National Repository of Grey Literature 50 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Reproductive modes in large Branchiopoda (Crustacea) and their effect on genetic structure of populations
Šimková, Zuzana ; Sacherová, Veronika (advisor) ; Straková, Barbora (referee)
This bachelor's thesis focuses on the influence of the reproductive systems of four groups of so-called large branchiopods (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) on genetic variability in their populations. The groups include the orders of fairy shrimp (Anostraca), tadpole shrimp (Notostraca), clam shrimp (Spinicaudata), and conchostracans (Laevicaudata). This thesis primarily examines the populations in Europe. Reproductive strategies are one of the key factors that influence the genetic variability of populations. Other factors include historical events such as the breakup of the supercontinents Gondwana and Pangea and the last ice age, along with its associated processes (such as the colonization of new habitats after the end of the last ice age, etc.) The most genetically variable populations in Europe are gonochoristic (Branchipus schaefferi, Phallocryptus spinosa, Triops mauritanicus, Leptestheria dahalacensis, and Lynceus brachyurus), followed by populations with other reproductive systems. Based on current knowledge, some gonochoristic species and species utilizing a different reproductive system are divided into multiple genetic lineages. Depending on the historical processes, these lineages were most likely separated before the last ice age. Therefore, the current geographical distribution of lineages...
Colonisation of Central Europe by benthic frehwater crustacean Asellus aquaticus (Isopoda, Crustacea)
Střížek, Antonín ; Sacherová, Veronika (advisor) ; Špaček, Jan (referee)
Longterm climate changes are an inseparable part of the evolution of Earth. In the last few milions of years the changing of glacials and interglacials was as ordinary and regular phenomenon as changing from day to night or from spring to summer. These cycles also have similar influance on evolution of nature on Earth. Eventhough the state of nature appears to us stable for the few last human generations, the reality from the long term point of view is differnt. During these cycles, the location of climatic zones, size of glaciers, deserts, savannahs, steppes or rainforests have changed. Organisms changed locations of their areas of distribution, many nowadays widespread species were pushed into isolated local populations. This Master's thesis reveals the impact of glacial cycles on a freshwater crustacean aquatic Isopod (Asellus aquaticus). Very variable mitochondrial COI gene was sequenced within 139 individuals of this species from 62 different localities in Europe. This data were included into an extensive scope of an already known phylogeographic structure of the continent. An Aquatic Sowbug shows a quite high rate of a genetic heterogenity (maximum Nucleotide Divergence discovered is 0,132 and average is 0,016) in the area of the Czech Republic. Where there are found representatives of two...
Spatial orientation in Odonata
Hupková, Lenka ; Černý, Martin (advisor) ; Sacherová, Veronika (referee)
The aim of this review is to evaluate and sum up an existing knowledge about spatial orientation of dragonflies, particularly at small and medium spatial scales. I deal mostly with orientation by horizontally polarized light, which belongs among the most explored field of orientation of Odonata; beside that I explore an orientation of dragonflies during the habitat selection and within their home ranges / territories. Regarding the latter, I pay an attention namely to the function of spatial landmarks, which has not been yet fully explored and offers a lot of opportunities for further research (like many other orientation topics of Odonata). I also briefly discuss an orientation of dragonflies during migrations. Besides the visual orientation I mention the orientation by olfactory sense, tough Odonata was concerned anosmic for a long time. Key words: spatial orientation, visual orientation, dragonflies, Odonata, landmarks
Morphological and genetical variability of Chydorus sphaericus (Crustacea, Cladocera) depending on the environment
Matušková, Ludmila ; Sacherová, Veronika (advisor) ; Kořínek, Vladimír (referee)
Úvod 5 ABSTRACT Genus Chydorus or more specifically the species of Chydorus sphaericus represents an extremely tolerant freshwater organism, which occurs in littoral zone of almost all kinds of aquatic habitats all over the world. It is usually associated with submerged macrophytes or substrate and also plays a key role in food webs of both vertebrate (fish) and invertebrate predators. Not only is this species in most localities the most common chydorid, but it is quite often the most common filtering cladoceran. Moreover, due to its little morphological variation most small globular representatives of the genus Chydorus were in the past all incorrectly ascribed to Chydorus sphaericus. However, thanks to more detailed studies it was suggested that so called species Chydorus sphaericus was not in fact a single taxonomic entity, but a group of several closely related species. It is clear today that for correct taxonomic desision it is necessary to combine all ecological, morphological, and genetic methods. The aim of this study was to explore genetical and morphological variation in populations of Chyrodis sphaericus from localities representing different sets of environmental factors. Four model localities were chosen: eutrophic ponds, temporary pools, mountain lakes and waterbodies affected by mining...
