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Taxonomy, phylogeny and phylogeografy of selected groups of aquatic beetles (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae, Hydraenidae) of the Caribbean region
Deler-Hernández, Albert ; Fikáček, Martin (advisor) ; Ribera, Ignacio (referee) ; Archangelsky, Miguel (referee)
This thesis is focused in the representatives of beetle families Hydrophilidae and Hydraenidae of West Indies and adjacent regions. It consists of two parts, the phylogenetic part and the systematic part. The phylogenetic part focuses on the hydrophilid genera Phaenonotum and Crenitulus of Greater Antilles: beetles were sampled in all four main islands (Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and Jamaica) and analyzed using the combination of molecular and morphological data. The genus Phaenonotum contains four single-island endemics, of which those from Cuba, Jamaica and Hispaniola are wingless and form a clade that diversified ca. 46 million years ago (Ma) and likely colonized the Caribbean via the GAARlandia land bridge. In contrast, the Puerto Rican endemic and the two remaining non-endemic species colonized the Greater Antilles by over- water dispersal during the Oligocene-Miocene. The analysis of the genus Crenitulus revealed that Greater Antillean species belong to two separate clades: the Crenitulus yunque clade endemic for Cuba and Hispaniola, and the Crenitulus suturalis clade containing specimens from Greater Antilles and from northern America. A detailed revision of the Crenitulus yunque clade using morphology and molecular-based species delimitation recognized 11 species locally endemic for...
Fylogeneze a fylogeografie modrásků rodu \kur{Cacyreus} jako nástroj hledání původu invazního \kur{C. marshalli}
BEŠTA, Lukáš
I studied phylogeny and phylogeography of 7 species of African genus Cacyreus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). For the purposes of analyses I used sequences of a mitochondrial gene for cytochrome oxidase 1 (COI) and two nuclear genes for wingless (Wg) and elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1-alpha). The results of these molecular-genetic analyses were confirmed by the different morphological structures present in the genitals of studied samples.
The phylogeny of the Protaetia Burmeister, 1842 flower beetles in the western palearctic region
Žďárská, Kateřina ; Šípek, Petr (advisor) ; Bezděk, Aleš (referee)
This diploma thesis deals with the phylogeny and phylogeography of flower beetles of the genus Protaetia, especially with the complicated taxonomic complex around the species Protaetia (Potosia) cuprea, P. cuprina and P. caucasica in the western Palearctic region. In light of the results presented by Vondráček et al. (2018), it seems that the classic taxonomic approach, based only on coloration, geographical distribution or poorly analysed morphological characters, is not able to adequately explain the evolution of the taxon, nor correctly identify individual taxa at the species level (i.e. species and subspecies). To understand the evolution of the group and the population structure, it is therefore necessary to use the now standard molecular-phylogenetic approaches as well. Based on analyses of one nuclear (internal transcribed spacer 1) and two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome oxidase I and cytochrome b) from 231 individuals, a phylogenetic hypothesis of the West Palaearctic representatives of the genus Protaetia was compiled. It was found that the currently recognized subgenera of the genus do not correspond to the results of the analyses. The subgenera Eupotosia, Netocia and Potosia proved to be non- monophyletic. Within the species complex of P. cuprea, in addition to the European clade of P....
Evolution of the genus Arabidopsis in its centre of diversity
Šrámková, Gabriela
A prerequisite for addressing general questions concerning the evolution of intraspecific variability in space and time is the knowledge of the distribution of variability within the species' range. The development of molecular methods has been a major step forward, allowing various evolutionary questions to be addressed using natural populations of model species and their close relatives. Although wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana have long been in the focus of plant evolutionary biologists and molecular geneticists, the patterns of genetic diversity and phenotypic variation in their natural populations are often overlooked. The present work focuses on some of the most studied model species in the Brassicaceae family, Arabidopsis halleri and the complex of A. arenosa, whose members are widely used to study ecology, physiology and evolution as well as the molecular basis of phytoremediation and parallel adaptation. The study aimed to determine intraspecific variation at the ploidy level, to reveal phylogenetic relationships and the spatial distribution of genetic diversity across the range, and to propose a new taxonomic concept based on the detected intraspecific genotypic and phenotypic variation. In order to accomplish this goal, we used DNA flow cytometry, several molecular methods (AFLP,...
Phylogeography of Rousettus aegyptiacus in the Mediterranean region
Dundarova, Cheliana ; Hulva, Pavel (advisor) ; Janko, Karel (referee)
The genus Rousettus has distributional pattern unique among fruitbats comprising both Asia and Africa and reaching northern distributional limits of the family in Persia, Arabia and Mediterranean basin. This could be ascribed to the ability of echolocation, consequent cave dwelling, and presumably other site-specific adaptations, which enabled dispersal independent of forest block and surviving in Mediterranean type of climate. Using fastly evolving mitochondrial marker, we aimed to assess genetic variability, its geographic distribution and demography of northern populations of the Egyptian fruitbat (Rousettus aegyptiacus). Mitochondrial network indicates deep genetic divergence between disjunct Mediterranean and eastern African parts of the range. Basal position of Sinaic and Jordanian haplotypes within northern clade indicate important role of these regions in colonization of eastern Mediterranean. Generally, the northern haplogroup is moderately diversified with partial geographic localization of particular haplotypes. Significant isolation by distance pattern suggests relatively pronounced site fidelity of particular colonies, at least in terms of maternal gene flow. Landscape genetics analyses indicate discontinuities in distribution of mitochondrial genetic variability, in some cases correlating with...
