National Repository of Grey Literature 252 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Age structure and growth of wild brown trout in relation to population density and habitat quality
Závorka, Libor
Brown trout Salmo trutta L. is a fish species with high socio-economic value, which is favourable among anglers and a successful invader worldwide. The aim of this thesis is to explore environmental factors affecting body growth and survival of brown trout with emphasis on density dependent selection in juvenile life stages. This thesis is specifically focused on: (1) effect of population density on growth and survival with respect to a dynamic of a local group of individuals (papers I and II); (2) effect of inter-individual differences in behaviour on the relationship between individuals life-history traits and available resources (papers III and IV); (3) link between demo-genetic structure of population and growth and mortality rates of individuals (papers V, VI and VII). Datasets for this thesis were collected during a long-term mark-recapture study on wild brown trout population (2005-2011) in the catchment of the Otava River in Šumava National Park (Czech Republic) and a set of field and laboratory studies conducted on wild populations in streams on west coast of Sweden. In accordance with some previous studies, this thesis showed that growth of juvenile brown trout is negatively affected by population density. Nonetheless, this thesis reveals that the negative effect of density dependent...
Hierarchy and human behavior. BDSM as an alternative sexual behaviour.
Jozífková, Eva ; Weiss, Petr (advisor) ; Bob, Petr (referee) ; Zvěřina, Jaroslav (referee)
Preferences for sexual arousal by overstated dominance and submission in sex is categorized as F65.5, sadomasochism, according to ICD, but this behaviour is called BDSM among the general public. The ground of these preferences could be ultimately biological. These preferences reflect behavioural strategy which enables to gain higher reproductive success. Men and women who were sexually aroused by a submissive partner had more male relatives than men and women with other preferences. Contrary to the women, the dominant men reported themselves as more attractive. Women who were aroused by a higher-ranking partner considered themselves more attractive. Sons of couples in which was hierarchical disparity had more siblings than sons of "equal" couples or couples with no hierarchical disparity. Daughters of hierarchically disparate couples had more brothers than daughters of "both dominant" partners. Concurrently, number and gender of offspring as well as self- reported attractiveness are likely to be criteria of the reproductive success in humans. It is also interesting that hierarchically disparate couples, without regard to gender of higher-ranking partner, reached higher reproductive success than "equal" couples. Individuals who preferred higher- or lower-ranking partner were also aroused by...
Effects of memantine and riluzole on learning deficits in an animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder induced by 8-OH-DPAT sensitization
Mainerová, Karolína ; Stuchlík, Aleš (advisor) ; Kelemen, Eduard (referee)
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a chronic psychiatric disease. It seriously limits the quality of life of patients. Treatment of OCD is not yet fully successful and still many patients are left with debilitating symptoms without functioning medication. Animal models of genetic, behavioral, pharmacological, and optogenetic origins are beneficial in the achievement of new understandings of the disease. Chronic sensitization of serotonin 1A and 7-receptors with an agonist 8-OH-DPAT ((8- hydroxy-2-(di-propylamino)-tetralin hydrobromide) induces perseverative and compulsive behaviors, which is considered to constitute an animal model of OCD. In this thesis, the 8-OH- DPAT model has been tested in the active place avoidance task on Carousel maze to provide information about the model on learning. Second, this model is used to determine, whether co- administration of memantine or riluzole alleviates the cognitive and learning deficits of this model. To uncover these effects, an active place avoidance task on a Carousel maze was used. Measured criteria were total distance, entrances to the shock sector, total number of shocks, and median speed after the shock. During habituation, the animals were sensitized to 8-OH-DPAT (with a control group that did not receive 8-OH-DPAT but only saline). In an...
The effect of agonist of the metabotropic glutamate receptors LY 379268 in an animal model of psychosis
Rišňovská, Dominika ; Stuchlík, Aleš (advisor) ; Telenský, Petr (referee)
Introduction: Schizophrenia is a neuropsychiatric illness characterized by impairments in cognition and positive and negative symptoms. As currently used antipsychotics do not treat all symptoms of the disease, further research of the therapeutic potential of various drugs in the treatment of this disease is crucial. Psychosis is a condition or a mental state that usually accompany schizophrenia, as well as other disorders. We used MK-801, a non-competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors to induce an experimental model of psychosis in rats. By binding to the NMDA subtype of glutamate receptors located on inhibitory interneurons, MK-801 has been shown to elicit an overactivation of cortical and hippocampal pyramidal neurons, leading to behaviors such as hyperlocomotion, stereotypy or cognitive impairments. LY 379268, an agonist of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors, binds to both presynaptic and postsynaptic receptors on pyramidal neurons. It has been suggested that it could alleviate the MK-801-induced hyperactivity of the principal neurons. In this study, we sought to demonstrate the effects of LY 379268 in the MK-801 animal model of psychosis and hypothesized that LY 379268 will ameliorate deficits in the reversal learning induced by MK-801. Materials and methods: Long Evans rats received...
