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The unity of Plato's Phaedrus
Stránecký, Michal ; Špinka, Štěpán (advisor) ; Jirsa, Jakub (referee)
Plato's Phaedrus consists of three speeches about love (230e-257b) and the discussion about rhetoric (257b-279c). These two halves seem not to go together, although Socrates in the same dialogue claims, that each speech should be unified like a living creature. This work tries to solve this problem by searching for the linkage among these themes of dialogue Phaedrus: soul and its leading, cosmos, rhetoric, beauty, love and philosophy. This exploration is followed by a speculation, that Plato defends in this dialogue his own writing. The results of this speculation support this work's author's opinion, that Plato inserts the mentioned rupture into this dialogue deliberately to motivate the reader to the philosophical interpretation.
The principles doctrine by Philolaus of Croton and pythagoreanism in 5. cent. B.C.
Šíma, Antonín ; Karfík, Filip (advisor) ; Špinka, Štěpán (referee)
This work devotes itself to the principles doctrine by Philolaus of Croton and to the doctrine by Pythagoreans who are mentioned in Aristotle's treatises. The object of this work is to examine the principles doctrine by Philolaus of Croton and to point out what kind of principles he described and the status they had in the context of cosmological doctrines of other presocratic philosophers. The objective of this research refferies to Pythagorean principles doctrine. The fragments Philolaus of Croton constitute essential opposites to limiters and unlimiteds principles, these opposites constitute order of nature. The element of their unification is a principle of the cosmic harmony. Numbers in this principles doctrine represent particular part of cosmological investigation with their help the knowledge determinates things in the world and the cosmos as whole. The distinction of partial points of Pythagorean principles doctrine in Aristotle's reports establishes a number as an essential cosmological principle. His relationship to the principle of number to the whole cosmos and to everything in it is determined by the help of Pythagorean number combinatory, which is established on the basis of likeness between qualities of phenomenal things and a number figures. With pair elements of numbers even and odd by...
Individual and universal soul in Plotinus
Lomozová, Petra ; Karfík, Filip (advisor) ; Špinka, Štěpán (referee)
Cílem práce bylo odhalit vztahy mezi dušemi a Intelektem a za tímto účelem jsme se zabývali otázkou jednoty všech duší, sesterství světové a individuální duše, funkcí a dalšími charakteristikami jak světové, tak individuální duše. Myšlenka pravého ... Intelektu se ukázala být velmi problematická, neboť ... individuální duše oproti duši světové a vůbec oproti tomu, co bychom v ... Otevřela se tak rozsáhlá problematika individuálních idejí, v rámci které bylo upozorněno jak na zásadní nedostatky teze o individuálních idejích, tak i na důsledky jejího odmítnutí. V ... Intelektu na jejich subjektivní stránku, která vůbec umožňuje jejich existenci, a jejich objektivníní stránku, která jejich existenci naopak nepotvrzuje.
Plato`s conception of freedom and free action
Sulík, Pavel ; Špinka, Štěpán (advisor) ; Thein, Karel (referee)
The topic of the essay is Plato's conception of freedom and free action in the choosen passages of dialogues Phaedrus, Gorgias, Phaedo and The Republic. The first part of the first chapter will focus on Plato's analysis of only illusory freedom of tyrannical man in The Republic. Work will continue with interpreation of dialog Gorgias where Plato shows illusoly freedom of rhetor and necessary conditions for free action, which is especially self-control. The third part of the first chapter is dedicated to the dialog Phaedo and to question in which sense is possible to understand free action as freedom from body and its perspective. The last part of the first chapter is dealing with some passages of the dialog Phaedrus and shows that freedom, according to Plato, needs freedom from blindness of individual perspective given by fixation at parcicular body and that at the same time this freedom opens the way not only to unity of all parts of the individual soul and to mutual friendship of souls, but also to proper care about that which is physical. By the help of mentioned analyses we try in the second chapter to put these analyses together in order to achieve a harmony among them and to catch important topics which could be within freedom revealed. Another aim is to find unite conception of freedom and...
The role of beauty in Plato's philosophy
Gál, Ota ; Špinka, Štěpán (advisor) ; Hlobil, Tomáš (referee)
The final thesis aims to develop the question of beauty in Plato. To do so, it tries to gain a proper interpretative access to Plato`s dialogues in the first chapter, and concludes that as they are principally unified on the basis of the likeness of the cave, they can be separated into three structurally different groups with distinct purposes - elenctic, anabatic and katabatic. The second chapter analyzes the dialogue Hippias Major, and traces the ontological implications of its negative outcome, as well as suggestions in relation to which other notions Plato tried to develop his conception. It then analyzes the dialogue Phaedo and tries to reconstruct the basics of Plato's theory of forms, beauty being one of them. The third chapter analyzes the question of beauty in the dialogues Symposium and Phaedrus in more detail, i.e in relation to love, good, happiness, begetting, soul and speech. Beauty is said to be shining both as form and in body, and eros can thus be mistaken in the source of its excitement. Most importantly the erotic movement of the soul is described as partner. It unifies the tripartite soul, different souls, including divine ones and, to a certain extent, even the soul and corrporeality. These analyses unravel in the fourth chapter beauty as, at the same time, cause and purpose of a...