Colonisation of Central Europe by benthic frehwater crustacean Asellus aquaticus (Isopoda, Crustacea)
Střížek, Antonín ; Sacherová, Veronika (advisor) ; Špaček, Jan (referee)
Longterm climate changes are an inseparable part of the evolution of Earth. In the last few milions of years the changing of glacials and interglacials was as ordinary and regular phenomenon as changing from day to night or from spring to summer. These cycles also have similar influance on evolution of nature on Earth. Eventhough the state of nature appears to us stable for the few last human generations, the reality from the long term point of view is differnt. During these cycles, the location of climatic zones, size of glaciers, deserts, savannahs, steppes or rainforests have changed. Organisms changed locations of their areas of distribution, many nowadays widespread species were pushed into isolated local populations. This Master's thesis reveals the impact of glacial cycles on a freshwater crustacean aquatic Isopod (Asellus aquaticus). Very variable mitochondrial COI gene was sequenced within 139 individuals of this species from 62 different localities in Europe. This data were included into an extensive scope of an already known phylogeographic structure of the continent. An Aquatic Sowbug shows a quite high rate of a genetic heterogenity (maximum Nucleotide Divergence discovered is 0,132 and average is 0,016) in the area of the Czech Republic. Where there are found representatives of two...
Phylogeography and genetic variation of benthic crustaceans in European inland waters
Pešek, Pavel ; Petrusek, Adam (advisor) ; Sacherová, Veronika (referee)
This thesis summarises published information about geographic distribution of genealogical lineages and genetic variability of benthic crustaceans of European continental waters, and evaluates the historical factors that affected their distribution. it is focused mainly on species for which multiple or in-depth studies have been published. A particular attention is given to crayfish of the genus Austropotamobius. Present distribution of genealogical lineages has been affected by changes in connectedness and availability of aquatic habitats. Species lineages often split in consequence to geological and climatic processes during the Tertiary, as exemplified on species complexes of Austropotamobius crayfish, species lineages of the amphipod Gammarus fossarum species complex, and the isopod Asellus aquaticus. The distribution of intraspecific lineages has been strongly affected by Quaternary cycles of glaciation, which not only destroyed many habitats by moving glaciers but also created new colonisation routes. Such routes were peri-glacial lakes, which had been used by Gammarus lacustris, or retreat of sea level, which enabled white-clawed crayfish to colonise England, and a freshwater crab to colonise Italy. Changes in sea levels are also the likely reasons for colonisation of continental waters by the...
Phylogeography of the genus Squalius in Albania
Lerch, Zdeněk ; Švátora, Miroslav (advisor) ; Kalous, Lukáš (referee)
The thesis is focused on the issue of the Squalius genus phylogeography in Albania in the Balkan region. Phylogenetic analyses of sequence variation at mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b) were used to examine these issues for the freshwater fish genus Squalius from various river systems in the Adriatic Sea region. There were identified 3 genetic lineages of vague taxonomic position where the genetic variation amount to 1.6-2.1 %. The first lineage is distributed in north of Albania and in the whole Periadriatic region, the second lineage is especially spread to northern part of Albania and the third lineage covers especially the zone of the European ancient lake systems on the Balkan Peninsula (Lake Ohrid and Prespa), from where expands to the southern part of Albania. There sympatrically coincide the both lineage in the hydrological river-lake system of Drin and Skadar. The phylogenetic and taxonomic position of the Squalius genus in the region seems to be interesting topic for subsequent and more detailed study. Keywords: Squalius, Albania, cytochrome b, phylogeography
Diversity, distribution and genetic structure of the tribe Pipistrellini
Eliášová, Kristýna ; Hulva, Pavel (advisor) ; Fornůsková, Alena (referee)
This literature review discusses phylogenetic relationships within the family Vespertilionidae with a detailed focus on tribus Pipistrellini relations and then the individual genera and species within this tribe. A historical summary of efforts to resolve the phylogenetic relationships within the taxon first on the basis of morphological studies, comparison of karyotype and most recently on the basis of genetic markers. Mitochondrial genetic markers are useful in studying phylogeography, as this paper shows on the example of the Pipistrellus species complex and on species Nyctalus azoreum, Nyctalus leisleri, Nyctalus noctula and Pipistrellus abramus. Furthermore, this work describes the current distribution of individual taxa of tribe, the fossil record and migration behavior of European temperate species in the context of their population structure (also studied in some species using mtDNA and microsatellites) and Annex shows the areas extending all five genera Pipistrellini tribe. Key words: Pipistrellini, phylogenenetics, phylogeography, distribution, population structure
Evolution of the genus Arabidopsis in its centre of diversity
Šrámková, Gabriela ; Marhold, Karol (advisor) ; Greimler, Josef (referee) ; Mártonfi, Pavol (referee)
A prerequisite for addressing general questions concerning the evolution of intraspecific variability in space and time is the knowledge of the distribution of variability within the species' range. The development of molecular methods has been a major step forward, allowing various evolutionary questions to be addressed using natural populations of model species and their close relatives. Although wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana have long been in the focus of plant evolutionary biologists and molecular geneticists, the patterns of genetic diversity and phenotypic variation in their natural populations are often overlooked. The present work focuses on some of the most studied model species in the Brassicaceae family, Arabidopsis halleri and the complex of A. arenosa, whose members are widely used to study ecology, physiology and evolution as well as the molecular basis of phytoremediation and parallel adaptation. The study aimed to determine intraspecific variation at the ploidy level, to reveal phylogenetic relationships and the spatial distribution of genetic diversity across the range, and to propose a new taxonomic concept based on the detected intraspecific genotypic and phenotypic variation. In order to accomplish this goal, we used DNA flow cytometry, several molecular methods (AFLP,...

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