
Quantification of Hydraulic Descaling Mechanisms
Hrabovský, Jozef ; Toman,, Zdeněk (referee) ; Dobeš, Ferdinand (referee) ; Horský, Jaroslav (advisor)
The issue of descaling is an important part of the forging and heat treatment of steel and semi products of steel production. Rising of new information and study of this process can increase efficiency and improve the surface quality after descaling. This thesis is focused on the mechanisms of the high pressure hydraulic descaling qualification and study of the chemical compounds of which the scales grown. To achieve all goals of this work and to get a comprehensive view of descaling process, few experimental measurements and numerical analyses were performed. All experimental measurements were focused on obtaining data about fundamental parameters and effects of the hydraulic descaling. The data obtained from measurements were applied to numerical analyses, which aimed to discover a deeper relation and to confirm the experimental results. This thesis can be divided into two main parts. The first part is devoted to parameters of the water jet study. The main studied characteristics of the high pressure hydraulic water jet were heat transfer coefficient and impact pressure at different modes such as standard or pulsating water jet. Experimentally measured data of these parameters were applied in numerical analyses. The numerical analyses were focused on studying the impact of the water jet parameters on the stresses in the oxide scale layers. A further water jet analysis was focused on the influence of the individual parts of the hydraulic system (such as water chamber or stabilizer) on its characteristics. In this part different types of the water chambers in combination with different types of stabilizers on the impact pressure values were investigated. These measurements were supported by fluid flow analysis through the hydraulic system. The second part of this work was focused on getting mechanical properties of the oxide scales from specimens prepared from standard structural steel and specimens from silicon steel. In this thesis, the influence of various parameters and characteristics was studied on these two types of steel. Mechanical properties of oxide scale structures were carried out by the Small Punch Test method. To obtain the fundamental mechanical properties such as Young´s modulus, yield strength and ultimate strength, material parameters based on the measured data were optimized. The whole work was carried out in order to get valuable and comprehensive results about high pressure hydraulic descaling process and influencing factors as well as about oxide scales themselves.


EFFECT OF FLOW PARAMETERS OF WATER AND AIR ATOMIZED SPRAYS ON COOLING INTENSITY OF HOT SURFACES
Boháček, Jan ; Střasák,, Pavel (referee) ; Rudolf, Pavel (referee) ; Horský, Jaroslav (advisor)
Práce komplexně popisuje vodní a vodovzdušné chlazení pomocí metod CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) konkrétně s využitím software ANSYS FLUENT. Skládá se ze dvou hlavních částí, z nichž první se zabývá numerickým popisem jediné vodní kapky a druhá popisem směsí kapek představující paprsek válcové a ploché trysky. Je založena převážně na vícefázových modelech proudění a vlastních uživatelsky definovaných funkcí (User Defined Functions, UDF) představujících stěžejní část práce. Uvedené výpočtové modely jsou ve většině případů verifikovány pomocí experimentálních dat nebo jiných numerických modelů. V první části práce jsou teoreticky postupně rozebrány všechny tři použité vícefázové modely proudění. První z nich, Volume Of Fluid model (VOF), byl použit pro modelování jediné kapky (mikromodel). Zatímco zbývající dva, EulerEuler model a EulerLagrange model, byly aplikovány v modelu celého paprsku trysky (makromodel). Mikromodel popisuje dynamiku volného pádu vodní kapky. Pro malé průměry kapek (~100µm) standardní model povrchového napětí (Continuum Surface Force, CSF) způsoboval tzv. parazitní proudy. Z toho důvodu je v práci rozebrána problematika výpočtu normál, křivostí volných povrchů a povrchového napětí jako zdroje objemových sil v pohybových rovnicích. Makromodel se zabývá studiem dynamiky celého paprsku tj. oblastí od ústí trysky po dopad na horký povrch, bere v úvahu kompletní geometrii, tzn. např. podpůrné válečky, bramu, spodní část krystalizátoru apod. V práci je rozebrána 2D simulace dopadu paprsku válcové trysky pomocí VOF modelu EulerLagrange modelu na horký povrch. Pro případ s VOF modelem byl navržen model blánového varu. EulerEuler model a EulerLagrange model byly využity pro simulaci paprsku ploché trysky horizontálně ostřikující horkou bramu přímo pod krystalizátorem nad první řadou válečků. Pro EulerEuler model byl navržen model sekundárního rozpadu paprsku založený na teorii nejstabilnější vlnové délky (Blob jet model). Jelikož diskrétní Lagrangeovy částice tvořily v určitých místech spíše kontinuální fázi, byl navržen a otestován model pro konverzi těchto částic do VOF.


