National Repository of Grey Literature 64 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Phylogeography of Rousettus aegyptiacus in the Mediterranean region
Dundarova, Cheliana ; Hulva, Pavel (advisor) ; Janko, Karel (referee)
The genus Rousettus has distributional pattern unique among fruitbats comprising both Asia and Africa and reaching northern distributional limits of the family in Persia, Arabia and Mediterranean basin. This could be ascribed to the ability of echolocation, consequent cave dwelling, and presumably other site-specific adaptations, which enabled dispersal independent of forest block and surviving in Mediterranean type of climate. Using fastly evolving mitochondrial marker, we aimed to assess genetic variability, its geographic distribution and demography of northern populations of the Egyptian fruitbat (Rousettus aegyptiacus). Mitochondrial network indicates deep genetic divergence between disjunct Mediterranean and eastern African parts of the range. Basal position of Sinaic and Jordanian haplotypes within northern clade indicate important role of these regions in colonization of eastern Mediterranean. Generally, the northern haplogroup is moderately diversified with partial geographic localization of particular haplotypes. Significant isolation by distance pattern suggests relatively pronounced site fidelity of particular colonies, at least in terms of maternal gene flow. Landscape genetics analyses indicate discontinuities in distribution of mitochondrial genetic variability, in some cases correlating with...
Geoinformatic applications in landscape genetics
Mráz, Jakub ; Hulva, Pavel (advisor) ; Romportl, Dušan (referee)
This Bachelor thesis shows elementary methods used in landscape genetics. Landscape genetics is a combine field of population genetics and landscape ecology. This field of study uses geoinformatic and statistic methods and methods of its mother fields. Here, the genetic methods from population genetics, will not be shown. This thesis is concern by the methods that are applied in study of the population boundaries and connectivity between populations. History and paradigm of both landscape genetics and Geoninformatic methods are also mentioned, for easier understanding of context. Lastly, most methods here are listed with Geoinformatic systems (GIS), which are computer programs, capable of using these methods and apply them on needed projects. Keywords: GIS, Landscape Genetics, Landscape Ecology, Connectivity, Least-cost path, Circuit theory
Phenotypic and molecular approaches in the systematics of the Palearctic and Neotropic tree frogs, Hyla and Osteocephalus (Amphibia: Hylidae)
Gvoždík, Václav ; Moravec, Jiří (advisor) ; Mikulíček, Peter (referee) ; Hulva, Pavel (referee)
The systematics and taxonomy of tree frogs of the family Hylidae has undergone turbulent changes both at higher (subfamilies, genera) and lower (species) level during the last decades. The original approach used morphological characters to distinguish tree frogs. It has been completed by bioacoustics, since the advertisement calls of the males were in some cases found to represent an important behavioural reproductive barrier and therefore useful for systematic evaluations. However, a completely new impulse was given to systematics by the introduction of modern genetic methods. These methods have allowed to distinguish not only morphologically but even acoustically cryptic taxa. The most reliable method to distinguish tree frogs at present is a combination of data from the different disciplines. The present dissertation thesis aims to evaluate the systematics of tree frogs of the genus Hyla from Eastern Europe and the Middle East as well as the systematics of the Amazonian genus Osteocephalus using a combination of morphological, bioacoustic and molecular approaches. The thesis is composed of a general introduction, three published papers, two manuscripts under reviews and a conclusion chapter. The first three papers deal with the phenotypic (morphological plus bioacustic) approach in systematic...
Genetická struktura mediteránních populací kaloně Rousettus aegyptiacus
Marešová, Tereza ; Hulva, Pavel (advisor) ; Bryja, Josef (referee)
5 Abstract The genus Rousettus represents the only fruit bat genus distributed both in Asia and Africa reaching northern distributional limits of the Pteropodidae family. This unusual distribution pattern is related to the ability of echolocation, subsequent cave dwelling and probably other thermoregulatory and behavioural adaptations to relatively cold and dry climate. Methods for identification of genetically discrete populations were used in the presented study to acquire better comprehension of historical ways of colonization along with current dispersal and migratory patterns of the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) in the Mediterranean basin and adjacent range patches. Modern approaches to population and landscape genetics were applied on a dataset comprising 553 individuals from 72 localities using 20 nuclear microsatellites. Our results revealed a significant genetic distance of East African individuals and certain substructure in the northern part of the range. Cypriot population is clearly separated, and - for higher K - the isolation of colonies from Egyptian oases is highly supported. Genetic proximity of south Arabian and Sinai populations contradict current taxonomy of the species. Our findings highlight the role of seas and deserts as barriers restricting gene flow and the evolution...
Genetic consequences of bottlenecks and population admixture in Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber)
Náhlovský, Jan ; Munclinger, Pavel (advisor) ; Hulva, Pavel (referee)
In the last few centuries beavers passed through dramatic declining of the population size followed by expansion supported by reintroductions. The genetical variability is much decreased due to this bottleneck. Current beavers possess 31 known recent mitochondrial haplotypes, among which some were described independently several times. The haplotypes form two clusters, which serve as a base for dividing beaver populations into the west and east ESU. While microsatellite loci show moderate variability, the diversity of Y chromosome loci is very low. There are only ten described alleles of the DRB second exon, which belong to the MHC loci. No mitochondrial haplotype or MHC allele is shared between relict populations. This is not noticeable in samples from the time before the bottleneck. Described subspecies are therefore only the artefact of the recent bottleneck. Newly established populations comprise in many cases beavers of various origin and are more or less admixed. It seems, that the admixed populations have higher viability and conversely in some relict populations it is possible to find the evidence of the inbreeding depression. Thus, for reintroductions it is advantageous to use individuals from several source relict populations or to use beavers from admixed populations. Several species passed...
Population structure of the gray wolf (Canis lupus)
Říhová, Jana ; Hulva, Pavel (advisor) ; Pivnička, Karel (referee)
Gray wolf (Canis lupus), is historicaly the most widespread carnivore with the former range including most of the northern hemisphere. The ambivalent relationship of humans to this predator resulted in extermination of this species in many areas, on the other hand led to the evolution of the dog, unique domesticant with vast phenotypic variation. The effort of conservation biology in last decades resulted in the shift of perception the role of big carnivores in ecosystems, with consequent recolonization of many regions by wolf, including the Czech republic. This changes brings the elevation of interest in this taxon by both experts and laymans. Present review aims to assemble published information regarding distribution, phylogeography, population structure, social and spatial behaviour of the gray wolf. The chapters describing the domestication process of the dog and hybridization with his wild ancestor are included.

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