National Repository of Grey Literature 156 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.02 seconds. 
Isolation and characterization of beta-glucans of natural origin
Ratsilouskaya, Lizaveta ; Hoová, Julie (referee) ; Márová, Ivana (advisor)
The bachelor thesis deals with the characterization of natural beta-glucans and other active substances isolated from macroalgae and yeasts. The used macroalgae samples differ in the pigment, origin and method of algae processing. The theoretical part focuses on seaweed and yeast species, beta-glucans, their sources and biological effects, other biologically active substances (such as polyphenols and antioxidants) and finally on methods for determining these biologically active substances. In the practical part, samples of selected macroalgae were analyzed, namely samples of Arame, Nori, Kombu, Wakame, Hijiki and Spaghetti. Aqueous, ethanol and acetone extracts of these algae were prepared in this work. The aqueous extracts were used for spectrophotometric determination of phenolic substances, flavonoids and antioxidant activity by the ABTS method. Furthermore, ethanol and acetone extracts of said macroalgae were used to determine total chlorophyll and carotenoid content spectrophotometric. The work also focused on beta-glucan content, analyzing macroalgae and yeast R. toruloides. Arame and Nori algae and R. toruloides were high in beta-glucans. However, beta-glucans were very low in other macroalgae.
Comparison of the properties of chokeberry spreads of different origins, comparison and different production technologies
Kapiton, Ulyana ; Hrstka, Miroslav (referee) ; Vespalcová, Milena (advisor)
This diploma thesis deals with comparison of the properties of chokeberry spreads of different origins, composition and different production technologies. The theoretical part contains a brief description of the chokeberry – Aronia melanocarpa, an overview of the most important substances contained in the chokeberry and examples of the use of aronia, not only in the food industry. Furthermore, the legislative requirements for the production of spreads and the production technology itself are described. In this thesis is also described a new patented technology of spread production using HTD technology. Another part of the theoretical part is a literature review of the determination of anthocyanins in chokeberry by HPLC method. The experimental part describes the laboratory procedures used for determination of dry matter, carbohydrates by HPLC with ELSD detector, anthocyanin dyes, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Another part of the work was a questionnaire survey and sensory analysis of selected chokeberry spreads. The panel members prefered the Lowicz chokeberry spread, for which was determined 29,39% dry matter, 15,15 mg.g-1 anthocyanins, 9,20 mg.g-1 total phenolic compounds, 158,42 mg.g-1 fructose and 151,26 mg.g-1 glucose and the antioxidant activity was determined to be 5,94 mg.g-1.
Biologically active substances of the Gotu kola plant
Šumberová, Michaela ; Nábělek, Jakub (referee) ; Zemanová, Jana (advisor)
The Bachelor thesis focuses on the preparation and characterization of the extract of Gotu kola (Centella asiatica). The theoretical part summarizes commonly analyzed groups of biologically active compounds of herbs and introduces potential applications of the extract in food industry. Moreover, an overview of possibly used extraction methods and analytical methods for the evaluation of biologically active compounds of the extract are presented. As for the experiment, the extract of the fresh Centella asiatica herb was prepared by maceration in ethanol and then analyzed by three chosen methods. The total phenolic content of the extract analyzed by the Folin-Ciocalteu test was 0.74 ± 0.08 mgGAE·g-1. As for the quantification of antioxidant activity, the TEAC test was performed and the antioxidant activity of the extract was 289 ± 81 µg·ml-1. The volatiles present in the extract were identified by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry in combination with solid-phase micro-extraction. Sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbons were the most dominant group of the extract, in which -farnesene (33.28 %), -caryophyllene (25.01 %), and -humulene (20.91 %) were the major compounds.