Phylogeography and genetic variation of benthic crustaceans in European inland waters
Pešek, Pavel ; Petrusek, Adam (advisor) ; Sacherová, Veronika (referee)
This thesis summarises published information about geographic distribution of genealogical lineages and genetic variability of benthic crustaceans of European continental waters, and evaluates the historical factors that affected their distribution. it is focused mainly on species for which multiple or in-depth studies have been published. A particular attention is given to crayfish of the genus Austropotamobius. Present distribution of genealogical lineages has been affected by changes in connectedness and availability of aquatic habitats. Species lineages often split in consequence to geological and climatic processes during the Tertiary, as exemplified on species complexes of Austropotamobius crayfish, species lineages of the amphipod Gammarus fossarum species complex, and the isopod Asellus aquaticus. The distribution of intraspecific lineages has been strongly affected by Quaternary cycles of glaciation, which not only destroyed many habitats by moving glaciers but also created new colonisation routes. Such routes were peri-glacial lakes, which had been used by Gammarus lacustris, or retreat of sea level, which enabled white-clawed crayfish to colonise England, and a freshwater crab to colonise Italy. Changes in sea levels are also the likely reasons for colonisation of continental waters by the...
Diet quality impact on growth and survival of freshwater zooplankton species
Sýkorová, Veronika ; Sacherová, Veronika (advisor) ; Nedbalová, Linda (referee)
Food quality has a significant influence on freshwater zooplankon. It influences its growth rate and development generally. By quality we understand a certain stoichiometric ratio of the main biogenic elements (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus) in the biomass of food. Ecological stechiometry is helping to understand the balance of chemical elements in ecological interactions and processes. Freshwater zooplankton consists mostly of two groups of organisms: rotifers (Rotifera) and crustaceans (Crustacea) - cladocerans (Cladocera) and copepods (Copepoda). Each of this groups requires different quality of food. Most of filtering cladocerans are fast- growing organisms, which need a phosphorus-rich food for their fast development (small C:P ratio in food) and vice versa for most of the copepods. The food offered is not always ideal for all members of zooplankton, that is why various pre- and post- absorptional mechanisms developed to help them to cope with unsuitable food. The ability to survive unvafourable conditions is closely linked to the zoolpankton's reactions to unsuitable C:N:P ratio in its food. The C:N:P ratio in food of zooplankton also influences the species distribution in water bodies. Key words: stoichiometry, food quality, zooplankton
Diversity of freshwater epigean amphipods
Rutová, Tereza ; Petrusek, Adam (advisor) ; Sacherová, Veronika (referee)
Gammarids, the most diverse group of Amphipoda are present in marine, brackish and fresh waters. In freshwater there are forms inhabiting the surface (epigean) and underground (hypogean) habitats and this thesis will be focused on epigean freshwater groups. Freshwater gammarids inhabit the continental waters of all continents, but the highest species diversity is evident in the Palearctic region. However they cannot be found in the surface waters of the tropical regions. These amphipods are characterized by the absence of any resistant or larval stages. Thus the present diversity and distribution reflects historical events like the fluctuation in sea levels, orogeny or period of glaciation from the Paleocene to the present. The goal of this thesis will be to summarize which processes and in which period the diversity of freshwater epigean amphipods were affected. One part of this thesis is dedicated to the families occurring in Australia (Chiltonidae), New Zealand (eg. Phreathogammaridae) and the North and the South America (Hyalellidae). The main focus is on family Gammaridae in which according to recent studies should include lineages occurring in the entire Palearctis including endemic groups in the Lake Baikal and across the Ponto-Caspian area. In the history of the development of gammarids...

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