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Study of the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates using selected thermophilic representatives of the genus Aneurinibacillus
Řeháková, Veronika ; Kovalčík, Adriána (referee) ; Pernicová, Iva (advisor)
The subject of the diploma thesis is the production of PHA copolymers by thermophilic Gram-positive bacteria of the genus Aneurinibacillus. The theoretical part is devoted to the general characterization of PHA materials, their properties, use, and also to the production of PHA polymers by these bacteria. The experimental part deals with the production of PHA copolymers using selected thermophilic members of the genus Aneurinibacillus. Firstly, the specific enzyme activity of PHA synthases was determined, and then the production of PHA copolymers was screened using selected lactones (-valerolactone, -hexalactone, -valerolactone) and diols (1,6-hexanediol, 2,3- butanediol and 1,4-butanediol). These experiments were performed with six thermophilic producers by the members of the genus Aneurinibacillus, which were isolated from compost and activated sludge. Tested microbial strains have demonstrated the ability to integrate interesting monomers into the PHA structure, including 4-hydroxyvalerate (represented up to 69.3% of the total PHA), 5-hydroxyvalerate (up to 47.1%), or 4-hydroxyhexanoate (up to 31.9%). Subsequently, a closer characterization of the obtained PHA (which were gained by the production of the best producers) using advanced methods (DSC, SEC-MALS, FT-IR) was performed. Finally, the screening of the PHA copolymers production was performed in laboratory bioreactors.
Study of 3D bacterial cellulose production using banana peels as a carbon source
Netopilík, Tibor ; Pernicová, Iva (referee) ; Kovalčík, Adriána (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with the study of 3D bacterial cellulose production using Komagataeibacter xylinus using banana peels as a carbon source. The theoretical part deals with the comparison of the properties of bacterial cellulose and plant cellulose, different methods of biotechnological production of bacterial cellulose and its use. The aim of the bachelor thesis was to find out whether it is possible to use banana peel as a carbon source for biotechnological production of bacterial cellulose. Banana peels are waste lignocellulosic material produced, for example, in the production of snacks or fruit or dairy beverages in the food industry. HPLC analysis showed that 1 l of hydrolyzate after enzymatic hydrolysis of 100 g of dry banana peels per 1 l of water contained 8.86 g of glucose and 10.46 g of fructose. The hydrolyzate was used as a carbon source for static and dynamic cultivation of Komagataeibacter xylinus. The yields of bacterial cellulose produced by using banana peels or glucose were compared. The use of banana peels hydrolyzate increased the yields of bacterial cellulose about 170 % in the case of static cultivation and about 220 % in the case of dynamic cultivation. Scanning electron micrographs of bacterial cellulose confirmed the morphological differences between bacterial cellulose produced statically and dynamically. Moreover, the morphology of bacterial cellulose was influenced by the kind of used carbon source.
Employment of bacterium Tepidimonas taiwanensis for production of polyhydroxyalkanoates on waste substrates
Vidláková, Michaela ; Pernicová, Iva (referee) ; Obruča, Stanislav (advisor)
This diploma thesis is focused on screening PHA production using thermophilic bacterium Tepidimonas taiwanensis and on the study of possible use of grape pomace, molasses and waste paper as a cheap carbon substrate for culturing the characterized bacteria. At first, testing of basic cultivation parameters was performed, including carbon substrate concentration, oxygen availability, ability to utilize nitrogen sources and selected disaccharides. PHA production from waste substrates was tested in three ways. In the first, pre-prepared solids-free hydrolysates from raw materials were used as the carbon source. The second and third procedures were performed by dosing waste materials directly into the mineral media, which differed only in the presence or absence of the enzyme preparation enabling release of fermentable sugars. The most intensive increase in culture and the highest production of PHA was recorded on grape hydrolyzate. The biomass concentration in this sample reached up to 4.8 g/L with a content of 59 % PHA. On the other hand, the addition of grape marc directly to the production medium did not work at all, which was probably due to the presence of a large amount of inhibitory substances from the pomace. The situation was similar with molasses and waste paper, where the bacterium Tepidimonas taiwanensis was able to grow and possibly produce PHA only to a small extent. The work also managed to characterize the effect of temperature and pH on the activity of the enzyme cocktail Viscozyme L and to determine the temperature and pH optimum PHA synthase of the bacterial strain Tepidimonas taiwanensis in the cell lysate.
