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By-laws of unit owners association
Král, Michal ; Štenglová, Ivanka (advisor) ; Rozehnal, Aleš (referee)
1 Summary "STATUTES OF UNIT OWNERS ASSOCIATION" The thesis deals with the statutes of a unit owners association as they are regulated in the Czech law (hereinafter referred to as the "Statutes"). The Statutes are the basic legal document of any unit owners association, through which the rights and obligations of the individual unit owners are exercised. The Statutes should provide any unit owners association with a framework for its smooth functioning in relation to its members (unit owners), as well as in relation to third parties. Much like other juridical (legal) persons, a unit owners association is created when registered to the public register. Its creation is preceded by a founding legal act of the future unit owners, i.e. the future members of the association. Statutory law (i.e. the new Civil Code No. 89/2012 Coll.) stipulates under what conditions the founding members are allowed to establish the unit owners association. For a successful registration of the association in the public register, ordinarily, the Statutes have to be approved by the founding members. The legislation sets out certain mandatory requirements, nonfulfillment of which would lead to a dismissal of the registration. The initial part of the thesis deals with the historical development of the legislation on flat ownership....
Freedom to contract and its restriction in business obligations
Nedvěd, Filip ; Plíva, Stanislav (advisor) ; Rozehnal, Aleš (referee)
Every law in the Czech legal system regulates social relations. This adjustment serves to protect and determine values in society. Important role in this process hold the basic legal principles. Private law is no exception. Probably the most important principle of private law is the principle of autonomy of will. Its expression in the law of business oblagations is the principle of contractual freedom, which is the main theme of this work. The principle of freedom to contract is quite crucial for the functioning of the modern principle of contract law, which regulates relations arising in a market economy. The aim of this work is to describe the principle of freedom to contract and its manifestation in the legal standards, which governs business obligations. Finally, this work discusses restrictions of freedom to contract, since it is clear that this can not be applied without some correctives. Keywords: contractual freedom restrictions of contractual freedom commercial contractual relations
Unjust enrichment under business law
Keltner, Miloslav ; Horáček, Vít (advisor) ; Rozehnal, Aleš (referee)
Unjust enrichment under business law The aim of this work is to analyze the unjust enrichment with its overlap to commercial law. The introduction of the text summarizes the historical development of unjust enrichment from ancient Roman law provisions, including the Austrian General Civil Code and the Civil Code from 1950 up to the history of the currently effective codex published under no. 40/1964 Coll. This historical analysis points out certain analogies with the current regulation and the development of elements that are the foundation of today's unjust enrichment legislation. The following part of the work contains analysis of the current de lege lata legislation of unjust enrichment in the commercial law, the subsequent part constitutes the crucial part of this work that is concerned directly with unjust enrichment in the commercial law. First, it analyses the term of business contractual obligations, then it analyses the relationship between the Civil Code and the Commercial Code and finally it sums up the expert discussion relating to the unjust enrichment in the commercial law and subsequently the author presents his personal view of the problem and the effects of the unjust enrichment, especially on the question of limitation period, are considered briefly. The final chapter consists...
The concept of an average consumer under Czech and European law
Jedlinský, Jakub ; Patěk, Daniel (advisor) ; Rozehnal, Aleš (referee)
1 The concept of an average consumer under Czech and European law RESUMÉ: The thesis is focused on the role of a so called average consumer under the law of unfair competition; namely concerning advertising and misleading labelling. The concept of an average consumer is being analysed under written law as well as in jurisprudence. The Czech and European laws are emphasized but other legal systems are also mentioned. A description of a current situation and history of the concept are accompanied by considerations de lege ferenda. Mainly the term consumer is being criticized as not quite suitable within the context of unfair competition. Unlike under the contract law, here the consumer does not represent an acting entity but a target or a prey. The current trend of weakening consumer's position-and therefore exaggeration's easing in advertising-is also criticized. Generally speaking, the advertising as such is being denounced; in particular because it harms the consumer and thus it is buck passing to speak about a consumer's protection while protecting and helping a competitor in reality. The thesis deals with practical impacts of misleading labelling on a consumer (and/or a competitor). According to its own methodology, it divides the misleading labelling into three categories: promotional, unsatisfactory...
Institutes related to the tender price in the award procedures of public contracts
Stowasser, Marek ; Horáček, Tomáš (advisor) ; Rozehnal, Aleš (referee)
The main aim of this diploma thesis is to provide a comprehensive analysis of selected institutes related to the tender price in the award procedures of public contracts in the light of the new Act No. 134/2016 Coll., on public procurement, with its main focus on evaluation of impacts of the new legislation and identification of its potential risks, while its partial focus lies in comparison with previous legislation, i.e. Act No. 137/2006 Coll., on public procurement, as amended, and assessment of usage of up to now decision practice of the Office for the Protection of Competition and case law of administrative courts. The first chapter deals with a brief overview of the public procurement legislation, its aims and purposes and identification of elementary characteristics of the award procedures of public contracts. The subject of the second chapter is to analyze preliminary market consultation from the general point of view and simultaneously to provide an analysis with a focus on its application, practical execution, benefits and drawbacks related thereto and its influence on the procurement procedures. The third chapter deals with the estimated value of public contracts, rules of its calculation, the issue of division of public contracts and its influence on tender prices. The fourth chapter...
