policy on Real Estate Market: a SVAR Analysis
Stirba, Pavel ; Čech, František (advisor) ; Hlaváček, Michal (referee)
This thesis empirically investigates the effects of monetary policy instruments on the real estate market for the following countries: Germany, France, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom, using a Structural Vector Autoregression model (SVAR) with Choleski recursive identification. This was done from the three different aspects: interest rate, scale of credit, and output. The covered period lasts from the first quarter of 2005 and then varies, depending on the country. The Wu-Xia shadow rate was used as a proxy for the interest rate, households' debt was used as a proxy for scale of credit, and real GDP was used as a proxy for the output. As the output of the analysis, we used the impulse response functions (IRF) and forecast errors variance decomposition (FEVD). The results suggest that the Residential Property Prices (RPPI) in every country react positively to an output shock and negatively to interest rates (except Spain). The effect of household debt on RPPI and statistical significance of intervals depend on the country observed.
Bank credit risk management in the low-interest rate environment
Maivald, Matěj ; Teplý, Petr (advisor) ; Pečená, Magda (referee)
The thesis examines the relation of the low-interest rate environment to the banks' selected credit risk measures with a panel dataset on banks in Eurozone, Denmark, Japan, Sweden, and Switzerland covering the period 2011-2017. It employs a system GMM framework and a combination of bank-related and macroeconomic variables. This study builds on recent literature on effects of low-interest rates on banks' profitability and estimates the following three hypotheses: The potential effects of the low-interest rate on non-performing loans (NPL) ratio, risk-weighted assets (RWA) to total assets ratio, and changes in Tier 1 capital ratio. There are three main results: Firstly, the results suggest that a prolonged period of negative monetary interest rate can affect the NPL ratio and reveal a possible relationship between the 3M-interbank interest rate and NPL ratio. Thus, the thesis does not reject the first hypotheses. However, it rejects these hypotheses in case of the other two ratios. Secondly, the study finds a bank heterogeneity to be a significant determinant of the credit risk. Finally, using recent data, this thesis contributes to the literature focusing on the drivers of the NPL ratio, RWA to total assets ratio and Tier 1 capital ratio, where in case of the latter two the existing research is...

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