National Repository of Grey Literature 4 records found  Search took 0.01 seconds. 
The reconstruction of the legal order in post-war Czechoslovakia
Podlaha, Petr ; Kuklík, Jan (advisor) ; Kindl, Vladimír (referee) ; Vojáček, Ladislav (referee)
- 61 - 7. Resume - Patent protection of pharmaceuticals and its current problems The pharmaceutical industry nowadays plays a major role in the world's economy, having an estimated total volume of USD 740 billion and being one of the recognized key innovation sectors. The system of patent law is of major significance to the industry in that the monopoly it confers, for a limited period of time, on using innovations provides a major incentive for innovative research activities that the industry is involved in. Although the availability of patent protection for chemical and pharmaceutical products has, from a historical perspective, only been reaffirmed in the near past, it has nowadays been accepted as a global standard mainly through the provisions of the WTO's TRIPS agreement. Despite the existence of various international treaties harmonizing patent laws, patents have to date in their effects remained strictly limited to individual jurisdictions. There're several ways of how patents can be used to protect the novel, innovative and non-obvious results of pharmaceutical research; patents for end products, processes of making a product or for new medical indications can mainly be of practical use, each of these types providing a different scope of protection and offering different approaches of preventing...
Humanist democracy of Edvard Beneš
Podlaha, Petr ; Čechurová, Jana (advisor) ; Kuklík jun., Jan (referee)
Beneš was committed to the rather radical economical and political ideas of socialism already before the war. He believed that old parliamentarian system of liberal democracy would be inevitably replaced after the war with the new system of humanitarian democracy - the political democracy amended by the social and economic democracy. Beneš suggested that the government should regulate all the important parts of political, social and economic life of the post-war society. The biggest problem of the Czechoslovak prewar political democracy was according to Beneš, the existence of too many parties. Therefore only two, at most three political parties would be allowed to take part in the political struggle after the war. These parties would be organized solely on the basis of the approach towards progress. On the left side of the political spectrum, there would be a uniform socialist party and on the right, there would be a conservative party. The establishment of any other party should be banned. The communists should be part of the socialist party. According to Beneš they would be outnumbered and neutralized there by the other democratic socialist parties. The market economy according to Beneš is an obsolete system and therefore it should be replaced with a planned economy. All bigger businesses and natural...

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