National Repository of Grey Literature 116 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Sušárny ovoce v přidružené lesní výrobě
Peterka, Lukáš
The aim of this final thesis is to emphasize the advantages of using classic drying ovens in order to find out what types of drying ovens exist, describe them, and propose an optimal solution. The work is focused on the construction of old dryers that do not need electricity or other fossil energetic sources, possible to be built on owned or leased land. Based on the gained knowledge, the alternative proposal was designed and can be adapted and can be adapted to the time, financial and also professional requirements of its implementation. The work contains a small analysis of the purchased products associated with forest industry. The economic aspect is also taken into account in order to get an awareness of costs and possible profits. The goal is therefore to provide the inspiration for an alternative or additional use for the owners of small or a larger forest lands. The main contribution of this work is the alternative design of the dryer, its budget and plan, which is possible to implement for a better farming management.
Možnosti pěstování hub v České republice
Ochonský, Petr
This thesis examines the diversity of cultivated mushrooms available in the Czech Republic, their growth conditions, and the economics of their cultivation. Data for the study were collected through a questionnaire, a field survey, and interviews with mushroom growers in the Czech Republic, including a visit to a mushroom farm. The findings revealed a diverse range of cultivated mushrooms available in the domestic market. However, public knowledge about various cultivated mushroom species and their importance is limited. The survey found that 82.98% of people consume mushrooms. Their average consumption in the Czech Republic is 2.4 kg/person/year. The most well-known cultivated mushrooms in the Czech Republic include Agaricus bisporus (98.94%), Pleurotus ostreatus (93.62%), shiitake (29.79%), truffle (21.99%), and Auricularia auricula-judae (18.44%). The survey shows that increasing the population's awareness of mushrooms and their importance will be appropriate. The economic demands of cultivating oyster mushrooms have shown that it is costly and not very profitable. Last but 8 not least, it is also necessary to deal with the possibilities of using mushrooms in various sectors.
Development of mycorrhizal communities in primary succession
Mádle, Jan ; Kohout, Petr (advisor) ; Ponert, Jan (referee)
Primary succession is the process of ecosystem development that takes place in sites that were not suitable for colonization by plants and organisms dependent on them. These sites arise either naturally, for example after a volcanic eruption or glacial retreat, or anthropogenically, for example by strip mining. During primary succession, plants colonise the bare substrate and gradually modify its abiotic and biotic conditions. During primary succession, interactions between plants and the soil microbiome, especially with fungi and bacteria, occur. Plants and soil microorganisms influence each other's growth and development through various interactions. Plants, or rather their roots, form a specific niche for a wide range of soil microbial communities. Through their roots, plants provide a wide range of substances, organic acids, sugars, amino acids and other often carbon-rich compounds that can serve as a substrate for microorganisms. Plants are able to do this by producing litter, root exudates, and translocation of sugars for symbiotic fungi and bacteria. Soil microorganisms contri- bute to the release of nutrients and the decomposition of organic materials that would otherwise be unavailable to plants. Many soil microorganisms can form a symbiotic relationship with the plant; this relationship may be...
Production of pates with the addition of mushrooms
Tóthová, Martina ; Holub, Jiří (referee) ; Mikulíková, Renata (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with the sensory evaluation of pâté with mushrooms. First the 3 samples of pâtés were made to select the right concentration of mushrooms for sensory evaluation. Then the 7 samples of pâtés which contained different texture and types of mushrooms were produced. In the theoretical part pâtés are characterised, their manufacturing and types of pâtés are described. The part of literature search is description of mushrooms in general, their composition and description of mushrooms which were used for production of pâtés. Another topic is description of conditionals and methods of sensory analysis. The experimental part is focused on the production of pâtés for two sensory analyses, evaluating the heat treatment and sensory analysis. The content of vitamin D in the samples of pâtés was analysed by liquid chromatography. Processing of results of sensory analysis of pâtés was determined that the best samples were pâtés with milled champignons and champignons which were add in blender.
Molecular and Genomic Methods for Analyzing Hybridization in Aspergillus and other Fungi
Jirkovský, Pavel ; Sklenář, František (advisor) ; Kolařík, Miroslav (referee)
Interpecies hybridization is being studied since the first half of 20. century, when it was described based on phenotypical traits on plant model. Study of this process was historically centred around botanical studies, while its importance in mycology is just being uncovered in recent years. Introgression is a phenomenon that can occur when hybrid backcrosses with one of the parental species. Based on recent studies it is apparent that hybridization played its role in evolution of MAT locus genes of Neurospora, transfer of adaptive traits with Ophiostoma species (invasive pathogen of elm trees). Within Aspergillus family hybridization was described both on intraspecific and interspecific level. More detailed study of this process and improving of used methods could potentially help in clinical application by uncovering adaptive genes responsible for resistance towards antimycotics, higher virulence and other traits.