Identification and isolation of PHA producing bacteria
Pernicová, Iva ; Ondrejovič, Miroslav (referee) ; Rychtera, Mojmír (referee) ; Obruča, Stanislav (advisor)
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are microbial storage polyesters that represent a renewable and environmentally friendly alternative to petrochemical plastics. However, their production and use are severely disadvantaged by the high production cost. The use of extremophilic PHA producers is one of the ways to reduce the cost of PHA production. Extremophiles bring numerous advantages resulting from the high robustness of the process against microbial contamination. In this doctoral thesis, attention was focused on the study of PHA production using selected halophilic and thermophilic microorganisms. Representatives of the genus Halomonas were mainly from public collections of microorganisms. Two promising PHA producers on waste frying oil were identified, namely Halomonas hydrothermalis and Halomonas neptunia. Both strains achieved good PHA yields in flask experiments. With the addition of suitable structural precursors, they were also able to produce copolymers with interesting material properties. However, in the proposed thesis, the main emphasis was placed on the study of PHA production using thermophilic microorganisms. As a part of the work, the isolation of thermophilic PHA producers from various thermophilic consortia (active sludge, compost, etc.) was performed. During isolations experiments, an original isolation procedure was designed using changes in osmotic pressure, the so-called osmoselection. Dozens of promising thermophilic PHA producers were obtained thanks to this original approach. They were taxonomically classified using 16S rRNA and tested for production potential. The most promising PHA producer was the isolate which was classified as Aneurinibacillus sp. H1. This bacterium is able to utilize a variety of substrates, including waste glycerol, to produce PHA. Even more important is the capability of synthesizing copolymers with a high content of 4-hydroxybutyrate. The monomer composition of the PHA copolymer and thus the material properties of the prepared copolymer can be controlled by suitable adjustment of the cultivation conditions. The prepared copolymer P(3HB-co-4HB) has unique properties and the great application potential in numerous high-end applications, for example in the field of health care, food industry or cosmetics.
Aflatoxins in food and their influence on DNA and cell lines
Šislerová, Lucie ; Pernicová, Iva (referee) ; Brázda, Václav (advisor)
Aflatoxins present a great danger due to their high toxicity and carcinogenicity, which is not easily avoided in everyday life. Intoxication with aflatoxins causes a wide range of diseases ranging from mild diseases to organs necrosis or death. Aflatoxins mostly affect the liver, where it degrades and the formation of subsequent metabolites, which are the most toxic to the body. For this reason, their precise determination and understanding of the principle of their effect is very important. In this work, methods for monitoring and closer determination of aflatoxin effects on human cells were calibrated. The methods that were used are: MTT viability assays, fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Next, the amount of aflatoxins present in different foods with different storage conditions was measured. For this analysis were used ELISA assays RIDASCREEN Aflatoxin Total and RIDA Aflatoxin column. Calibrated methods were compared with the methods already used to determine the effect of aflatoxins and the results of the ELISA tests were compared with the limits of aflatoxin levels permitted by the Czech legislation. None of the controlled foods contained above-the-limit concentration of aflatoxins, which in the Czech Republic is set at 4-10 µg/l (varies for different types of food). Foods that were poorly stored but not visibly affected by fungi showed the highest levels of aflatoxins. The LD50 value for aflatoxin B1 was determined to 12,25 µM. The type of cell death caused by aflatoxins was determined by flow cytometry and these data were further confirmed by fluorescence microscopy images.
