National Repository of Grey Literature 128 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Analýza faktorů ovlivňujících reprodukční vlastnosti nandu pampového
Muchová, Tereza
Focus of this diploma thesis is the analysis of partial influences having impact on the reproduction of Greater rhea. It captures a detailed description of the most common factors, such as housing, nourishment, season’s effect, climatic conditions, genetics and subsequent breeding of chickens. Included is an anatomical description of reproductive organs of both sexes and getting the reader acquainted with the social behavior of this animal. Thesis also consists of ethological observations of defined individuals with focus on the influence of the season on various daily activities. Finally, an analysis of the eggs is performed that includes the overall laying capabilities of the female, along with hatchability, fertilization and mortality of embryos. As an appendix of the diploma thesis you can find recommended precautions increasing the possibility to improve the level of reproduction for the breeders.
Vliv ročního období na mléčnou užitkovost a změny chování dojnic holštýnského skotu v průběhu roku ve vybraném chovu
Rusnáková, Jaroslava
This bachelor thesis studied the effect of season on change in milk yield and behav-ioural change in Holstein dairy cows. The research was carried out in a selected farm in the South Moravian region from April 2021 to December 2021. The research on the change in milk yield, characterised by daily production intake and milk content, was carried out on an average number of 313 cows on all lactations in April-May, July-August, October-November and December. The lowest protein (3.2%) and fat (3.56%) content was found in the sample from the summer period. The lactose content in the summer months was the highest (5.05 %). The behaviour of the dairy cows was observed in the 2nd lactation herd. Behavioural observations included the following activities: water intake, feeding, resting, rumination, con-tact, exercise, comfort behaviour and defecation. Resting was the most performed activity (36.98%) and defecation was the least performed activity (1.33%).
Butterfly thermoregulation across habitats and climates
LAIRD-HOPKINS, Benita Carmen
Global warming, through rising temperatures and changing precipitation patterns, is placing major stress on species and ecosystems. Understanding how species respond to temperature and the mechanisms underpinning thermoregulation can help us predict which species are most vulnerable in the face of warming. In this thesis, I explore how butterflies across different habitats and climates thermoregulate and the mechanisms, including morphology and behaviour, underlaying thermoregulatory ability. Firstly, when comparing the buffering ability of neotropical and temperate butterflies I found that tropical butterflies were able to maintain more stable body temperatures than temperate butterflies, and this was likely driven by their morphology. I also found that temperate butterflies used postural means to raise their body temperature more than neotropical species, likely an adaptation to the cooler air temperatures they experience. Secondly, I showed the importance of butterflies' thermoregulatory abilities at the community level, by comparing thermoregulation of European butterflies across geographic regions and climatic zones. This study highlighted that behavioural thermoregulation, including the use of microclimates and postural means, drives regional differences in butterflies' thermoregulatory abilities. Finally, I utilised the Müllerian mimicry exhibited in Heliconius butterflies to untangle the contributions of morphology and phylogeny in butterfly thermoregulation, investigating thermal traits, including buffering ability, take-off temperature and heating rate. I found that morphology, not phylogeny, was the main driver of thermoregulation in these butterflies. Further, I investigated differences in the thermoregulatory ability of Heliconius butterflies from different habitats. I found that species from colder habitats were able to maintain a more stable body temperature and took off at a lower temperature than those from hotter habitats, suggesting there is local adaptation or acclimation in thermal traits. Overall, this work highlights that species have their own unique thermoregulatory abilities, as a result of the thermal environment they experience, and that thermoregulation is driven by morphology, behaviour and physiology. My findings have important consequences for predicting the impacts of climate change on ectotherms, by highlighting variation in thermal ability which makes some populations and species more vulnerable, while others more resilient. This thesis lays the groundwork for future studies comparing species' thermal traits across climates and habitats, increasing our understanding of how species cope with climate and land-use change.
Behaviour and electric signalling of Gnathonemus petersii in basic neurobehavioural tests
Juhaňáková, Kateřina ; Horká, Petra (advisor) ; Frouzová, Jaroslava (referee)
Neuroscience research on psychiatric disorders uses a wide range of animal species as model organisms. Most notably rodents and zebrafish Danio rerio. However, the behavioral repertoire of current model species does not allow for the simulation of verbal and some specific cognitive symptoms that are present in many disorders such as schizophrenia or autism. The elephant nose fish Gnathonemus petersii is a weakly electric fish that uses electrical signaling for spatial orientation (electrolocalization) and communication (electrocommunication). Therefore, the experimental advantage of measuring individual differences in electrical signaling for electrocommunication and electrolocalization may provide deeper insight into human psychiatric disorders associated with cognitive and verbal disorders and expand the possibilities for animal modeling in general. The aim of this thesis was to describe behavioral characteristics in basic neurobehavioral tests such as the open field test, novel object type tests as well as in relation to their electroactivity. The results of the open field test are in agreement with previous studies conducted on rodents and zebrafish. The novel object tests were not so clear-cut. Behaviour was tested in relation to the size of the individuals and a positive relationship was found in the...
Hodnocení welfare v chovu dojnic
Sovadinová, Simona
Animal welfare enhancement requires specific problems being reliably identified and corrective actions being defined afterwards. This diploma thesis evaluates the level of animal welfare on Czech farms with dairy and dual purpose cattle. The thesis uses the European project Welfare Quality®, which is a tool for a comprehensive assessment of livestock living conditions. WQ® gives the farms one of four final marks – excellent, enhanced, acceptable, and not classified. Most farms in this research were marked as acceptable. The organic farm received the best rating of all farms. Barns were most deprived of animal feeding, while animal housings were rated well. This research considers welfare as a multidimensional complex and also assesses specific aspects of dairy farming.
