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Výzkum alternativních izolačních materiálů a jejich použití v dřevostavbách
Brázdová, Šárka
This bachelor thesis, based in a research, is concerned with the comparison of alternative insulation materials, namely cellulose insulation and fungal mycelium insulation and their use in wooden buildings.. Both types of materials are used in a timber frame building. The theoretical part focuses on the characteristics and possible applications of the insulation materials. The second part of the thesis presents the measured values, their assessment and comparison.
Development of ecological thermal insulation materials based on natural raw materials
Halásová, Simona ; Peterková, Jitka (referee) ; Zach, Jiří (advisor)
The subject of this bachelor thesis is the development of ecological thermal insulation materials from easily renewable and secondary natural raw materials. The thesis deals with the raw material sources themselves, production technologies, the use of materials from these raw materials in the field of thermal insulation materials and their assessment in terms of functional properties and life cycle.
Utilization of waste banana peels for packaging materials
Vachta, Jonáš ; Mikulíková, Renata (referee) ; Kovalčík, Adriána (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with isolation of cellulose from waste banana peels and it’s use as a filler in composite films. The aim of this work was to prepare a bioplastic capable of being an eco-friendly alternative to conventional polymers with a potential for application in the packaging industry. The cellulose was isolated from banana peels using a method combination of alkalic and acidic hydrolysis and bleaching by sodium chlorite. The samples after isolation were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and their average particle size was determined by microscope observation. Subsequently, composite films were prepared using agar and starch matrix, glycerol as plasticizer and isolated cellulose as filler in various concentrations to assess the effect of added cellulose on the properties of the resulting bioplastics. Characterization of the prepared bioplastics included FT-IR measurement, surface examination by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the determination of mechanical properties by measuring tensile strength, elongation at break and Young’s modulus. It was found that the addition of cellulose from banana peels has a positive effect on the mechanical properties of all prepared agar- or strach-based composites, with the exception of elongation at break in agar films, where there was a slight decrease compared to the reference films.
Molecular biology and ecology of microbial decomposition of plant-derived biopolymers in forest ecosystems
Žifčáková, Lucia ; Baldrian, Petr (advisor) ; Uhlík, Ondřej (referee) ; Bárta, Jiří (referee)
The abilities of fungi and bacteria to degrade simple and complex carbon compounds derived from different sources, such as root exudates, litter, soil organic matter or fungal mycelium were studied in this dissertation. Knowledge of functional traits, especially degradation abilities of fungi and bacteria, are important for deciphering the black box of microbial functioning in topsoil and thus aiding in modeling and predicting future directions of microbial communities development in face of global changes. Among fungal cultures form culture collection representing strains with different taxonomy and ecophysiology, the ecophysiology of fungi was more important in manifestation of functional traits than taxonomy. Among bacterial isolates from the litter and soil of spruce forest, Acidobacteria were confirmed to express multiple decomposition enzymes in high rates in vitro and were also abundant and active degraders in acidic spruce forest soil. The expression of degradation capacities of both bacteria and fungi were further studied in situ in spruce forest topsoil, that represents an important environment due to the ubiquity of coniferous forests on the Northern hemisphere. There is an obvious gap of knowledge, when comes to our understanding of seasonal effect on microbial functioning, and this is...
Cellulolytic fungi and their diversity on plant litter
Gálová, Diana ; Baldrian, Petr (advisor) ; Kolařík, Miroslav (referee)
Litter decomposition requires the presence of corresponding degradative enzymes, produced mainly by fungi. Forest soils show considerable spatial heterogeneity of distribution of these enzymes at diferent scales. Moreover, enzyme pruduction varies during the year, usually accompanied by the change in fungal community composition. In this work I examined if this spatial heterogeneity can be seen even at a scale of an individual leaf and whether the fungal community differs among enzyme activity hotspots and inactive parts of the leaves. Another goal was isolation of celulytic fungi from cellulose litterbags incubated on forest floor using particle filtration and dilution-to-extinction method. In a broadleaved forest dominated by oak leaves at different stages of decay were collected: senescent leaves on twigs, and leaves after 2, 10 and 22 months of decomposition. Ten leaves per season were taken for analysis of cellobiohydrolase activity over the leaf surface. Leaves were attachmed onto melted agarose plate and leaf surface was covered with low melting point agarose containing fluorescently labelled substrate. For each leaf a map of enzyme activity was created and area with the high and low enzyme activity was identified. From both sites a square of approx. 1 cm2 was cut out, DNA was extracted and fungal...
