National Repository of Grey Literature 107 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Behaviour of the czech user on media platforms Video on Demand
Kahánek, Adam ; Kruml, Milan (advisor) ; Štoll, Martin (referee)
In the last decade Video on Demand (VOD) services are becoming the centre of audiovisual entertainment consumption. American company Netflix is currently the biggest player on the market. Thanks to growing base of viewers it has become big competitor even for big hollywood studios. Those studios don't want to lose the track in this new, popular segment of on-line entertainment, therefore they are also coming out with their own platforms. Viewer's habits on VOD services has many specifics, for example in ways of consumption or in choosing the content. The subject of this thesis is to capture allround behaviour of czech user on VOD platforms.
Influence of external conditions on egg incubation in lapwings (genus Vanellus) in temperate and subtropical climate
Pešková, Lucie ; Šálek, Miroslav (advisor) ; Hořák, David (referee)
During incubation, most birds require the presence of at least one parent to ensure suitable incubation conditions for embryo development. The main factors that affect the development of the embryo are temperature, humidity and egg turning. In this work, incubation conditions were investigated in two biparental Lapwing species (genus Vanellus), the Northern Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus), which faces the risk of egg cooling in temperate areas, and the Red-wattled Lapwing (Vanellus indicus), which faces the risk of egg overheating in the subtropics. A laboratory experiment testing the thermal properties of the Red-wattled Lapwing nest lining showed that it selects lining material that slows down temperature growth during egg heating, thus ensuring suitable thermal conditions during parental absence at high ambient temperatures. Temperature and egg turning during incubation were recorded by an artificial egg with a built-in sensors placed in the nests of both target species; data collected by the sensors were stored by a base-station located nearby. The average egg temperature was 32.5 řC for the Northern Lapwing, and 35.0 řC for the Red-wattled Lapwing. Egg temperature in both species fluctuated significantly, affected by many factors. Egg temperature increased with increasing ambient temperature, it...
Developmental plasticity in reptiles
Peš, Tomáš ; Kratochvíl, Lukáš (advisor) ; Frýdlová, Petra (referee)
The environment during incubation can have significant influence upon phenotype of reptile hatchlings. Temperature is one of the main environmental factors affecting developing embryos. The response to variability in the environment can be diverse: short, long-lasting and potentially also sex-specific. A large number of studies focused on this phenomenon but only a small portion of them studied the persistence of the phenotypic effects. I summarized studies on the influence of environmental factors on the phenotype of reptiles in species with both temperature or genotypic sex determination. These studies were evaluated in terms of duration of these effects and if these are sex specific. I also assessed how much they correspond with the predictions of the adaptive model suggested by Charnov & Bull which explains the origin and maintenance of temperature sex determination. Key words: phenotypic plasticity, environment, development, behaviour, morphology, sex determination, phenotype
The authority of basketball coaches as perceived by their charges
Srníková, Kateřina ; Numerato, Dino (advisor) ; Tuček, Milan (referee)
This bachelor's thesis focuses on the authority of basketball coaches as perceived by their charges. The data was obtained from players aged 14-19, using a quantitative method and an online questionnaire. The collected data was processed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS. The main objective of the thesis is to find out how charges perceive the authority of their basketball coaches. The thesis identifies various forms of authority found in coaches, determining which form prevails. Based on the information obtained, it is examined how the perception of authority in a coach differs depending on the characteristics of the charge, such as age, gender and education. The thesis also examines the way the coach acts in front of their charges and the way they lead the team. The thesis also describes the influence of parents on the perception of authority. The thesis is divided into six parts, first being the theoretical part, which includes definitions and theoretical foundation for all the concepts mentioned in the thesis. The next parts deal with methodology. This is followed by the empirical part, which deals with the research process itself, the subsequent analysis of the results, their interpretation and evaluation. The last part of the thesis, the conclusion, summarises all the findings and outcomes of...
