National Repository of Grey Literature 22 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
The awareness of health professionals in the field of gynecology about prevention of cervical cancer
Havlíková, Tereza ; Sláma, Jiří (advisor) ; Šimonová, Daniela (referee)
The bachelor thesis deals with the topic of the awareness of health professionals in the field of gynecology about the prevention of cervical carcinoma. The thesis summarizes basic information about primary and secondary prevention, risk factors and clinical symptoms of cervical carcinoma. It also includes information on the diagnosis and subsequent treatment of patients with cervical carcinoma. The main aim of the study was to identify which group of health professionals would have the greatest knowledge of cervical cancer prevention. A total of four research hypotheses were established, of which three were confirmed and only one was disproved. A quantitative type of research was chosen to address them. Data collection was carried out by means of a questionnaire survey conducted at the Obstetrics and Gynecology of the First Faculty of Medicine and General Teaching Hospital in Prague. A questionnaire of twenty-six questions was distributed in paper form among local doctors, midwives and nurses. The final size of the research sample was one hundred respondents. All questions were answered completely voluntarily and anonymously. Tables and graphs summarizing the results of the survey were produced as part of the data analysis. The main finding was that the group of doctors was much more aware of the...
Immunological aspects of head and neck cancer in relation to etiology
Koucký, Vladimír ; Bouček, Jan (advisor) ; Říhová, Blanka (referee) ; Smilek, Pavel (referee)
Tumor immunology is a progressively developing, multidisciplinary branch of biology. Results of basic research have already been successfully translated to clinical practice. The immediate success of new immunotherapeutic drugs, especially immune checkpoint inhibitors, has further supported the expansion of basic and clinical research in this field. In the case of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), some immune system elements, such as CD8+ T cells, were shown to play an important role in the progression of the disease. Importantly, HNSCC is a diverse group of diseases, and a significant number of the tumors are induced by high-risk strains of human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV-associated tumors (HPV+ ) respond better to standard therapy, and the immune system was shown to be one of the crucial factors in this phenomenon. We focused on the analysis of phenotype, function, and prognostic value in tumor-infiltrating immune cells in HNSCC patients regarding the HPV status of the tumor. We were able to detect CD8+ tumor-infiltrating T cells reacting to HPV16 antigens in the majority of HPV+ oropharyngeal cancers. Moreover, activity of these T cells was enhanced after blockade of both PD-1 and TIM-3 immune-checkpoint pathways, supporting a concept of combined immunotherapy. In our...
Impact of pattern and functional properties of tumor-infiltrating immune cells for clinical outcome of head and neck cancer
Hladíková, Kamila ; Špíšek, Radek (advisor) ; Plzák, Jan (referee) ; Reiniš, Milan (referee)
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma encompasses a complex and heterogeneous group of malignant diseases. Originally, this tumor type was associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption. However, a significantly expanding subset of tumors associated with oncogenic human papillomavirus infection arising in deep tonsillar crypts was identified within the last decades. Due to the essential role of the immune system in antiviral and anticancer immune response, the prognosis of patients is significantly influenced by the volume, composition and functional capacity of the immune infiltrate. The immunosuppressive landscape of head and neck cancer leads to unfavorable outcome of patients and decreased efficacy of immunotherapy. The response rate to standard treatment is high, however, standard therapy is accompanied by considerable toxicity influencing the quality of life. In 2016, the first immunotherapeutics for the treatment of patients with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were approved - the anti-PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitors nivolumab and pembrolizumab. This type of therapy, based on mitigation of immunosuppression, shows strong efficacy and less toxicity in combination with other therapies. Therefore, anti-PD-1 immunotherapy was recently approved in the first-line...