Role of cytoskeleton in plant cell morphogenesis
Miklánková, Pavlína ; Schwarzerová, Kateřina (advisor) ; Sekereš, Juraj (referee)
The cells are able to acquire variety of shapes, in which cytoskeleton plays an important role. Cytoskeleton influences deposition of cell wall materials, regulates vesicle movement in cell, participates in exocytosis and endocytosis. Cortical microtubules affect celulose accumulation in cell wall and determine direction of cell expansion, although the exact connection between microtubules and cellulose remains unclear. Actin promotes growth and contributes to its spatial regulation in both tip ang diffuse growing cells. Actin is important for secretion in expanding cells but its exact functions in cell growth regulation are not explained yet. Analysis of mutants, spectroscopic methods, cytoskeletal drugs, fluorescence proteins and other methods are used to better understand how actin and microtubule cytoskeleton are integrated during plant cell morphogenesis. Epidermal and trichome cells of Arabidopsis thaliana are a good model of research and they are used for most studies.
Secretory pathway in plant cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis and FT-IR spectroscopy methods in plant cell wall composition analysis
Glanc, Matouš ; Žárský, Viktor (advisor) ; Votrubová, Olga (referee)
All plant cells are encapsulated in a cell wall that determines the cells' shape and size and is essential to many of their vital processes. The cell wall of streptophyte plants is composed mainly of polysaccharides of high molecular weight. Cellulose, the main constituent of the plant cell wall, is synthesized by protein complexes bound to the PM, while hemicelluloses and pectins are synthesized in the Golgi apparatus. Several proteins that participate in the synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides have been identified, but hundreds of them remain to be discovered. Secretory pathway plays an important role in plant cell wall biogenesis as it transports cellulose synthase complexes and noncellulosic polysaccharide molecules to the cell surface. Some regulatory mechanisms that might be involved in cell wall material secretion, such as actin cytoskeleton, Ca2+ gradient or PIP kinases have been proposed; however, the regulation of this process is very complex and far from being understood. FT-IR spectroscopy is a method that can detect molecular vibrations and provide information about chemical composition of virtually all substances. It has been used successfully in screens for cell wall mutants, the study of interactions between cell wall polymers, as well as other areas of cell wall biology. FT-IR...
The importance of bacteria for deadwood decomposition in forest ecosystems
Némethová, Ema ; Baldrian, Petr (advisor) ; Bárta, Jiří (referee)
Forest ecosystems represent a huge reservoir of carbon. The volume of deadwood in managed forests is in the tens of m3 h-1, while unmanaged forests have the volume of deadwood in hundreds of m3 ha- 1. Deadwood is a substrate with a high potential for decomposition. However, deadwood is a specific habitat that has a high C/N ratio and changes due to ongoing decomposition. The C/N ratio decreases with increasing decay time. In addition to the C/N ratio, the pH also changes during the wood pulping process, due to the decomposition of plant biomass by fungi. Moreover, deadwood has a high impermeability. The main decomposers of dead wood are fungi. In addition to them, bacteria, which are numerous in deadwood, also contribute to decomposition. Bacterial communities that decompose woody biomass are affected by these factors, and their distribution is also affected by dead tree species. The aim of this study was to describe how bacterial communities associated with deadwood change during decay. The most significant factor in the decomposition by bacterial communities is the time of decay. Bacteria found in short-decaying wood (less than 16 years old) are more diverse than those found in long-decaying wood. Methylotrophic bacteria and N-fixing bacteria are common in short-decaying wood as well. N-fixing...
Harvesting and reuse of cellulose from wastewater
Kobzová, Kamila ; Úterský, Michal (referee) ; Hlavínek, Petr (advisor)
The goal of this diploma thesis is to highlight the properties of cellulose fibers obtained from waste water and the importance of recycling of raw materials. The main objective is then to further explore the possibilities of using cellulose fibers as a valuable product on the market. The practical part of the thesis is focused on specific research of cellulose properties and design of equipment for sewage treatment plant according to its size.
Utilization of cellulose and hemicellulose as a source of energy by symbiotic protists and other organisms
Hammerbauerová, Iva ; Tachezy, Jan (advisor) ; Hrdý, Ivan (referee)
In this thesis I focus on the enzymatic degradation of plant structural polysaccharides cellulose and hemicellulose. I describe the enzymes involved in their lysis and their breakdown and their function and occurence among organisms. I also pay attention to the mechanisms of xylose and arabinose catabolism as pentoses found in hemicellulose. I describe some niches where cellulose and hemicellulose degradation takes place and organisms that take part in it. Finally I shortly point out the biotechnological importance of these organisms in the production of bioethanol.

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