US lobbyists in the EU: significance of home country regulation for lobbying behaviour in a less regulated environment
Vilimovská, Lucia ; Martinková, Viera (advisor) ; Plechanovová, Běla (referee)
Diploma thesis "US lobbyists in the EU: significance of home country regulation for lobbying behaviour in a less regulated environment" tackles the topic of lobbying in terms of comparing two differently regulated environments and the behaviour of lobbyists in these environments. In the introduction, the thesis analyses the current definitions and theoretical anchoring of the expert debate on lobbying, attempts to define this concept and to determine the basic research characteristics. The thesis attempts to describe why lobbying should be regulated and how is affected by lobbying transparency enhancement debate. Subsequently, the thesis describes and compares the regulation of lobbying in the United States and the European Union, while also taking into account international standards. The empirical part of the thesis is based on data provided by the American research center "Center for Responsive Politics". From this basic dataset, the companies and associations that lobby in the United States and the European Union, in particular, their basic documents and websites, are then researched based on established criteria. The aim of the thesis is to analyse whether companies and associations lobbying in a more regulated environment of the United States of America are transferring their 'taught'...
Candidate genes for behavioural adaptations in tropical and temperate birds
Křístková, Barbora ; Munclinger, Pavel (advisor) ; Macholán, Miloš (referee)
The use of candidate genes has become a widespread approach in the study of behavioral adaptations. Gene function is often maintained in very distant evolutionary lines. This approach allows us to extend knowledge about non-model species. I studied the influence of selection on candidate behavioral adaptation genes associated mainly with biorhythms. I was interested in comparing genetic variability between closely related species of songbirds from tropical and temperate zones. These environments differ mainly in the conditions stability. Tropical species live in very stable conditions with generally low seasonality, unlike temperate species. Timing of events of cirkanual cycle of temperate birds is essential because of the alternating of conditions of the environment. I therefore assumed a reduction in genetic variability in migrating temperate zone species compared to tropical species due to stabilizing selection. The study is based on analyzes of microsatellite loci in the exon region. I involved analysis of neutral microsatellites as a control for possible genetic variability reduction coming from different reasons than selection. Neutral microsatellites are expected to not be influenced by selection. In tropical species I found reduced genetic variability of neutral microsatellites. That might...
The role of commensalism on vertical activity in exploration tests: a comparison of 12 populations of the genus Acomys
Štolhoferová, Iveta ; Frynta, Daniel (advisor) ; Špinka, Marek (referee)
The objective of this work was to investigate whether there are differences between commensal and non-commensal populations of spiny mice (Acomys spp.). There is a good evidence that some populations of Acomys cahirinus have been commensal since the time of ancient Egypt, that is for at least 3,500 years. Therefore, it could be expected that some adaptation for a commensal way of life have evolved. To find out, I tested twelve populations of spiny mice in two types of open field test - a vertical test and a hole board test. In the vertical test, a wire mesh was added and offered to spiny mice to climb on. Since human settlements represent an environment with a new predation pressure as well as new hiding opportunities like those in heights above the ground, I hypothesized that commensal populations of A. cahirinus would (1) explore less on the ground and (2) prefer to spend more time on the wire mesh than the non-commensal populations. Results supported the first hypothesis as in both tests commensal spiny mice spent less time exploring on the ground than other populations. The second hypothesis, however, was not supported - all populations showed approximately equal interest in the wire mesh and commensal spiny mice did not spend more time on it compared to the others. Nevertheless, an overall...
Rozhodovací proces u raků: problematika chování a reprodukce
This thesis provides an overview of case studies investigating the behaviour of freshwater crayfish, including social and reproductive interactions, decision making, and channels for recognition or processing of environmental stimuli. We described relationships between the environment and the organism and relationships among conspecifics and heterospecifics. These aspects are important, given that every decision and interaction has consequences for crayfish survival and reproduction, i.e. individual and even species success. For ethological studies in aquatic ecosystems, crustaceans, and especially crayfish, represent practical model organisms. Crayfish are advantageous over other invertebrates given their high level of social interaction in both the field and the laboratory. They exhibit unique eco- ethological behaviour in variety of feeding habits, activity cycles, habitat selection, and resource utilization at the level of species, sex, and age. Similar to vertebrates, crayfish demonstrate unique behaviours throughout their life. Subsequently, pollution impacts on native crayfish stock can result in ecosystem instability. The different reproductive strategies of females and males demonstrate that females rely on some familiarity of sexual partners as a reliable guarantee for successful mating. Crayfish females are choosier than males because of their higher energy costs for reproduction (oogenesis, incubation, parental care). While male reproduction prioritises securing their genetic information by searching for as many mates as possible. Crayfish mate preferences was analysed by facing the choosing crayfish with two equal sized mature counterparts from the same or different origin. Our conclusions could be applied in conservation research, captive breeding, and recovery programs as well as in aquaculture. The success of biological invaders has been described as the outcome from intra- and interspecific interactions. The marbled crayfish, known as parthenogenetic species with high adaptability, fast growth, early maturation, and high fecundity, established dominant status in more cases by interspecific combat victories. Fight intensity and aggressiveness decreased after dominance was established in particular pairs. Marbled crayfish seem to have an ability to conserve energy by increasing activity only at times of danger. Based on known species-specific abilities, the marbled crayfish is capable of outcompeting aggressive species, such as the red swamp crayfish. This parthenogenetic species poses a substantial threat to native ecosystems and biodiversity of aquatic environments, since it can establish not only in crayfish free habitats, but is also capable of outcompeting resident species. Recently, dilute concentrations of contaminants such as pharmaceuticals, daily-care products and pesticides have been reported to indirectly affect aquatic organisms. We found that selected pharmaceuticals can alter the behavioural patterns of crayfish, event at the very low concentration. The risks associated with surface water pollutants stresses the importance of research investigating their ecological impacts and their different/specific mechanisms of action. Prolonged exposure to the low concentrations of two pesticides exhibited changes in crayfish behavioural patterns. Various alterations in locomotion were observed after treatment in pesticide-free water. In the wild, decreased movement and activity can be a challenge for crayfish survival because of predation, even foraging to compensate for energy loss could be very difficult for less active individuals. This study suggests that crayfish behaviour assessment is a practical approach not only for investigating basic biology, or intra- and inter-specific interactions, but also for assessing the risks associated with micro-pollutants.
Ecology and behaviour of an enigmatic fossorial rodent, the giant root-rat (Tachyoryctes macrocephalus), endemic to the Afroalpine habitat in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia
The research in this thesis concerns with the ecology and behaviour of an endangered fossorial rodent, the giant root-rat (Tachyoryctes macrocephalus), in the Afroalpine ecosystem of the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia, and the results are discussed in relation with available ecological data on other fossorial/subterranean rodents. Firstly, this theses is focused on investigating the ecological role of the giant root-rat. The evaluation of root-rat's impact on various ecosystem features, in the first study, highly contributed to the knowledge not only about the species itself but also about the functioning of the ecosystem it inhabits. In fact, the results of the study indicated that the giant root-rat acts as an ecosystem engineer in the Afroalpine grasslands. Secondly, this thesis involves a pilot radio-telemetry study on the giant root-rat focusing on its temporal and spatial activity. Specifically, the results of the second study brought new light to giant root-rats' daily activity, its pattern, amount and seasonal change demonstrating the difference in activity patterns between strictly subterranean rodents and subterranean rodents with aboveground habits such as the giant root-rat. In the third study, we described the space-use patterns of the giant root-rat and revealed several trends in its spatial behaviour that can serve as a strategy to cope with the harsh and changeable environmental conditions in the Afroalpine ecosystem.
Chování vodních organismů a kontaminace vodních toků? nechtěná léčba deprese a nespavosti u raků
MAREŠ, Josef
This bachelor thesis evaluates the possible effects of pharmaceutically active compounds on non-target fresh water organisms and the risks connected with them. As model organism was used parthenogenetically reproducing non-native marbled crayfish, which were exposed to a mix of five commonly used drugs and one illicit drug - tramadol, citalopram, sertraline, venlafaxine, oxazepam and methamphetamine. The concentration was 1 microgram.l-1 for each of the tested compounds. The main part of the experiment was based on monitoring the behaviour of the exposed and control group of crayfish in arenas with or without shelter. Prior experiment crayfish were exposed for three-weeks to the mixture of compounds mentioned above. The results were analysed in the programme EthoVisionXT and later also statistically evaluated. In the system with available shelters the observed parameters (distance moved and activity) showed significant differences, where the exposed group walked significantly larger distances and was considerably more active than the control group. Exposed group also spent significantly more time outside the shelter. The results in the system without shelter were almost the opposite. The distance moved, velocity and activity were significantly different. The exposed crayfish showed considerably lower activity, velocity and moved shorter distances. The results of this experiment prove that the mixture of monitored compounds can have a significant impact on the behaviour of non-target fresh water organisms. The compounds had a softening effect and can affect sensory receptors of the exposed crayfish, which can have a significant impact on the populations in open waters.

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