Analysis of some biologicaly active components in natural plant extracts
Kováčová, Ivana ; Márová, Ivana (referee) ; Němcová, Andrea (advisor)
This thesis is focused on the study of the effectiveness of active ingredients from natural extracts such as milk thistle and turmeric. The thesis describes the use of modern methods of analysis and identification of active substances located in plants of milk thistle and turmeric. In the experimental part of thesis, which was preceded by a literature search focused on the biological effects of active substances in the chosen natural extracts, the extracts were characterized according to group characteristics (total assessment of polyphenols and flavonoids, assessment of antioxidant activity, and assessment of vitamin C volume and tocopherol). The next part is focused on the study of the encapsulation of natural active substances into the organic particles: liposomes. Silymarin and curcumin were encapsulated as active substances. The idea of a plant with a single active ingredient is usually erroneous. Plants usually contain hundreds of components which cooperate on a given effect. Therefore, the majority of herbalists believe that a simple plant is an active ingredient. However, some plants are known to be containing a particular active phytochemical. For instance, plants such as the milk thistle, turmeric, or a ginkgo are great examples of the plant containing a particular active phytochemical. In these cases, the active compound is disproportionately more effective than the plant itself. Encapsulation efficiency of active ingredients of Silymarin and curcumin was determined by HPLC/PDA. The aim of the analysis was to observe the behavior of elements during the incubation in surrounding of gastric juice model, and the stability while maintaining the particles in model food.
Study of the antimicrobial effects of selected spices
Kalábová, Jana ; RNDr.Eva Dvořáčková (referee) ; Voběrková, Stanislava (advisor)
The antimicrobial effects of cinnamon, clove and ginger (grand and fresh) extracts against Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger and Pichia fermentans were studied in this thesis. Selected spices were extracted in three solvents (ethanol, water and ethyl acetate) and inhibition effect on tested microorganisms was studied using two methods disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. The antioxidant activity and total polyphenolic compounds from spices were also determined. The results showed that cinnamon and clove extracts in ethyl acetate and ethanol were a promising antimicrobial substances for all tested microorganisms. Combination of cinnamon and clove especially ethyl acetate extracts showed an aditive effect. However, in the case of broth dilution method, fresh ginger inhibited bacterial growth under optimal growth conditions of Bacillus subtilis (35 °C, pH 7, 250 rpm). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for all susceptible microorganisms was determined 8,3 mg/ml. The highest amounts of polyphenolic substances were found in cinnamon and clove ethanol extract and this result was in correlation with antioxidant activity.
Development of a new type of energy drinks containing natural active components
Vysoká, Marie ; Němcová, Andrea (referee) ; Skoumalová, Petra (advisor)
The aim of this thesis is the development and preparation of a new energy drink. The theoretical part of the thesis focuses on the comparison of the drinks available in market, the presentation of the main active ingredients and the proposal of enriching the new energy drink. It also describes the possibility of using an encapsulation and the method used to determine specific compound in energy drink or encapsulated particles. In the experimental part of the work, at the beginning, the main content of energy drinks were characterized, for instance caffeine, sugar, polyphenol and vitamin C. Subsequently the energy drink based on selected types of loose teas that were enriched with the encapsulated extract of acai, acerola, maca, goji and ginseng was designed. All extracts contained large amounts of polyphenols and antioxidants. In addition, acerola extracts contained very high amounts of vitamin C. Two types of particles, alginate particles and liposomes were prepared for encapsulation. For all particles, encapsulation efficiency, size, stability, and antioxidant activity were determined. Long-term stability was then monitored within three months. The particles were also exposed to artificial gastric, pancreatic and bile juice. All tested particles showed very good encapsulation efficiency. In terms of long-term storage stability in an aqueous environment. Particularly liposome particles, which also showed high stability by zeta potential measurement, were suitable. On the contrary, in case of alginate particles, when stored in an aqueous medium, the release of active substances occurred. Finally, an energy drink was created and subjected to sensory analysis. The best energy drink was based on black or green tea with alginate particles acai, goji and ginseng.
