National Repository of Grey Literature 61 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Variability in the response of exodermis to nutrient deficiencies in the environment
Klvaňová, Renáta ; Tylová, Edita (advisor) ; Konrádová, Hana (referee)
v angličtině Plant growth and development is largely dependent on the soil environment which is a source of minerals and water needed for plants to survive. However, the availability of these resources in the soil is very heterogenous and important elements can be leached into the lower parts of the soil or bound to soil particles. Plants have therefore developed a number of adaptations during evolution to increase the efficiency of the root system. One of these aspects are the apoplastic barriers (endodermis and exodermis). Both of these layers affect the transport of substances to and from the root, thereby limiting unregulated apoplastic transport through modifications of the cell walls where the polymers that limit the transport of substances are deposited. These are Casparian bands and suberin lamellae. They often differentiate more rapidly when plants are faced with a stress factor such as drought, salinity or toxicity. However, nutrient deficiencies (e.g. N, P, K and Fe) also affect the rate of differentation. Deficiencies can result in both acceleration and deceleration of differentation, which seems to help optimize root transport properties according to the current conditions. However, this reaction has been less studied so far. This work therefore focuses on the analysis of the response...
Mechanisms of transmembrane auxin transport in a broader evolutionary context.
Rubešová, Magdaléna ; Petrášek, Jan (advisor) ; Tylová, Edita (referee)
Auxin, represented by the molecule indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), is one of the main phytohormones involved in the regulation of plant development. Its intercellular transport establishes concentration gradients in individual cells that control gene expression and a number of downstream processes. In plants, a complex mechanism for efficient IAA transport has evolved, involving both long-distance transport and intercellular transport within individual tissues. Because our understanding of the auxin transport mechanisms is still incomplete, this thesis attempts to summarize the literature data on all modes of auxin transport across cell membranes that have been recognized to date and places them in a broader evolutionary context. The presence of IAA in many prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, together with the similarly wide occurrence of carriers from "auxin efflux carrier" transporter family, evolutionarily related PIN-FORMED-like carriers, points to the possibility that IAA transport may also be evolutionarily very ancient and may functionally derive from more general mechanisms of ions or amino acids.
Plant growth on saline soils - interaction of sodium and potassium in plant metabolism
Peřinová, Anna ; Tylová, Edita (advisor) ; Konrádová, Hana (referee)
Soil salinity represents a significant stress factor that negatively affects plant growth and is also a current problem in modern agriculture. This bachelor's thesis focuses on the mechanisms associated with this stress, with a main emphasis on the effects of excess sodium cations in the soil, their accumulation in plants, the mechanism of their negative impact, and defense strategies. It addresses the importance of potassium and sodium in plant nutrition and metabolism, as the interference of Na+ with the essential functions of K+ is an important aspect of the stress caused by salt excess in the environment. The thesis analyzes the most important transporters and channels that ensure the uptake and transport of K+ and Na+ in plants. Emphasis is placed mainly on the transport of sodium and the mechanisms that enable plants to adapt to saline environments and tolerate higher concentrations of salts in the soil, particularly the SOS defense system against Na+ accumulation in the cytoplasm and unique structures that allow salt secretion in halophytic plants. Attention is also directed to the difference between glycophytic and halophytic plants.
Mineral nutrient transporters and root system efficiency
Schmidová, Dominika ; Tylová, Edita (advisor) ; Kobercová, Eliška (referee)
Plants are sessile organisms whose survival depends largely on the ability to ensure sufficient water and mineral nutrient uptake by the root system. To this end, plants have evolved specialised transport systems that ensure selective uptake of essential elements and also allow plants to adapt to varying soil nutrient concentrations. In terms of transport kinetics, mineral nutrient transporters are of two types - high-affinity and low-affinity. Depending on the nutrient concentration in the soil, plants can engage each type to maximise nutrient uptake. In addition to the efficient setup of transport processes at the membranes, there are other mechanisms in the plant to maximize the uptake of soil resources. These are mainly changes in the architecture of the root system. In addition to the systemic growth response, plants regulate root growth at the local level in response to uneven nutrient distribution in the soil. This response is limited to a specific part of the root system, which adapts to use that area as efficiently as possible. In addition to their transport function, mineral nutrient transporters also play a sensory role in the regulation of localised root growth. The aim of this bachelor thesis is to describe the uptake mechanism of the important essential macronutrients, nitrogen,...
Hormonal responses to cold stress
Šturma, Vít ; Vaňková, Radomíra (advisor) ; Tylová, Edita (referee)
Low temperatures are an increasingly common stress factor for plants. Sudden and intense temperature fluctuations are thus a serious cause for lower crop yields. For this reason, it is important to understand what mechanisms are used by plants to defend themselves against damage caused by cold and freezing. An important component of this defence is represented by plant hormones, phytohormones, which create a complex network of signalling pathways. Phytohormones then control via their signalling pathways plant responses to cold stress. A few phytohormones affect the plant ability to cope with the cold stress, and the interactions among all these phytohormones are important for an efficient response to cold and freezing. Recently, research has revealed that the complex signalling network has a greater impact than previously thought. The phytohormone research in relation to cold stress responses is attracting more and more attention. The main aim of this thesis is to summarize the current knowledge on the role of phytohormones in the responses to cold stress. The thesis describes the signalling pathways of individual phytohormones and clarifies how the components of these pathways are involved in the response to cold stress. Also, the dynamics of phytohormone levels and signalling components in...