The position of a weaker party in concluding contracts within business transaction
Skalská, Helena ; Eichlerová, Kateřina (advisor) ; Rozehnal, Aleš (referee)
The position of a weaker party in concluding contracts within business transactions The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the specificities of concluding contracts with a weaker party under the New Civil Code. The main focus is given on the issue of contract terms which are forbidden because they cause significant imbalance in the parties' rights and obligations arising under the contract, to the detriment of the weaker party. The thesis explains who can be a weaker party, what differences it brings up and what are the consequences of breach of those protectionist provisions of law. The thesis is composed of an introduction, four chapters and a conclusion. First chapter covers the background information and explains who can be in the position of a weaker party, according to which criteria courts should consider the weakness and when it reaches the level which is relevant for law. Second chapter deals with Section 433 of the new civil code and looks at protection of the weaker party on its basis. It addresses scope of that provision and consequences when a party breaches it. The last part of this chapter concentrates on nullity under the New Civil Code. Chapter three describes position of the weaker party in concluding adhesion contracts and specificities which rise from the fact that the...
Non-contractual obligations with cross-border elements
Holečková, Kateřina ; Pauknerová, Monika (advisor) ; Rozehnal, Aleš (referee) ; Dolanská Bányaiová, Lucie (referee)
Non-contractual obligations with cross-border elements Non-contractual obligations form a specific part of the law of obligations. Non- contractual obligations are characterized by the fact that the respective parties enter them involuntarily and without a clear understanding of their legal regulation. In cases where the respective legal relationship contains a cross-border element, this lack of understanding is even deeper. The subject of this thesis are non-contractual obligations with a cross-border element and their regulation in private international law. The three fundamental questions of private international law are addressed: namely the issue of international jurisdiction, applicable law, and recognition and enforcement of foreign judgements. The current legal regulation of non-contractual obligations with a cross-border elements is contained in a number of legal resources - from international treaties and EU legislation to autonomous national law. The main objective of this thesis is to analyse these systems of legal regulation in order to determine whether they meet the requirement of legal certainty and foreseeability or whether its unification on international or at least a regional level would be beneficial in that regard. Apart from the introductory and conclusion parts, the thesis...
Surrogate motherhood in relations with an international aspect
Burkertová, Eva ; Pauknerová, Monika (advisor) ; Rozehnal, Aleš (referee) ; Zavadilová, Marta (referee)
The thesis is a comprehensive elaboration of the issue of surrogacy with an international element, ie cases where the surrogate mother falls under a different jurisdiction as the intended parents or cases where surrogacy takes place in a country other than the home country of the intended parents. The introductory part deals with the principles on which the Czech legal system is based and the situation in which surrogacy is thus established. The legal regulation is discussed, including the evaluation of the principle that the mother is always certain and the only § 804 of the Civil Code, which mentions surrogacy. The principle by which the acquisition of legal parenthood to a child born through surrogacy is acquired is described. Attention is paid to problematic situations to which surrogacy can lead, especially the issue of enforceability of a surrogate contract, determination and denial of motherhood, criminal aspects, assisted reproduction and the child's right to know his or her origin. The next part describes the situation abroad, where the legislation differs from the legalization of surrogacy (including commercial surrogacy or surrogacy for gay couples) to an explicit ban, where surrogacy can fulfill the characteristics of a crime. The thesis also presents an explanation of the issue of...
Fiduciary in comparative context
Hollmann, Jakub ; Elischer, David (advisor) ; Rozehnal, Aleš (referee) ; Lederer, Vít (referee)
Fiduciary in comparative context Abstract In this doctor thesis, the author is focused on explaining the historical context of the trust institute development, followed by comparison between jurisdiction in England, Lichtenstein, France, Germany and the Czech Republic. The author also points out differences between traditional common law and continental law systems. Even though the differences between local systems are quite significant, the trust system is gaining popularity across the countries for its flexibility of asset management. Just as the Quebec trust was inspired over time by the adjustment of the trust according to common law, the Czech legislator should proceed to amend the individual provisions of the trust fund so that its usability is as wide as possible. A different way from traditional common law has emerged in Germany, where Treuhand was created with German law leaving a wide margin of discretion and the codified part is a minority, as is the case with the French fiduciary. The great differences between the national regulations of trusts or trust-like institutes necessarily lead to the question of whether it is not appropriate to make certain legislative improvements. It is the comparison and knowledge of the most effective and flexible methods that allows us to make a correct and...
Administration of property of others - trusts
Lederer, Vít ; Dvořák, Jan (advisor) ; Elischer, David (referee) ; Rozehnal, Aleš (referee)
1 Administration of property of others - trusts Abstract The main objective of this thesis is to provide a detailed and systematical view of the new regulation of the institution of the trust in the Czech republic using the descriptive, analytical and comparative method. The work is divided into seven parts. Part 1 of this study is focused on defining the concept of the trust and its creation. It deals with its theoretical background and its fundamental constitutive elements. Part 2 describes the founder and his role at the creation of the trust and during its existence. In this part it is also discussed the question of reservation of rights to the appropriated property made by the founder. Part 3 of this thesis is concerned with the of administration of the trust. Primarily, this part focuses on the role of the trustee and his duties towards the trust and to the beneficiary, as well as his duties to third parties. The author also explores the question of an objective and impartial administration of the trust where the founder or the person who is to receive a performance from the trust is also the trustee, as well as the question of appointment and removing the trustee. Part 4 deals with the beneficiary and his right to receive a performance from the trust. It is also concerned with the way of appointing...

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