Two Ways of Being: Potentiality and Actuality. A Contribution to Interpretation of Aristotle's Metaphysics
Rabas, Martin ; Němec, Václav (advisor) ; Špinka, Štěpán (referee)
in English: In the first half of the book Theta of his Metaphysics, Aristotle discusses dunamis as a property of a being. In this sense, dunamis is primarily a principle of change in another thing or in the thing itself qua other, thereby exercising itself in its energeia. In the second half of the book, Aristotle discusses dunamis as a way of being. In this sense, a being is dunamei another thing and in the course of its becoming that thing it changes into being energeiai. The aim of the present thesis is to offer an interpretation of the concepts of dunamis and energeia as they appear in the chapters 1, 2, 6 and partly 7 of the book Theta. The first question is how the concepts of dunamis and energeia in both parts fit together. The problem is posed as follows: Are dunamis in the sense of a principle of change and dunamis as a way of being mutually dependent? Are energeia as change and being energeiai related? Are they not, in fact, two relatively independent philosophical concepts, relative to whether being is regarded from the point of view of physics, respectively metaphysics? Based on the interpretation of Aristotle's statements, the thesis aims to argue that Aristotle starts his exposition with the analysis of dunamis in the sense of a principle of change precisely in order to show the...
Socrate's "Érótiké techné" in Faidros
Grimmich, Šimon ; Špinka, Štěpán (advisor) ; Jinek, Jakub (referee)
Práce představuje, co v kontextu dialogu Faidros znamená erotické umění (erótiké techné), o kterém se Sókratés zmiňuje v palinódii (257a6-9) a které je pro něj něčím nesmírně podstatným. V první a druhé kapitole nejprve zkoumá, jak Sókratés chápe lásku (erós) a umění (techné) řeči, přičemž si všímá jejich hluboké ambivalence, kterou by měla zvládat filosofie jakožto erotické umění. Třetí kapitola se zaměřuje na vztah duše a pohybu a předkládá pojetí přirozenosti duše, sebepoznání, nesmrtelnosti a blíže zkoumá vztah duše a těla. Čtvrtá kapitola konečně po shrnutí rozumění erotickému umění, jak ho nabízejí současní badatelé, nabízí své vlastní rozumění. Erotické umění se ukázalo být filosofií samotnou, která je láskou k moudrosti a která prostřednictvím dialogu a vztahu k druhému usiluje o probouzení lásky a plození krásných řečí. Filosofie je konečně uměním, které dokáže zvládnout ambivalenci lásky úsilím o sebepoznání.
Aristotle and Theophrastus on metaphysical causes of movement
Fantyš, Daniel ; Roreitner, Robert (advisor) ; Špinka, Štěpán (referee)
This bachelor thesis starts from questions regarding the peripatetic conception of the mover or movers of the celestial spheres, which are directly and indirectly posed by Theophrastus in his Metaphysics, and it searches for possible answers to them in those texts of Aristotle where this conception is developed. It is above all the twelfth book of Aristotle's Metaphysics. At the same time, it aims to determine what answers to these questions would Theophrastus himself favor. Both the Peripatetics present in their texts a position according to which there must exist at least one eternal and unchanging first mover who moves the celestial spheres and so he maintains unceasing movement in the universe. This position, however, carries many difficulties with itself, which are articulated by Theophrastus. Specifically, this thesis aims to explore why the movers of the celestial spheres cause the circular motion of these spheres instead of their rest, in what way do they actually move the celestial speres, whether it is possible to explain the variety of motions in the sublunar world by the movements of the celestial spheres, why the first mover of the celestial spheres does not cause the movements in the sublunar world directly and other difficulties.
Beauty and the Good in the philosophy of Plotinus
Ivančenko, Georgij ; Roreitner, Robert (advisor) ; Špinka, Štěpán (referee)
A b s t r a c t The present thesis proceeds in its exposition of the initial assertion of the unity of beauty and goodness in Plotinus' philosophy. The thesis puts forward the question of the source and definition of the intuitive and philosophical persuasiveness of such a unity, and its ontological foundation in the philosophy of Plotinus. The thesis' intention is to clarify how the abovemen- tioned unity may be thought of, what is its nature, wherein lays its foundation. The foremost aim of this work is exploration, and potentially resolution, of the following aporia, which, as I hope, is not trivial and may shed new light upon Plotinus' metaphysics, especially his under- standing of the relationshipofbeautyandgoodness:inwhatsensearebeautyandgoodnessinunity (what is the principle of such a unity and its foundation), inwhichsensearetheymutuallydistinct (what is the nature of such a distinction)? My interest lays not only with the exposition of the rôle and status of beauty and goodness in Plotinus' thinking, but rather the exploration of dif- ferent ways they mightbe united in such an eminent sense, yet simultaneouslydistinctlyinde- pendent. Our investigation, following Plotinus' exposition of the topic of beauty in Enn. I, 6, shall lead us from the analysis of beauty at the level of thesensual world...
Human nature as a task. On human nature in the Nicomachean Ethics
Synek, Stanislav ; Sokol, Jan (advisor) ; Jirsa, Jakub (referee) ; Špinka, Štěpán (referee)
Title: Human Nature as a Man's Task. Study of Human Nature in the Nicomachean Ethics Author: Mgr. Stanislav SYNEK Department: Faculty of Humanities, Charles University, Prague Supervisor: prof. PhDr. Jan SOKOL, Ph.D., CSc. Abstract: The thesis concentrates on two basic concepts of Aristotle's ethics: happiness (EUDAIMONIA) and (human) nature (FYSIS). It's main aim is to show that human nature is not a state into which an individual is born but an end that is to be achieved through excellent, i.e. virtuous activity during the course of the whole human life. In chapter one ethics is introduced as a theoretical enquiry that is trying to understand the true nature of this end (EUDAIMONIA). This enquiry must be based on practical effort of acquiring the requisite excellence, which is shown in chapters two and three. The best human life consists in performing excellent actions. Thus excellence is a criterion of what is good or bad in terms ofliving the best way life. But excellence for Aristotle is not a general concept: it is always a disposition of some individual that is manifested in his actions and in the way he understands variable actual situations. Emphasis on excellence so understood means also that human nature demonstrates itself not (only) in what is usual or common but also on what is...

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