Knowledge and attitudes to HPV immunisation IV
Jelínková, Tereza ; Zimčíková, Eva (advisor) ; Kolmanová, Eliška (referee)
Knowledge and attitudes to HPV immunisation IV Author: Tereza Jelínková Thesis supervisor: PharmDr. Eva Zimčíková, Ph.D. Introduction HPV infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases causing, apart from genital warts, other malignancies, most often cervical cancer. The most effective way of prevention is vaccination. So far, there have been 3 types of vaccines, most recent one being the nonavalent vaccine providing up to 90 % protection against cervical cancer- causing HPV, in contrast to the previously available 70 % protection from bivalent or quadrivalent vaccines. Aims The main aim of this thesis was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes towards vaccination against HPV, and knowledge about HPV in general, among secondary school students. Furthermore, to determine their vaccination status and compare the findings with data from previous theses, including a comparison of their knowledge about HPV and relevant prevention. Methodology The data was obtained by means of a questionnaire survey, which took place at three secondary schools. In December 2017 at Gymnázium in Mladá Boleslav, then during June 2018 at Gymnázium in Brandýs nad Labem, and finally in September 2018 at Gymnázium Chotěboř. The obtained data was recorded in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and then...
Influencing Notch signalling in virus associated tumours
Bujnovská, Ludmila ; Šmahelová, Jana (advisor) ; Grantz Šašková, Klára (referee)
The Notch signalling pathway affects cell differentiation, apoptosis and proliferation. It is an evolutionarily conserved signalling pathway important during embryogenesis and ontogenesis. Its deregulation can lead to carcinogenesis. Cells of various tumour types often contain gene mutations or other abnormalities in the Notch pathway. Its function with regard to oncogenesis has a dual character - in some cases it acts as an oncogenic pathway, in others it has a tumour-suppressive effect. This depends on the cellular context. A large group of tumours with proven abnormalities in the Notch signalling are head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). It is the 7th most common tumour type and the lethality rate is high. Almost 25 % of these tumours are etiologically related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The cell cycle signalling pathways, including the Notch pathway, are the primary target of oncogenic viruses where HPV are no exception. This thesis describes changes in the Notch signalling pathway in HPV-induced HNSCC and the effect of viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 on this signalling pathway.
Mechanisms of papillomavirus genome integration into the human chromosome
Frčková, Tereza ; Šmahelová, Jana (advisor) ; Fraiberk, Martin (referee)
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are small non-enveloped DNA viruses that can cause malignancies in the human population. They are often associated with carcinomas in anogenital area in both men and women, but also with part of head and neck cancer. In infected cells, the HPV genome is present as a circular molecule of DNA, called an episom. Certain circumstances result into the occurrence of a linearization of the HPV genome and a subsequent integration in the human chromosome. The integration plays a role in the cell behavior and contributes to immortalization and tumor transformation. The HPV genome integration is influenced by various viral or cell factors that affect the HPV genome stability in the cell. Interaction between viral and cell protein can often lead to activation of DNA damage response, that virus exploits for replication of viral genome. Viral genome integration is also more likely to occur in certain HPV types. Another factor is the area of infection, where the neoplastic progression was studied.
Plant virus-based biotechnology
Vaculík, Petr
The latest model of tertiary structure of capsid protein of potato virus X (PVX CP) was used as a template to design new insertion sites suitable for the preparation of PVX-based antigen presentation system. Based on this model, seven insertion sites (A-G) located in putative surface loops were tested. As an antigen inserted into these sites was used 17 amino acids long epitope derived from human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein (E7 epitope) fused with either 6xHis tag or StrepII tag in both possible orientations (6xHis-E7 and E7-6xHis, StrepII-E7 and E7-StrepII). Prior to plant expression, modified PVX CPs were expressed in Escherichia coli MC1061. The results showed that only PVX CP carrying StrepII-E7 or E7-StrepII in the insertion site A formed virus particles. The results from transient expression experiments with modified PVX CPs in Nicotiana benthamiana showed that only the insertion site A (located between 24th and 25th amino acid in the PVX CP) could tolerate all tested inserts. Importantly, viral particles were detected only in the presence of StrepII tag and their stability was affected by the insert orientation (StrepII-E7 vs. E7-StrepII) as only the viral particles presenting E7-StrepII could be purified. Besides the preparation of PVX-based antigen presentation system, an...

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