Influence of oxidative pressure on bacterial cells
Dugová, Hana ; Pernicová, Iva (referee) ; Obruča, Stanislav (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with the impact of oxidative pressure on the bacterial strain Cupriavidus necator in its two forms: Cupriavidus necator H16 producing PHB granules and Cupriavidus necator PHB-4 as a mutant that is not capable of producing granules. The thesis compares different influences causing oxidative stress that is demonstrated by the occurrence of ROS in the cell. Furthermore, the cells were analysed with a flow cytometer and a fluorescence microscope. During the analysis it was necessary to use different types of fluorescence probes. The oxidative stress was created by means of hydrogen peroxide at various concentrations. Further tests focused on Fenton’s reaction including ammonium iron sulfate and cobalt chloride hexahydrate. Propidium iodide as a fluorescence probe was used to determine the viability of the bacterial cells, and BODIPY was tested as a lipophilic dye. Finally, the ROS in the cell was detected by H2DCFDA and CM–H2DCFDA, fluorescence probes that had to be optimised for the respective technique. The result of this bachelor thesis is the confirmation of the hypothesis that PHA granules production increase the resistance of Cupriavidus necator against oxidative stress.
Study on PHA production in extremophiles from genus Bacillus and related genuses
Reinohová, Nikola ; Kouřilová, Xenie (referee) ; Pernicová, Iva (advisor)
This Bachelor thesis is focused on study of production od polyhydroxyalcanoteas by extremophilic bacteria of genus Bacillus and related genera. In this thesis were studied microorganisms from german and czech collections Ureibacillus composti DSM 171951, Alkalibacillus haloalkaliphilus DSM 5271, Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius DSM 446, Halobacillus halophilus CCM 3527, Thermobacillus composti DSM 18247, Bacillus licheniformis CCM 2206 and isolated microorganisms from natural sources Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus LK7, Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus F109, Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus AFn2, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans F101, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans F102, Geobacillus stearothermophilus A12, Geobacillus sp. AH11. The theoretical part describes extremophilic microorganisms, polyhydroxyalkanoates and their applications. In the experimental part, the detection of PHA production at the genotype level was performed using the PCR method, where the presence of first and fourth class PHA synthases was detected. Detection of presence of the 16SrRNA gene was performed by PCR. PHA production was also tested at the phenotype level, where the ability of utilization of different carbon sources and the ability of microorganisms to form 4HB and 3HV copolymers with different precursors at different temperatures was monitored. Copolymers are very interesting because of their properties, which make them suitable for a wide range of applications. The microorganism Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus AFn2 proved to be the best representative for PHA production in this work, producing PHA up to 1,99 g/l and 3HV copolymer up to 0,49 g/l.
Biotransformation of ferulic acid to sensory active compounds
Opial, Tomáš ; Pernicová, Iva (referee) ; Obruča, Stanislav (advisor)
The bachelor thesis deals with the biotransformation of ferulic acid to sensory active substances. The experiment was based on monitoring the biotransformation potential of selected microorganisms by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method while the cultivation was performed in two parallel runs and samples with added ferulic acid were divided into 24-hour effect and 48-hour effect of ferulic acid on bacterial cultures. Thermophilic bacteria and halophilic bacterium Halomonas neptunia have been found to be the most suitable candidates for the biotransformation of ferulic acid to sensory active substances. In both samples of Schlegelella thermodepolymerans (DSM 15344 and DSM 15264) was formed 33 mg/l and 76 mg/l of vanillic acid and 81 mg/l and 71 mg/l of 4-vinylguaiacol after 24 hours of ferulic acid effect. In a sample with T. taiwanensis was formed 61 mg/l of vanillic acid and 32 mg/l of 4-vinylguaiacol after 48 hours of ferulic acid effect, and in a sample of R. xylanophilus was formed 56 mg/l of 4-vinylguaiacol. In the sample with H. neptunia after 24 hours of ferulic acid effect was formed 296 mg/l of vanillic acid, which was up to 59% of the conversion of the added ferulic acid and in a sample with H. organivorans after 24 hours of ferulic acid effect was formed 71 mg/l of vanillic acid. However, after 48 hours of ferulic acid effect, vanillic acid degraded. In addition to screening of biotransformation potential, the sequence of bacterial enzymes, involved in biotransformation, was also compared with protein sequences in the database using the BLAST search tool. The presence of genes encoding enzymes involved in biotransformation has been demonstrated for almost all used microorganisms except H. neptunia, for which no gene has been identified. The highest number of genes present in bacteria was with the enzymes feruloyl-CoA synthetase, enoyl-CoA hydratase/isomerase, acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase and vanillin dehydrogenase.