Characterization of edible films with the potential usage in food packaging
Jančíková, Simona ; Vítová, Eva (referee) ; Veselá, Mária (advisor)
In the last years, the edible packaging has been gaining popularity due to the potential usage as the packaging for food instead of synthetic materials. The edible packaging can positively affect the packaged food by the active properties or due to its intelligent properties can monitor the changes in food. In theory, the legislation about the packaging of food and edible packaging was described. The substances for edible films preparation and additives, which can improve the properties of the edible films, were described too. In this part, the undesirable microorganisms occur in food and the chapters about active and intelligent properties of the edible films were summarized. The main aim of the thesis was the practical preparation of edible packaging/films made from furcellaran, gelatin hydrolysate with the addition of water dried or fresh rosemary extracts in concentrations 5 %, 10 %, and 20 %. In the experimental part, the physical analysis was done – textural parameters such as tensile strength and elongation at break, water content, and thickness. In the chemical analysis the total polyphenols content, determination of polyphenols by HPLC, antioxidant activity, optical properties and antimicrobial activity of the prepared edible films were done. There were found out, that the total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity were the highest in the 20%DR (TPC: 6,79 ± 0,06 mg gallic acid/g; DPPH: 87,84 ± 0,07 %). Also, the 20%DR and 20%FR changed color in different pH (3 and 12). The antimicrobial activity was negative. The thesis showed that the addition of natural extracts to edible films can increase the polyphenols content and they can also work as the UV protector.
Characterisation of chokeberry and saskatoon berry fruits
Burdějová, Lenka ; Omelka, Ladislav (referee) ; Vítová, Eva (advisor)
Diploma thesis deals with the characterization of chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) and saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia) fruits. The theoretical part focuses on the botanical classification, chemical composition, curative effects and the use of chokeberry and saskatoon berry in the food industry. Further, the attention is also devoted to a review of methods for the determination of important antioxidants, specialized on the determination of polyphenols, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid and total antioxidant activity. The experimental part of the work deals with the determination of selected parameters in different varieties of chokeberry and serviceberry, harvested in 2012 and 2013 using spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques with an emphasis on effect of solvent (50% ethanol, destilled water, DMSO). Specifically total content of polyphenols and anthocyanins, color characteristics using the CIE L*a*b* system and the ability of the sample to reduce the iron are determined using the UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy. Further ascorbic acid concentration in individual extracts is quantified by High performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector and the total antioxidant activity is characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance involving •DPPH and ABTS•+ assays.
Study of natural substances of ginger
Dobiáš, Vojtěch ; Vespalcová, Milena (referee) ; Veselá, Mária (advisor)
The aim of this study was to determine the quantity of natural substances in ginger. Extracts from organic ginger tea and ginger rhizome were prepared using three different solvents. Antioxidant activity and the content of polyphenols and flavonoids were determined spectrophotometrically. Effects on bacterial growth of the extracts were studied against bacteria Bacillus cereus and Serratia marcescens by agar well diffusion assay. The obtained data showed, that there is a significant amount of difference between the contents of studied compounds in the two extract samples. The highest amount of polyphenols was found in ginger tea with concentration of 0,481 mgml-1, compared to 0,078 mgml-1 found in the ginger rhizome. The tea showed a greater antioxidant activity than the rhizome. Bacterial growth was slightly inhibited only by water extracts of the tea and this was only observed against Bacillus cereus.
Study of geographical authenticity of Moravian white wines
Horáková, Kristýna ; Křikala, Jakub (referee) ; Diviš, Pavel (advisor)
The aim of this bachelor thesis was to verify geographical autenticity of Moravian white wines based on elemental analysis. This data were completed with the analysis of organic acids, fenolic compounds and atioxidants in wines. There were used two spektrometric methods for the elemental analysis (ICP-MS and ICP-OES). The concentration of organic acids was mesured by Ion chromatography. To determine the concentration of phenolic compounds in wines there was used the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD), the content of antioxidants and the total content of phenols was measured on spectrophotometer. In total there were 33 samples of wine from 4 Moravian subregions. For the purpose of determination the samples in groups the dataset was firstly corrected by Grubbs test for remote results. From those data the box plots were created which represents the minimal, maximal and mean concentrations of each measured component. Furthermore the analysis of variance was applied, which picked up 12 statisticly valuable parameters from the whole 47. By appliyng the multidimensional statistical methods (Pearson correlation analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA)) were compiled mathematical models for the division of Moravian wines according to geographical origin. The success rate of the discrimination test was 96,97%. The cross-validation test showed an 81,82% success rate for classifying unknown samples.

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