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Využití kombinovaného hnojiva ve výživě pšenice ozimé
Moravanský, Jakub
The aim of this work is the utilization of combined fertilizer in winter wheat nutrition. The experiment was conducted in two growing seasons (2020-2021; 2021-2022) at the experimental site in Žabčice. The examined fertilizer FertiTOP 44 NPS was applied in early spring in two doses (54 kg/ha N and 30 kg/ha N). As a control treatment, the common nitrogen technology was used with the application of LAD 27 fertilizer at a dose of 30 kg/ha N. Additional fertilization of every treatment during the vegetation was identical. (LAD 27: 65 kg/ha N; DAM 390: 40 kg/ha N). The application of the combined fertilizer FertiTOP 44 NPS in full dose positively influenced the growth, yield and grain quality of winter wheat. The plant analysis during the vegetation showed a statistically significant effect of fertilization by full dose of FertiTOP 44 NPS on dry weight. There was also increase in grain yield in both years under study (+0.6 t/ha in 2021; +0.3 t/ha in 2022). At the same time, the protein content increased (+0.5% in 2021; +1.1% in 2022). For gluten content, the results were similar to the control. For the sedimentation parameter, an increase was observed in both years (+3.5 ml in 2021; +7 ml in 2022). These results are indicating that the application of phosphorus, sulphur and trace elements in winter wheat nutrition improves the baking quality of the grain.
Rab proteins in sperm life
Vojtová, Kristýna ; Páleníková, Veronika (advisor) ; Zelenková, Natálie (referee)
Rab proteins are the largest group of small GTPases. They work as key regulators in the intracellular vesicular transport of cells. This bachelor's thesis contains a literature review of current information on the function of Rab proteins in mammalian spermatozoa. The first part of the work is devoted to their structure, function, cycle, and diseases related to the dysfunction of Rab proteins. The second part is focused on sperm development and maturation linked with specific Rab proteins involved in individual steps during the life of the sperm. Rab proteins are important in cytoskeletal organization and cytokinesis of sperm during spermatogenesis. They participate in the acrosome biogenesis mediated by the Golgi apparatus and the morphological changes of sperm during spermiogenesis. They also play a key role in the acrosome reaction and interaction with the zona pellucida. Due to their necessity in the sperm development and maturation, Rab proteins are proposed as a marker of male fertility, which is summarized in the last part of the thesis. Keywords Rab proteins, GTPases, sperm, spermatogenesis, spermiogenesis, fertilization, infertility
The importance of root exudates for crop cultivation under climate change
Schnürer, Oliver ; Albrechtová, Jana (advisor) ; Tylová, Edita (referee)
Root exudates are compounds secreted by plant roots that can help plants, for example, to obtain nutrients from the soil or to increase their resistance to biotic stress. Root exudates can thus hide a great potential that can be used in agriculture. As human population grows, there is increasing pressure on agriculture, which must provide enough food to feed the global population, thus ensuring food security. Until now, agricultural activity has tried to satisfy this demand by intensification of agriculture, mainly by breeding highly productive crops when using intensive fertilizing, but the theoretical possible benefits of root exudates in breeding remained overlooked. Intensive farming practices can further exacerbate the impacts of ongoing climate change, for example by increasing soil carbon mineralization or reducing biodiversity. By using root exudates in the production of crops, it will be possible to achieve a higher nutrient content in soil, as well as a higher resistance of crops to pests, without the aforementioned negative impacts of intensive agriculture. In this work, I tried to describe the main functions of root exudates, their reaction to increased CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, their stress response caused by stressors of climate change and their theoretical use in...
Hodnocení výnosových prvků lineárních a hybridních odrůd pšenice ozimé (Triticum aestivum)
ŠÍR, Josef
This diploma thesis is focused on the subject of winter wheat, specifically on the field of its use, agrotechnical requirements, growth phases, fertilization, weeds in its growth and the creation of economic yield. The aim of the work is to compare the yield elements of selected linear and hybrid varieties of winter wheat. For this purpose, an attempt was set up on the school farm of secondary school of agricul-ture in Tábor with the linear varieties Chiron, Atuan, Ascaban, Pirueta and the hy-brid varieties Hyking, Hybiza, Hyvento, Hydrock, Sofru, when during the vegeta-tion time was determined and evaluated seed density, the number of ears before harvest, the number of grains in an ear and the grain yield achieved.