Boundary Conditions in the Roll Gap during Hot and Cold Rolling
Luks, Tomáš ; Pernis,, Rudolf (referee) ; Hajduk, Daniel (referee) ; Horský, Jaroslav (advisor)
Boundary conditions in the roll gap play an important role in modelling of rolling processes. In the roll gap we can observe the following: changes of rolling pressure, changes of relative velocity, influences of oxides and lubrication, etc. When taking into account all conditions mentioned above the determination of the boundary conditions is not trivial and extensive measurements are necessary. Therefore, this thesis is dealing with design of temperature and force sensors specified for the determination of friction coefficient and heat transfer coefficient in contact. The temperature sensor with an installed thermocouple measures subsurface temperature for a given depth; and then the inverse heat conduction task is used to compute temperature and heat flux on the surface. Several temperature sensors were designed and used for measuring in pilot mill and industrial rolling mill as well. The thermal responses of different sensors were compared in the numerical simulations. The inverse calculations were tested for various rolling conditions. A durability of the sensors was also studied in industrial rolling conditions. The contact stresses in the roll gap were measured by a pin, which was in direct contact with the rolled material. The forces on the top of the pin were measured by a threeaxes piezoelectric force transducer and recalculated to the contact stress and friction coefficient. The sensor was implemented in a work roll and tested when rolling aluminium and steel slab for different rolling conditions. The results were compared with the integrative force sensor ROLLSURF.


Design of laboratory stand for temperature measurement
Matějů, Jiří ; Horský, Jaroslav (referee) ; Raudenský, Miroslav (advisor)
This Bachelor’s thesis solves design of a laboratory stand for temperature measurements. The stand is able to accelerate a steel sample of maximal weight 20 kg from the height of 7m to the speed of maximum 10 m/s. During a duty cycle of the stand the sample is accelerated on the length of 4 m, the constant speed is kept on the length of 2 m, on the length of 1 m the sample is stopped and then it’s lifted to a position for accelerating. During the constant speed the sample is cooled by water nozzles and there is measured temperature curve in the sample. The acceleration and constant speed is regulated by asynchronous servo motor with servodriver. The stopping of sample is done by external mechanical braking system. The thesis is focused on selection of design solution, basic dynamic calculation and selection of individual components of stand.

 

Methods of Space and Spectral Characterization of Light Sources used in Car Industries
Guzej, Michal ; Černý,, Pavel (referee) ; Samek, František (referee) ; Horský, Jaroslav (advisor)
Automotive headlamps work in very variable operating conditions during which the producer have to guarantee their primary function of seeing and being seen. During the development stage of the new headlamps the manufacturers want to eliminate defects which could led to malfunction in operation. The numerical simulations along with the test procedures are appropriate tools for detection of problematic areas. The most appropriate approach is designing of experiment with a view to the subsequent simple implementation of the measured data into numerical simulations software and carefully choosing a measuring method of the monitored physical quantities. The thesis deals with phenomenon of condensation in headlamps, which has a negative effect on the light distribution and their life expectancy. Due to this experimental defog methodology was developed based on evaporation of a specified amount of water into the headlamp and then condensation on the inside surface of the headlamp lens. Pictures are taken during the measurements and the fogged and defogged areas are automatically detected. The results from experiments are used to adjust and verify a numerical model. The next part is devoted to the thermal load of the headlamp components which are mostly heated by waste heat from light sources. This phenomena depends mainly on the type of source, emissivity and thermal conductivity. A methodology of temperature measurement, thermal conductivity measurement, nonstationary method for emissivity determination and spectral characterization of thermal source based on their thermal fluxes to the surroundings has been developed.


Thermal Contact Resistance Under High Temperature
Kvapil, Jiří ; Návrat, Tomáš (referee) ; Brestovič, Tomáš (referee) ; Horský, Jaroslav (advisor)
Nowadays numerical simulations are used to optimize manufacturing process. These numerical simulations need a large amount of input parameters and some of these parameters have not been sufficiently described. One of this parameter is thermal contact resistance, which is not sufficiently described for high temperatures and high contact pressure. This work describes experimental measuring of thermal contact resistance and how to determine thermal contact conductance which can be used as a boundary condition for numerical simulations. An Experimental device was built in Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Laboratory, part of Brno University of Technology, and can be used for measuring thermal contact conductance in various conditions, such as contact pressure, initial temperatures of bodies in contact, type of material, surface roughness, presence of scales on the contact surface. Bodies in contact are marked as a sensor and a sample, both are embedded with thermocouples. The temperature history of bodies during an experiment is measured by thermocouples and then used to estimate time dependent values of thermal contact conductance by an inverse heat conduction calculation. Results are summarized and the dependence of thermal contact conductance in various conditions is described.