Screening of extremozyme production of selected extremophilic PHA producers
Dyagilev, Dmitry ; Obruča, Stanislav (referee) ; Pernicová, Iva (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with the screening of the production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes in thermophilic microorganisms of the genera Aneurinibacillus, Brevibacillus, Chelatococcus, Pseudomonas, Schlegelella, Tepidimonas and Caldimonas. The ability of selected enzymes, namely proteases, lipases, amylases, xylanases, cellulases and pectinases, was tested in the investigated microorganisms. Such testing made it possible to assess in which microorganisms the production of specific enzymes can be observed. Based on the results of the screening, it was found that Schlegelella aquatica LMG 23380, Tepidimonas fonticaldi LMG 26746 and the investigated microorganisms of the genus Chelatococcus did not show the ability to produce any of the tested enzymes extracellularly. In natural isolates of Brevibacillus borstelensis LK 99 and Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus LK 102, only the ability to produce lipolytic enzymes was detected. The isolate Brevibacillus borstelensis Bz acts as a universal producer of all selected extremozymes. Enzyme activity was determined for selected producers. The bacterium Brevibacillus borstelensis Bz proved the ability to produce all six selected hydrolytic enzymes and has the highest activity of lipases, xylanases, cellulases and pectinases from the tested microorganisms. The highest proteolytic activity was measured in Thermomonas hydrothermalis DSM 14834 when cultured on skimmed milk powder.
Study on gene expression in Cupriavidus necator and other selected polyhydroxyalkanoates producers
Centnerová, Radmila ; Šedrlová, Zuzana (referee) ; Pernicová, Iva (advisor)
The aim of this bachelor thesis was study on gene expression in bacterium Cupriavidus necator H16 that is known as a model bacterium for the metabolism of polyhydroxyalkanoates. In the first part of this thesis, the optimalization of RT-qPCR method was performed. The optimized method was implemented on the study on gene expression. Furthermore, there were tested several commercial isolation kits for the genomic DNA isolation, the RNA isolation and the reverse transcription of the RNA and synthesis of the complementary DNA. These kits were compared in order to choose the one that would have provided the most relevant results and also the kit handling would have been simple and safe. There were different results accomplished for all kits. This means the kit used for the isolation had unneglectable impact on the quality of the isolated nucleic acid and therefore also on the success of the whole measurement. Isolated genomic DNA was used for optimalization and calibration. Isolated RNA and complementary DNA were used in the second part of the thesis. In this part, the studied bacterium was cultivated under various conditions and carbon sources. Subsequently, the optimized RT-qPCR method was performed and used for study on gene expression of chosen genes involved in the biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates. There were more significant differences in gene expression observed for fructose as a carbon source, compared to -butyrolacton as a carbon source. The greatest increase of the gene expression for fructose as a carbon source was measured for gene encoding 4-hydroxyphenylacetate-3-hydroxylase. There were more considerable differences in gene expression observed for -butyrolacton as a carbon source only for gene encoding 4-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase. Therefore, the choice of the carbon source impacts fundamentally the gene expression.

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