Specifics of plant mineral nutrition on serpentine soils
Škopová, Lucie ; Tylová, Edita (advisor) ; Lhotáková, Zuzana (referee)
Serpentine is a metamorphosed ultramafic rock on which a substrate with specific combinations of properties responsible for creating the typical inhospitable conditions for plant life is formed. The characteristic chemical composition of serpentine soils consists of a low ratio of Ca:Mg ions, low content of biogenic elements (P, K, N) and a high concentration of heavy metals (Co, Cr, Ni). Abiotic factors such as rocky surface, shallow soil and lack of water also hinder the life of local plant. The aim of this bachelor thesis was to summarize the complex of characteristic serpentine phenomenon that in many ways create stress conditions for plants growth. Thanks to this specificity, the serpentine areas are characterised by a specific flora and vegetation with a number of endemics. This work focuses on the specific mineral nutrition of plants and summarizes the knowledge on the mechanisms of adaptation of plants growing on serpentine substrates. I focused mainly on the typical low Ca:Mg ion ratio in serpentine soil and described the functions of these elements in plants and the stress effect of excess Mg. Throughout this work, I also address the mechanisms of uptake and transport of serpentine-relevant nutrients in the plants identified so far. In conclusion, I discuss ability of plants to survive in...
The importance of root exudates for crop cultivation under climate change
Schnürer, Oliver ; Albrechtová, Jana (advisor) ; Tylová, Edita (referee)
Root exudates are compounds secreted by plant roots that can help plants, for example, to obtain nutrients from the soil or to increase their resistance to biotic stress. Root exudates can thus hide a great potential that can be used in agriculture. As human population grows, there is increasing pressure on agriculture, which must provide enough food to feed the global population, thus ensuring food security. Until now, agricultural activity has tried to satisfy this demand by intensification of agriculture, mainly by breeding highly productive crops when using intensive fertilizing, but the theoretical possible benefits of root exudates in breeding remained overlooked. Intensive farming practices can further exacerbate the impacts of ongoing climate change, for example by increasing soil carbon mineralization or reducing biodiversity. By using root exudates in the production of crops, it will be possible to achieve a higher nutrient content in soil, as well as a higher resistance of crops to pests, without the aforementioned negative impacts of intensive agriculture. In this work, I tried to describe the main functions of root exudates, their reaction to increased CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, their stress response caused by stressors of climate change and their theoretical use in...
Uptake of heavy metals - the role of the root system
Homola, Adam ; Tylová, Edita (advisor) ; Mašková, Petra (referee)
Heavy metals are important soil pollutants and pose a significant risk to plants under certain conditions. These include some essential microelements (Fe, Zn, Mn, Mo, Cu, Ni) and toxic metals (e.g. Cd, As, Pb, Hg). Essential microelements have important functions in plants, and are mainly involved in plant metabolism as cofactors of enzymes. Toxic metals have no function, yet they enter the plant in varying degrees from the environment and cause toxicity. However, excessive concentrations of essential metals in the plant also have negative effects and plants have different mechanisms to counteract these negative effects. The bachelor thesis focuses mainly on the uptake of heavy metals from the soil by the root, which is achieved by membrane transporters. It also discusses several mechanisms involved in defence against heavy metal toxicity, not only in terms of regulating uptake, but also after heavy metals have entered plant bodies. These mechanisms are an important aspect of hyperaccumulation, which is also included in this thesis. Hyperaccumulators use these mechanisms on a completely different scale than non-hyperaccumulators, which allows hyperaccumulators to live in environments where heavy metal concentrations are high, making them completely different from each other. The properties of...
Relationship between leaf biochemistry, physiology and specie's competitiveness in selected grasses of relict tundra in Krkonoše Mts.
Mamula, Petr Martin ; Lhotáková, Zuzana (advisor) ; Tylová, Edita (referee)
The Krkonoše (Giant Mountains) Arcto-Alpine Tundra is an area that is part of the Krkonoše National Park with a unique ecosystem and biodiversity. In history, this area was very fundamentally influenced by the intervention of man, who farmed here and thus caused the creation of today's rare matgrass (Nardus stricta L.) meadow ecosystem. Thanks to the low growth and sparse foliage of the matgrass, many other plant species grow in these matgrass meadows, which are often endemic and protected by the law. In recent years, however, the matgrass has been overgrown by other grasses, such as the hairy reed grass (Calamagrostis villosa J.F. Gmelin), which, due to its taller growth and dense canopy covering the surface, does not allow the growth of rare species such as matgrass. Therefore, the aim of this work was for matgrass (N. stricta) and three other selected species of grasses - tufted hair grass (Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) P. Beauv.), moor grass (Molinia caerulea (L.) Moench) and hairy reed grass (C. villosa), to identify, based on biochemical, structural and physiological foliar parameters, a parameter or a combination of parameters that could give competing fennel grasses a competitive advantage. Field research and collection of foliage samples, for subsequent laboratory processing, took place in...
Cell biology of iron transport in plants.
Batík, Adam ; Žárský, Viktor (advisor) ; Tylová, Edita (referee)
Plants use iron as a cofactor of proteins used in photosynthetic systems, electron transport chain and many more. Iron bioavailability for plants in soil is low because it tends to oxidise and create insoluable compounds.For this reasonplants haveevolvedtwo distinct iron uptake mechanisms.Because of the iron toxicitycaused by production ofreactiveoxygen species via the Fenton reaction and the unspecific transport of metals other than iron, plants have to regulate cellular iron concentrationtightly.Theyhave evolved a complex system of signalling networks that has recently begun to uncover. In additionto the regulation ofiron uptake, the plant cell combats iron toxicity by sequestering iron into storage organelles and by chelating it. Iron is essential for seed sprouting but this work is focused on transport of iron into the plant from the soil,subcellulartransportandlongdistance transport ofironin the vasculature.

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