EFFECT OF HIGH PRESSURE WATER BEAM PARAMETERS ON QUALITY OF DESCALED SURFACE
Vavrečka, Lukáš ; Toman,, Zdeněk (referee) ; Pavliska,, Martin (referee) ; Horský, Jaroslav (advisor)
This work is focussed on hydraulic descaling of hot surfaces. Hydraulic descaling is a process when layers of oxides are removed from hot steel surfaces during continuous rolling. High pressure water beam is used. Quality of descaled surfaces is important for final quality of rolled product. Insufficient descaling causes drop of final quality, degradation of rolls and lost of yields. Highpressure water beam has two effects on a scale layer. The first effect is mechanical caused by impact pressure. The second one is a relatively intensive thermal shock depending on a set of parameters (water pressure, nozzle type, distance from the surface, inclination angle, speed of product moving). There are a lot of theories about principles of scales removing. Main task of this work is to make it clear which theory is acceptable and which is just ,,theory”. For this purpose mathematical modelling and experimental work were used. In experimental part, three types of experimental measurement were done. First one, measurement of dynamical effect of water beam – impact pressure. Second one, measurement of temperature drop when a product is passing under the nozzle. Measured data (temperatures) from this measurement are evaluated with inverse task and heat transfer coefficient is obtained. And the third experimental measurement is simulation of whole process of descaling. Quality of descaled surfaces is valuated according to amount of remained oxide scales. Data from firs and second experimental measurement are used as boundary conditions for mathematical modelling. For mathematical simulations, FEM (finite element method) system ANSYS was used. Obtained data from experimental measurement were applied on 2D and 3D models of basic steel material with layer of scale. Influence of theses data on final temperature, stress and strain fields were observed.


Development of Inverse Tasks Solved by Using the Optimizing Procedures and Large Number of Parallel Threads
Ondroušková, Jana ; Skarolek, Antonín (referee) ; Brestovič, Tomáš (referee) ; Horský, Jaroslav (advisor)
In metallurgy it is important to know a cooling efficiency of a product as well as cooling efficiency of working rolls to maximize the quality of the product and to achieve the long life of working rolls. It is possible to examine this cooling efficiency by heat transfer coefficients and surface temperatures. The surface temperature is hardly measured during the cooling. It is better to compute it together with heat transfer coefficient by inverse heat conduction problem. The computation is not easy and it uses estimated values which are verified by direct heat conduction problem. The timeconsuming of this task can be several days or weeks, depends on the complexity of the model. Thus there are tendencies to shorten the computational time. This doctoral thesis considers the possible way of the computing time shortening of inverse heat conduction problem, which is the parallelization of this task and its transfer to a graphic card. It has greater computing power than the central processing unit (CPU). One computer can have more compute devices. That is why the computing time on different types of devices is compared in this thesis. Next this thesis deals with obtaining of surface temperatures for the computation by infrared line scanner and using of inverse heat conduction problem for the computing of the surface temperature and heat transfer coefficient during passing of a test sample under cooling section and cooling by high pressure nozzles.


Design and stress analysis of temperature and force sensor in hot rolling process.
Nejedlý, Pavel ; Pohanka, Michal (referee) ; Horský, Jaroslav (advisor)
In the process of hot rolling is roll surface thermomechanically stressed. To define lifetime of roll or to increase it by change of thermal mode, temperatures and forces acting on this roll need to be known. For this purpose should be used sensors, that are placed near by surface of roll. Aim of the first part of diploma thesis is to debug 2D computing model (MKP) to achieve the match of temperature graphs with experimentally measured values, which was recorded by temperature sensors in real process of rolling. In the second part the same temperature boundary conditions are applied on 3D model, which is used to solve mechanical strength check of the temperature sensor. The last part of thesis is design and verification of mechanical strength of the designed force sensor. The used boundary conditions were acquired in Laboratory of heat transfer and flow. The computing system ANSYS 11 is used to design a model of geometry and numerical calculation. This diploma thesis will be used as donating solution for the granted project, which started in this year with Laboratory of heat transfer and flow partnership.