Processsing of food supplements based on medical types of mushrooms
Vetchá, Vendula ; Uhlířová, Renata (referee) ; Hoová, Julie (advisor)
This diploma thesis deals with the characterization of nutrition substances in medical mushrooms, specifically Ganoderma lucidum and Hericium erinaceus. It also focuses on the biological impact of these rare mushrooms on human cell lines HaCaT and Caco-2, and investigates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 by immortalized keratinocytes and colon cancer cells after exposure to aqueous extracts prepared from mushroom powder. The theoretical part of the thesis deals with the characterization of mushrooms in terms of morphological characteristics and their taxonomic classification. It further studies the effects of edible and medicinal species and provides a detailed description of medicinal mushrooms such as Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes, Flammulina velutipes, Grifola frondosa, Hericium erinaceus and Pleurotus ostreatus, thesis informing about their effects, utilization and possibilities for application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. It mentions possible negative effects of mushrooms on consumers' health and presents methods for processing mushrooms and their use in the food industry. Finally, it focuses on the possibilities of in vitro toxicity testing and provides a brief overview of commonly used cytotoxicity tests such as the MTT test and LDH test. The experimental part of the thesis deals with the preparation of water extracts from mushroom powders and their characterization in terms of nutritional and biologically active substances. HPLC analysis is used to monitor the content of lipophilic substances and vitamin C in mushroom samples. To confirm the biological effect on human health, antimicrobial tests were performed using four model microorganisms, and cytotoxicity tests were performed on two human cell lines. Lastly, a sensory analysis of instant vegetable soup enriched with mushroom powder was performed. Biological effects of the analyzed powdered extracts from Ganoderma lucidum mushroom have been confirmed, especially their cytotoxic effect on colon epithelial tumor cells. However, the application of reishi in the food industry is not easy due to the presence of triterpenoids that cause a bitter taste. On the other hand, the safety of using the Hericium erinaceus mushroom in food has been confirmed through cytotoxicity tests. Sensory analysis results have shown a positive effect of Hericium erinaceus on the taste profile of instant vegetable soups.
Determination of selected metals in edible mushrooms in the Kladno district
ŠIMŮNKOVÁ, Eliška
The aim of this work was to determine the concentrations of rubidium, zinc, iron, copper, strontium and manganese in samples of edible mushrooms and to compare our results with other studies. The literary research contains brief information about mushrooms, soils, metals, used analytical method and research site. During the summer months of 2020 and 2021 twelve samples of seven edible mushroom species were collected from the forest between the former mines of Kladno for the purpose of the practical part. The whole practical part of the bachelor thesis was performed in the laboratory of the Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture and Technology of the University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice. Measured values were recorded in tables and statistically processed. Through analysis we found out that a parasol mushroom belongs to mushroom species with the highest ability to accumulate metals. Among the analyzed samples we found the highest content of iron (1148 mg/kg), copper (150 mg/kg) and the second highest of manganese (339 mg/kg). On the other hand the least able to cumulate metals between analyzed mushroom species was red cracking bolete which contained the lowest contents of manganese (15 mg/kg) and strontium (1,6 mg/kg). The stink snake is worth mentioning because of its high strontium (10,1 mg/kg) and manganese (643 mg/kg) accumulation. Measured manganese content significantly exceeded the values measured in other analyzed samples.
Content of cesium-137 in fungi in selected localities in the Novohradské hory
SCHNEIDEROVÁ, Kateřina
The Novohradské Mountains were increasingly contaminated with cesium-137 in places where large amounts of radiocesium were washed out of the radioactive cloud caused by the accident of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on April 26, 1986. Another source of cesium-137 was the testing of nuclear weapons, which was in the 50s and 60s of the 20th century carried out in the atmosphere of nuclear powers. From contaminated soil, cesium-137 enters the food chain and thus causes internal contamination of the population. For this reason, the activity concentration of cesium-137 in food (especially in edible mushrooms) is regularly determined. The aim of this thesis was to compare the activity concentrations of cesium-137 in samples of edible fungi collected in selected localities of the Novohradské Mountains. Transfer factors in individual fungal species were determined and compared. The thesis also focused on the comparison of the activity concentration of cesium-137 in the cap and in the stem of the mushroom. The samples were measured by gamma spectrometry. The values of activity concentration of cesium-137 in edible mushrooms differed according to their classification into the systematic group. Higher values of activity concentrations were measured in basidiomycete fungi compared to lower values recorded in gill fungi. High values of activity concentrations of cesium-137 have been repeatedly found, especially in the imleria badia (Xerocomus badius). The lowest value of the activity concentration of cesium-137 was measured in the representative of the parasol mushroom (Macrolepiota procera). The transfer factor as a ratio between the activity concentration of cesium-137 in the mushroom and the activity of cesium-137 in the soil is an important parameter for estimating the dose of internal exposure to radionuclides that a person receives in contaminated foods. The highest determined transfer factors were calculated for imleria badia (Xerocomus badius), the blusher (Amanita rubescens) and golden chanterelle mushroom (Cantharellus cibarius). Out of a total of 58 samples, in 78 % of the samples the values of the activity concentration of cesium-137 in the cap were higher than the values of the activity concentration in the stem and in 22 % of the samples the activity concentrations in the cap were lower than in its stem. The determined cap/stem ratio confirmed that three quarters of the edible mushrooms examined preferentially accumulated cesium-137 in the cap and one quarter of the mushrooms more accumulated cesium-137 more in their stem.