Behaviour of the czech user on media platforms Video on Demand
Kahánek, Adam ; Kruml, Milan (advisor) ; Štoll, Martin (referee)
In the last decade Video on Demand (VOD) services are becoming the centre of audiovisual entertainment consumption. American company Netflix is currently the biggest player on the market. Thanks to growing base of viewers it has become big competitor even for big hollywood studios. Those studios don't want to lose the track in this new, popular segment of on-line entertainment, therefore they are also coming out with their own platforms. Viewer's habits on VOD services has many specifics, for example in ways of consumption or in choosing the content. The subject of this thesis is to capture allround behaviour of czech user on VOD platforms.
Influence of external conditions on egg incubation in lapwings (genus Vanellus) in temperate and subtropical climate
Pešková, Lucie ; Šálek, Miroslav (advisor) ; Hořák, David (referee)
During incubation, most birds require the presence of at least one parent to ensure suitable incubation conditions for embryo development. The main factors that affect the development of the embryo are temperature, humidity and egg turning. In this work, incubation conditions were investigated in two biparental Lapwing species (genus Vanellus), the Northern Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus), which faces the risk of egg cooling in temperate areas, and the Red-wattled Lapwing (Vanellus indicus), which faces the risk of egg overheating in the subtropics. A laboratory experiment testing the thermal properties of the Red-wattled Lapwing nest lining showed that it selects lining material that slows down temperature growth during egg heating, thus ensuring suitable thermal conditions during parental absence at high ambient temperatures. Temperature and egg turning during incubation were recorded by an artificial egg with a built-in sensors placed in the nests of both target species; data collected by the sensors were stored by a base-station located nearby. The average egg temperature was 32.5 řC for the Northern Lapwing, and 35.0 řC for the Red-wattled Lapwing. Egg temperature in both species fluctuated significantly, affected by many factors. Egg temperature increased with increasing ambient temperature, it...
Sociální interakce mezi psy v parcích v Brně
Pániková, Eva
The subject of this thesis was to examine the most frequent visual and scent communication between dogs. Dyadic behavior was observed in two parks in Brno, Lužánky park and Kraví hora park. It was found that the behavior of dogs was significantly affected by the gender of the dog owner. In addition, the dog's behavior was influenced by dog´s gender and the way of leading. The symptoms of aggressive behavior were most often noted when a dog off a leash encountered a dog off a leash.
Etologie surikaty (Suricata suricatta) v podmínkách vybraných zoologických zahrad
Mičulková, Monika
Meerkat (Suricata suricatta) belongs to animals with social life. They come under family Herpestidae. They inhabit southern part of Africa. The mainly eat insects. The groups are formed 1-3 families and they have 2-30 members. Dominant couple lead group. All of members attend many activities. They take turns in those activities, par example patrolling group, caring of pubs or looking for food. Observation took place in Zoo Zlín and Zoo Brno. Seven observations passed off in each of them from July to Semptember 2016. Pair of observation was with at least week distance. In Zoo Zlín group with 12 members was watched and in Zoo Brno group with 8 members was watched. There was used the method of direct observation by scaning. Behaviour, which was recorded, was vigilance, food behaviour, digging, cleaning, sunbathing, playing and relaxation. The goal of this work was compare influence of breeding in each of zoological garden to show selected behaviour.
Faktory ovplyvňujúce spôsob vedenia a chovánia psov na verejných priestranstvách v Brne
Marčeková, Mária
The aim of the diploma thesis was to study factors influencing behavior of dogs in public spaces in Brno. 133 pairs of dogs were observed. The dog's gender, dog age, and age of the dog owner affected the interaction. The owner of the dog affected by the interaction. The dog's sex, dog age, and dog age influenced sniffing. All factors that were monitored influenced the play. The gender of the dog affected the marking behavior. The gender of the dog owner affected the threat. The dog's owner's gender affected bite occurrence.
Analýza vlivů působících na chování dojnic před porodem
Krejčí, Hana
The aim of this diploma thesis was the analysis of influences on the behavior of dairy cows before calving. The observation of dairy cows took place periodically once a month from October 2017 to September 2018. In particular, the temperature of the air, the order of lactation and the number of days after insemination were monitored during the observation. As the results show, especially at higher temperatures a higher proportion of standing cows was recorded compared to the proportion of lying cows. For the lying cows in particular, there were no significant differences in laterality. The highest concentration of dairy cows was found in those parts of the stable, which were adjecent to the trough (quadrants 1 a 4). There was no significant effect of advancing pregnancy on any of the monitored activities, nor was there a significant difference in laterality when lying. With increasing number of days after insemination, quadrants 1 and 4 were always the most sought after. Also with increasing number of lactations there was no significant difference in most of the monitored activities. The preference of lying on the left side was observed only on cows in the 1st and 2nd lactation. With the increase in lactations, the preference was always on quadrants 1 and 4.

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