Applying new approaches in potato crop nutrition
The main objective of the bachelor thesis was to conduct a literature review in the field of fertilization and nutrition of the potato plant and to collect and sort information on new approaches used in potato cultivation. The thesis describes the methods of fertilization and nutrition with organic fertilizers, inorganic fertilizers (including essential elements) and their effect on potato growth and quality. Furthermore, the possibilities of using microbial and biochemical approaches to improve potato nutrition and their advantages or disadvantages are presented. The paper also presents opportunities to improve fertilizer use and minimize negative environmental impacts using new technologies and innovative practices. Finally, three practical examples from potato farms are presented.
The influence of water regime and management on the productive capacity of grassland
The first part of the thesis is devoted to the distribution, importance of permanent grasslands, proper management of grasslands and maintenance of optimal water regime. Water is essential for photosynthesis and plant growth and therefore its availability affects the quantity and quality of biomass produced. The literature on water regime such as rainfall, soil permeability, ground water availability and its effect on grassland production capacity is reviewed. Management techniques such as fertilization and tillage that can help maintain a suitable water and nutrient regi-me for the grassland are also described. In the second and third parts of the thesis, the results of investigating grazed and mown grassland under different water regime and animal load are presented. Furthermore, the climatic conditions of the site are described. The botanical condition of the grassland is elaborated. The influence of the load and water regime on the condition and productivity of the grassland under study is eva-luated. As the water regime increased, the cover of valuable grasses and clovers decreased and the proportion of reticulate and sedge species increased. Measures (fertilization and amendments) were proposed to improve the species composition of the vegetation.
The influence of nitrogen on yield formatin of spring barley
The purpose of this diploma thesis was to find out the effect of a graduated dose of nitrogen fertilization on the revenue elements (number of plants per area, number offshoots per area, number of ears per area, number of grains inside one ear and weight of thousand seeds) of the spring barley. The field experiment was established in the spring of 2021 on a private family farm which belongs to Mr. Jaroslav Čech and it is located in Běleč near Mladá Vožice. Spring barley of the Bente variety was sown in the experimental field. The experimental doses of nitrogen fertilization were determined as follows: 20 kg. ha -1,50 kg. ha-1, 80 kg. ha-1, 110 kg. ha-1. The evaluated data were processed and recorded into tables and graphs in the results chapter. The highest revenue elements were reached in the variant IV, where was applied 110 kg pure nutrients of nitrogen fertilizer. The revenue elements in individual variants were decreasing with decreasing dose of nitrogen fertilization.
Effect of selected fertilizer a bioactive preparation on winter oilseed rape production
PAUL, Radim
The goal of this thesis was to establish and evaluate a pilot experiment. The effect of 5 variants with the application of biostimulants on yield-producing elements, yield and oiliness of winter rape seeds was evaluated. No biostimulant was applied in the control variant. In variant 1, 0.5 l of ExelGrow was applied in BBCH phase 34. In variant 2, 5 l of Talisman was applied in BBCH phase 39. In variant 3, 2 l and 3 l of Talisman were applied in BBCH stages 39 and 51. In variant 4, 2 l of Talisman was applied in BBCH phase 39, 3 l of Talisman was applied in BBCH phase 51 and 0.5 l of ExelGrow was applied in BBCH phase 51. The experiment was carried out in the 2020/2021 marketing year on a family farm near the village of Dobkov near city of Chotěboř. The content of nutrients in the dry matter of above-ground biomass was only minimally affected by the individual variants. The actual seed yield was positively affected, with variant 4 (4.14 t*ha-1) achieving the highest yield. The oil content of the seeds was not statistically significantly affected by the variants. Variant 2 reached the highest oil content (42.40 %). Of the monitored yield-generating elements, the weight of a thousand seeds was negatively affected by individual variants, the highest was in the control (5 g). On the contrary, the number of pods on the plant was positively affected with a statistically significant difference (150 pcs) in variant 4. The number of seeds in the pod was not affected by the individual variants (18 - 19 pcs).