Care for a patient intoxicated by mushrooms - preparation of simulation scenarios
KOHOUTOVÁ, Denisa
The thesis focuses on patients mushroom poisoning and preparation of simulated scenarios. The thesis is mainly theoretical with addition of two simulated scenarios, which are supported by specialised literature, magazines and Czech or foreign websites. Firstly, intoxications in general overview, symptoms, first aid and treatment are studied. In the next chapters complete overview and description of mushrooms is given, without it the thesis would be incomplete. Lastly, mushroom intoxication, its symptoms, pre-hospital care, treatment and hospital care are described. Mushroom intoxication is immediate life threatening condition, if it is not treated correctly and in time. Suicide and accident can be reasons for this type of intoxication. Early diagnoses of the toxic substance in the mushroom and early treatment are used to treat even the harshest of cases. Most common, however less serious, intoxications are caused by panther cap, this type of mushroom is easily mistaken for blusher. As the most dangerous mushrooms intoxication is considered the one caused by death angel. Death angel consists of high number of toxins and is often mistaken for blusher or champignon. The death doses of this mushroom is estimated to only few tenths of a gram - in other words to one mushroom or less. Consumption of poisonous mushroom mostly affects liver and kidneys. Blood chemistry test, urine test and test of the gastric content are important parts of diagnosing mushroom intoxication. Important step of removing and eliminating toxins from patient's body is invoked vomiting and gastric lavage with administration of bituminous coal. Hospital care provided by nurse is significant part of intoxication treatment. Nurses take care of airways, they monitor basic vital functions, assist during invasive procedure, collect blood samples based on doctor's ordination and they provide hygienic care and decubitus prevention. Diploma thesis can be provided as a textbook material for nurses and paramedics. Mostly in regard to simulated scenarios.
Determination of selected metals in edible mushrooms in the Příbram district
DVOŘÁKOVÁ, Hana
The aim of this work was to determine the concentrations of rubidium, cesium, lithium, strontium and supplemental elements of copper, iron, manganese and zinc in samples of edible mushrooms and to compare the measured concentrations with the studies mentioned in the literary research. In addition to the results of the studies, the literary research contains brief informations about mushrooms, individual elements, the used method and the monitored location. For the purposed of the practical part, 19 samples of nine edible mushrooms species were collected from the vicinity of a lead smelter in the village of Podlesí near Příbram. The samples were the first processed by microwave digestion and then analyzed by AAS (atomic absorption spectrometry). The whole practical part of the thesis was carried out in the laboratory of the Departemnt of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture of the University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice. The analysis results were recorded in tables, statistically and graphically processed an evaluated in the discussion. From the analysis we found the species of mushoom with the most cumulate metals ability is a toadstool rosacea. Among the analyzed samples we found the highest concentration of strontium (22,5 mg/kg), lithium (0,6 mg/kg), iron (223,0 mg/kg) and manganese (69,7 mg/kg). On the other hand, the least cumulative species was boletus brown with the lowest concentrations of copper (10,1 mg/kg), iron (29,5 mg/kg) and manganese (5,2 mg/kg) being determined. The less cumulative species was also boletus edulis, which was found to have at least strontium (2,2 mg/kg) and lithium (0,3 mg/kg). It is worth mentioning the larch bolete, in which we have determined the greatest concentration of rubidium (364 mg/kg) and cesium (11,7 mg/kg), but the least of zinc (68,7 mg/kg). Likewise, a parasol mushroom absorps copper to a large extent (255 mg/kg), but on the contrary it contained the least cesium (0,5 mg/kg) and rubidium (11,8 mg/kg).

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