The degree of preparedness of the population for emergency survival
ŠAFROVÁ, Veronika
Awareness and readiness of people during emergency survival is a issue, which is not as easy to fix as it can seem on a first sight. Lifestyle and the ability of people to get their food resources is very different then it was before year 1989. As the society grows in a global and modern way, the level of independence is decreasing. All services, products and foods are within our arm's reach. We can state, that we live in a time of affluence - for now. This began to change rapidly two years ago, when the pandemic started or the corona virus as we know it. Many households have realized, that during quarantine they are dependent on their friends and family, because without shopping food, they wouldn't endure longer than 10 to 14 days. The corona virus epidemic wasn't the only test during the last two years that a lot of people had to go through. Another catastrophes were large floods, recent tornado in Moravia or ongoing safety threat in Ukraine. Another ongoing catastrophe is large wild fire in Bohemian Switzerland. This wild fire is a threat to properties, health and life to people and animals, but also protection of national park Bohemian Switzerland. This rapid downhill during last few months is a clear indicator, that the situation on our continent is shifting. Therefore population should slowly return to a partial independence, because if someone wouldn't do this in time, they might pay the highest price in the future. The issue of awareness and readiness of population for emergency survival based on author's research is very low. New generation is dealing with completely different habits, than our grand parents and great grand parents. Therefore author decided to do her own research and it confirmed her assumption. Result of the research confirmed, that actual readiness of population for emergency survival in crisis situations or catastrophes is truly very low. Author of these results got her answers based on her own research through electronic questionnaire. 555 households answered this questionnaire and 1188 individuals showed their interest. Another results of this test is, that if we compare our generation or generation of our parents, results are almost zero. Although results confirmed, that there is a huge difference in generation of our grand parents. Awareness of population in general across generations is on better level, however readiness is low as many people and households won't admit any catastrophes. Even though last few events show something else. Author decided to choose a questionnaire survey and based on these results do an examination and assessment of the level of readiness of the population for emergency survival. As another goal of the thesis the author processed basic characteristics of emergency survival of individuals or households. This characteristic can partially help novices to get prepared for upcoming situations. In foreign countries they use words as prepper or survival, which describes someone who is getting ready for extraordinary events or crisis situations. This basic characteristic can help people to gain knowledge and increase protection. This knowledge can also increase their safety. Because most of household consist from more than one individual, it's important to learn again how to safely take care of their own and their close ones. We mustn't depend on others or on the country to take care of us. It is needed to partially get back to our roots, knowledge and skills from our ancestors. We never know when we can benefit from these experiences or when they can even safe our lives. Result of this thesis is to lead respondents to change their way of thinking about this issue of emergency survival. Goal wasn't to scare or convince respondents, however to point on certain situations that could happen, so that they can prepare better.
Possible association of polymorphisms in COMT gene with mental diseases
This thesis i focused on associacion of polymorphisms in COMT gene with mental diseases, primarily on polymorphism Val158Met. The theoretical part provides definitions of COMT gene and enzyme, catecholamines affected by COMT and definition of the polymorphism Val158Met. Next is listing of mental diseases, description and known connection with researched polymorphism. The practical part contains proceeding of PCR RFLP used to detect the genotype. The results were evaluated and connected to the theoretical part of the thesis.
Traditional versus modern way of children education - their relationship to old age and its impacts on society
This bachelor thesis deals with the differences between traditional and modern way of children education and their relationship to old age an its impacts on society. In the theoretical part of my thesis I divote the traditional intergenerational cohabitation and todays modern family, where seniors are no longer part of close family, but (it they are self-sufficient) they live alone or in some sanitary facilities. This thesis deals with respect for seniors, intergenerational solidarity and behaviour of children to seniors. The practical part of my bachelor thesis includes usearch based on questionnaire, that focused on opinions of seniors and parents on this problematics.
Responses of Blue Tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and Great Tits (Parus major) to con- and hetero-specifics alarm calls
ROMERO, Mónica
I conducted analyses of the responses of Blue Tits and Great Tits to familiar and unfamiliar Titmice species using playbacks of alarm calls of Blue Tit, Willow Tit, Black-capped Chickadee and Varied Tit at the winter feeder in Branišovský forest, near České Budějovice.
Vliv metazachloru a jeho metabolitu metazachloru OA na raná vývojová stádia raka mramorovaného
Metazachlor is a selective herbicide used for controlling monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weeds in oilseed rape and other cruciferous plants. It is mainly used as a pre-emergence herbicide. Metazachlor OA is one of the major degradation products of metazachlor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of metazachlor and its major metabolite metazachlor OA on the early live stages of marbled crayfish (Procambarus virginalis). The effect of metazachlor and metazachlor OA was evaluated on the basis of behaviour, growth, biomarker of oxidative stress, antioxidant biomarkers, ontogenetic development and occurrence of morphological anomalies. The toxicity test was performed at five concentrations, two concentrations of metazachlor (3.2 micrograms/l and 22 micrograms/l) and two concentrations of metazachlor OA (3.2 micrograms/l and 22 micrograms/l) and one control (C). The test exposure was 40 days under defined laboratory conditions. The exposure of metazachlor and metazachlor OA at all tested concentrations caused statistically significantly higher mortality, delayed ontogenetic development and slower growth of crayfish. Metazachlor exposure in concentration 22 micrograms/l and metazachlor OA in concentrations 3.2 micrograms/l and 22 micrograms/l caused statistically significant reduction of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GR, GST and GSH) levels in whole-body crayfish homogenate. Metazachlor OA showed a more pronounced adverse effect on the early live stages of marbled crayfish than its parent compound, metazachlor. Based on the results of this study we can point out the suitability of crayfish, especially their early live stages for toxicity tests and the possibilities of their use for biomonitoring of aquatic environment herbicides and their metabolites.

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