Vliv teploty na schopnost oplození a líhnivosti při krátkodobém skladování neoplozených jiker síha peledě (Coregonus peled)
The northern whitefish Coregonus peled (Gmelin, 1788), originally from Russia, was introduced to the Czech Republic in 1970 for its tasty meat and good growth ability. Breeding of this species has been very popular in the past. Currently, thanks to the fish-eating predators, traditional breeding of this species is on decline. The aim of this M. Sc. Thesis was to sumarize the avaible information in the field of peled biology, artificial propagation and also information about effect of temperature on the ability of fertilization and hatching for short-term of unfertilized eggs in other salmonid species. In the practical part, the influence of temperature and length of storage of stripped, unfertilized eggs of peled on fertilization, survival to eyed eggs and hatching were observed. Unfertilized eggs were divided into five bowls and deposited in thermo boxes, which were tempered to 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 °C. After time intervals of 1, 4, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours, approximately 100 - 200 eggs were taken from each thermobox, which were fertilized with fresh sperm (collected from several males) and water from the hatchery. The fertilized and purified eggs were moved to the incubators with continuously inflow of fresh water. Dead eggs were removed and recorded. Subsequently, fertilization, eyed eggs and hatching eggs were determined. The resulting values of these parameters were expressed as a percentage of the total number of used eggs. High levels of fertilization and survival to eyed eggs were achieved when stored within 1 day from eggs stripping at all temperatures except the highest temperature of 12.5 ° C. As the interval gradually lengthened, the fertilization and survival parameters also decreased, most notably at 7.5 and 10 ° C. To obtain the largest possible amount of fry in fishing practice, it is recommended to store eggs at 2.5 and 5 ° C, up to 48 hours after ova stripping. At higher temperatures, the effective storage time is reduced to 12 hours. Storing eggs for longer than 48 hours, in practical terms has no meaning. At the same time, it was found that at the above-mentioned optimal temperatures for storing eggs (2.5 and 5 ° C), the best hatching results were obtained when storing stripped eggs for 12 hours. Not only for longer, but also for shorter storage lengths, the values of this parameter were lower.
Winter wheat growing in terms of selected farms
PAUL, Radim
The goal of the bachelor thesis was to establish and evaluate a pilot experiment. The effect of 3 nutritional variants with a graded dosage of nitrogen and the application of a growth regulator with the active substance trinexapac-ethyl on the yield and quality parameters of winter wheat grain was evaluated. There was 145 kg pure nutrient N*ha-1 of growth regulator in scenario 1, 191 kg pure nutrient N*ha-1 in scenario 2 and 191 kg pure nutrient N*ha-1 with applied growth regulator in scenario 3. The experiment was performed on a family farm in the growing season of the year 2018 and 2019 near the village Dobkov by the town Chotěboř. The actual yield was in scenarios 2 and 3 was only slightly increased (in the order of tens of kilograms) in spite of the higher dosage of nitrogen in scenario 2 and the application of a growth regulator in scenario 3. Both the higher dosage of nitrogen and the addition of growth regulator had a positive effect on yield-forming elements, and increased the number of ears per m2, further reducing the average number of grains in a spike in scenarios 2 and 3. The weight of one thousand grains was positively affected by a higher dosage of nitrogen in scenario 2, but negatively affected in scenario 3. All quality parameters (nitrogen content, gluten content, Zeleny test and bulk mass) were positively affected by a higher dosage of nitrogen in scenario 2. The application of the growth regulator in scenario 3 increased the declining trend, the Zeleny test, the gluten content, the nitrogen content and also negatively affected the bulk mass.

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