National Repository of Grey Literature 48 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Recently active L1 and B1 retrotransposons in the mouse genome
Janoušek, Václav ; Munclinger, Pavel (advisor) ; Bryja, Josef (referee)
The work focuses on two recently active retrotransposon families in the house mouse genome. They are L1 and B1 retrotransposons. The aim of the work was to find polymorphic retrotransposon insertions caused by their recent activity. Two genomes of mouse inbred strains derived from the different house mouse subspecies were compared. The BACends from MSM/Ms derived from M. m. molossinus were compared with the reference genome of C57BL/6J derived mostly from M. m. domesticus. The set of output insertions was classified into several subfamilies of B1 a L1 families. The presence/absence of these insertions was tested using PCR in all three house mouse subspecies and also in two sister species (M. spretus and M. macedonicus). The particular subfamilies differed with regard to presence in latter species. Despite the supposed lack of activity of older L1 families (F2 and F3) they persist in house mouse population as an ancestral polymorphism. Unlike L1 subfamilies, B1 subfamilies appear to be active in house mouse genome for longer period of time. Also the difference between the whole families L1 and B1was observed. Thus, according to my data L1 family seems to be recently more active than B1 family.
Genetická struktura mediteránních populací kaloně Rousettus aegyptiacus
Marešová, Tereza ; Hulva, Pavel (advisor) ; Bryja, Josef (referee)
5 Abstract The genus Rousettus represents the only fruit bat genus distributed both in Asia and Africa reaching northern distributional limits of the Pteropodidae family. This unusual distribution pattern is related to the ability of echolocation, subsequent cave dwelling and probably other thermoregulatory and behavioural adaptations to relatively cold and dry climate. Methods for identification of genetically discrete populations were used in the presented study to acquire better comprehension of historical ways of colonization along with current dispersal and migratory patterns of the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) in the Mediterranean basin and adjacent range patches. Modern approaches to population and landscape genetics were applied on a dataset comprising 553 individuals from 72 localities using 20 nuclear microsatellites. Our results revealed a significant genetic distance of East African individuals and certain substructure in the northern part of the range. Cypriot population is clearly separated, and - for higher K - the isolation of colonies from Egyptian oases is highly supported. Genetic proximity of south Arabian and Sinai populations contradict current taxonomy of the species. Our findings highlight the role of seas and deserts as barriers restricting gene flow and the evolution...
Hybrid origin of beavers in Central Europe
Albrechtová, Alena ; Munclinger, Pavel (advisor) ; Bryja, Josef (referee)
The aim of the master diploma work is to investigate origin of Czech populations and genetic variability of almost all Eurasian populations of the European beaver (Castor fiber). For our purposes we collected specimens from Czech populations, reintroduced population in Kirov district in Russia and all European and Asian refugia. At the end of the 19th century the species was on the verge of extinction due to overhunting, surviving only in eight isolated refugial areas. The population size at the end of the 19th century was estimated as 1 200 animals. The number of individuals has increased thanks to the legal protection and reintroductions. The current population size is estimated at 640 000. It is obvious that the populations of beaver have recently undergone severe bottleneck. Beaver was completely extirpated in the Czech Republic in the 18th century. Since the 80th of the 20th century beavers re-established in the Czech Republic due to migration from neighbouring countries and reintroduction programmes, however we knew only little about the origin of beavers in the Czech Republic. I showed that our beavers are derived from individuals in France, Germany, Norway and east Europe. Mitochondrial DNA of Castor canadensis has not been found in Czech beavers. I studied microsatellite loci (first use for...
Regulatory mechanisms of WNT signalling
Pospíchalová, Vendula ; Kořínek, Vladimír (advisor) ; Trka, Jan (referee) ; Bryja, Josef (referee)
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Phylogeny of parasitic wasps of Torymidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) and evolution of their life-strategies
Janšta, Petr ; Vilímová, Jitka (advisor) ; Bryja, Josef (referee) ; Melika, George (referee)
The thesis is focused on phylogeny of the family Torymidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) and evolution of their life-strategies. The study consists of general introduction to the phylogeny and classification of the family Torymidae chapter, four published papers in international journals and one manuscript prepared for submission. Firstly, our aim was to figure out the phylogenetic position of Torymidae as well as the position of other chalcidoid families inside superfamily Chalcidoidea (paper I and II). The supermatrix of sequencies of two ribosomal genes (18S rDNA and 28S rDNA) were developed for 649 species of chalcidoid taxa. However, family Torymidae was considered as polyphyletic group with the subfamily Megastigminae unrelated to the subfamily Toryminae (paper I). Monophyly of Torymidae was corroborated in another study (paper II) focused on molecular and morphological characters. We used a web-based, systematics workbench mx database for scoring 233 characters of 300 members of all chalcidoid families. Contrary to our previous only DNA-based study, we revealed also potential sister relationships of Torymidae with Ormyridae+Colotrechninae or Cerocephalinae+Diparinae respectively. Other paper (paper V) was focused on detailed study of Torymidae phylogeny. A total of 5 genes (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA,...
Bottleneck and selection effects on MHC genes variability in relic and newly formed Eurasian beaver populations
Náhlovský, Jan ; Munclinger, Pavel (advisor) ; Bryja, Josef (referee)
MHC glycoproteins are an essential part of adaptive immunity and may also play a role in mate choice. In addition, MHC genes are the most variable of all known genes. For these reasons, they have been intensively studied for several last decades. However, research is complicated due to extreme variability and frequent duplications. The Eurasian beaver seems to serve as an interesting model. It underwent a dramatic bottleneck culminating in the end of 19th century, when only about 1,200 individuals survived in several isolated relic populations. Thanks to numerous reintroductions, beavers of various origin meet in newly established populations. However, knowledge of beaver MHC was very limited. Only a single MHC gene has been investigated in a detail, and some relic populations were not sampled. Utilising additional relic populations and additional MHC locus, I verified a significant reduction of the variability of beaver MHC genes and also found signs of selection in the past. Then I sequenced MHC loci in two newly formed populations. I confirmed the ongoing selection by the disruption of cytonuclear equilibrium and the advantage of divergent alleles. We therefore can have a unique insight into the several periods of the history of beaver populations: In the past, MHC diversity was shaped by a...
Allopatric evolution in rousettine fruit bats: from population and landscape genetics to phylogeography
Stříbná, Tereza ; Hulva, Pavel (advisor) ; Bryja, Josef (referee) ; Vallo, Peter (referee)
Population structure, biogeography and phylogenetic relationships of the fruit bat genus Rousettus have been studied in Africa and adjacent regions. The current population patterns of rousettine fruit bats in the Old World are influenced by several environmental attributes, namely the topography, climate and land cover. These variables are mirrored in fruit bat plesiomorphies related to the ecological niche of tropical flying frugivore, as well as apomorphies of rousettines including echolocation ability, roosting in caves and dispersal capacity in open landscapes with discontinuous tree cover. Phylogenetic relationships among species and subspecies of the genus have been indicated and confronted with the existing colonization scenarios. Insular populations (including habitat islands within desert oases) show frequent genetic differentiation from their mainland relatives suggesting successful founder events after traversing stretches of unsuitable habitats. Genetic differentiation evolving in less distant islands suggests involving behavioural mechanisms maintaining cohesion of isolated demes as site fidelity and natal habitat-biased dispersal. In sub-Saharan mainland Africa within the large range reaching from the southern border of Sahara to Cape Peninsula, Rousettus populations share a...

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