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Access to Information and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters in the Republic of Irealand and the Czech Republic
Vítková, Martina ; Stejskal, Vojtěch (advisor) ; Sobotka, Michal (referee)
This diploma thesis deals with access to environmental information and access to justice in environmental matters introduced by Aarhus Convention in the specific conditions of Czech Republic and Ireland. These rights are considered to be very important tools for environmental protection. At a time when people threaten their own existence by negative interference with the environment it is necessary that effective means for its protection exist. These means are access to environmental information and access to justice in environmental matters, which together can be called as environmental procedural rights. The first chapter of this thesis presents the sources of environmental procedural law and observes the development of law at international, European and national level. The most important international document in this field is the Aarhus Convention that was adopted in 1998 by most of the European countries and that provides for access to environmental information, access to justice and public participation in environmental decision-making. This convention has largely affected the law of the European Union, where several directives has been adopted, including most importantly the Directive 2003/4/EC on access to environmental information and the Directive 2003/35/EC on public participation in...

Introduction to bio art
Šperanda, Nina ; SILVERIO, Robert (advisor) ; JANOŠČÍK, Václav (referee)
Bio art is a contemporary art practice that works with living organisms (except humans) or is created in cooperation with living organisms. It is relatively new art movement that is rooted deeply inside the history of evolution, domestication of animals and plants, technological discoveries, their development and science. Never before was art questioning its ethics and aesthetics in such profound, molecular and sub-molecular way. In this work I will consider the historical influences and conditions that led to current developments in the field. I will also try to explain the problematics of defining what bio art is and try to clarify the associated terminology. Most relevant and ground breaking works in the field will be mentioned as some new recent developments. Aesthetics of bio art is also an important subject often set aside by the ado around ethics of it. It is an extremely important subject to be considered when talking about bio art and I will try to sketch out a brief outline of it with references to philosophy and contemporary bio art theory.

Evaluation of the effectiveness of teaching vocational subjects depending on physical activity before schooling.
Janošíková, Martina ; Hanušová, Marie (advisor)
The period of transition to secondary school brings substantial changes in the requirements for study obligations, autonomy, communication, expression, or separated from their families in the form of staying at the dormitory. Students enrolled in sport centers, in addition to these changes, still struggling with the responsibilities associated with sport. Because they are students first through fourth grades of secondary schools and secondary vocational schools, an age when image self-I am, what I believe in, arises in interactions with the outside world and their own experience, plays a very important role to influence the environment, educators, teachers and trainers, with which students spend most of their time in practice. This study looks at students comprehensively in terms of personal development as a multifactorial biopsychosocial unit, in terms of cognitive and motivational processes, states and properties from the perspective of social psychology dealing with the interactions, relationships and communication, psychology of individuals within the social group and its importance for the development of the individual . It monitors conditions and educational outcomes in terms of educational psychology, dealing with forming properties, opinions, attitudes and value orientation from the perspective of educational psychology.

Influence of meadow management on the migration behavior of selected species of butterflies
Bubová, Terezie ; Langrová, Iva (advisor) ; Farkač, Jan (referee)
Migrations are the key process and one of the basic biological features, which allow survival of endangered species in fragmented landscape. In the last decades, agriculture intensification, industry and urbanization caused that number of natural butterfly habitats has significantly decreased. The localities originally suitable for butterflies are currnetly converted to farmland or building plots. This PhD thesis aimed to find a compromise solution of meadow management, which should allow a commercial use and concurrently do not jeopardize the continued existence of endangered or threatened species. The main idea of this study was in the intentional emigration causing in the middle of flight period, which should lead into resettlement of the population to another (potentially more suitable) locality. Possibility of aimed manipulation with butterfly emigrations would be considered as a major breakthrough in their protection. The investigated species Phengaris nausithous (Bergsträsser, 1779) and Phengaris teleius (Bergsträsser, 1779) are both considered to be flagship species for protection of European butterflies at open meadows. This study is based on research, which was carried out in 2013-2015 at 17 patch in localities Dolní Labe, Czech Republic. In above mentioned years, one selected meadow was mowed in the middle of flight season and the emigrations were then monitored using mark-release-recapture method. Results of population and migration characteristics were calculated in MARK 8.1 software. Subsequently, the effect of mowing on emigration (comparison of emigrations from the meadow before and after mowing) was evaluated using Statistica 13. The hypotheses of this study were based on the assumption, that the loss of resources after well-timed mowing should increase the activity of adult butterflies. During the monitoring, number of emigrations was increased only in flight season 2015. Unfortunately, the statistical evaluation did not show significant effect of mowing on migrations. On the other hand, the hypothesis dealing with colonization of nearest meadows was confirmed. Effect of intentional emigration caused by management interventions was unfortunately not proved. However, we found out, that even though the population at one mowed meadow decreased clearly, the metapopulation size at the locality remained more or less stable. At investigated (mowed) meadow, there was observed a sharp decline of P. nausithous abundance. On the other hand, P. teleius population was only slightly reduced. It is therefore conceivable, that P. teleius are not as susceptible to innapropriate term of mowing. The results obtained in our research conclusively displayed no possible positive effect of mowing in the middle of flight season and a necessity of suitable management maintenance at localities inhabited by Phengaris butterflies.

Noise, Transport and Structural Properties of High Energy Radiation Detectors Based on CdTe
Šik, Ondřej ; Lazar, Josef (referee) ; Navrátil, Vladislav (referee) ; Grmela, Lubomír (advisor)
Poptávka ze strany vesmírného výzkumu, zdravotnictví a bezpečnostního průmyslu způsobila v posledních letech zvýšený zájem o vývoj materiálů pro detekci a zobrazování vysokoenergetického záření. CdTe a jeho slitina CdZnTe. jsou polovodiče umožnují detekci záření o energiích v rozsahu 10 keV až 500 keV. Šířka zakázaného pásma u CdTe / CdZnTe je 1.46 -1.6 eV, což umožňuje produkci krystalů o vysoké rezistivitě (10^10-10^11 cm), která je dostačující pro použití CdTe / CdZnTe při pokojové teplotě. V mé práci byly zkoumány detektory CdTe/CdZnTe v různých stádiích jejich poruchovosti. Byly použity velmi kvalitní spektroskopické detektory, materiál s nižší rezistivitou a výraznou polarizací, detektory s asymetrií elektrických parametrů kontaktů a teplotně degenerované vzorky. Z výsledků analýzy nízkofrekvenčního šumu je patrný obecný závěr, že zvýšená koncentrace defektů způsobí změnu povahy původně monotónního spektra typu 1/f na spektrum s výrazným vlivem generačně-rekombinačních procesů. Další výrazná vlastnost degenerovaných detektorů a detektorů nižší kvality je nárůst spektrální hustoty šumu typu 1/f se vzrůstajícím napájecím napětí se směrnicí výrazně vyšší než 2. Strukturální a chemické analýzy poukázaly, že teplotní generace detektorů způsobuje difuzi kovu použitého při kontaktování a stopových prvků hlouběji do objemu krystalu. Část mé práce je věnována modifikaci povrchu svazkem argonových iontů a jejímu vlivu na chemické složení a morfologii povrchu.

New Methods for Increasing Efficiency and Speed of Functional Verification
Zachariášová, Marcela ; Kotásek, Zdeněk (advisor)
In the development of current hardware systems, e.g. embedded systems or computer hardware, new ways how to increase their reliability are highly investigated. One way how to tackle the issue of reliability is to increase the efficiency and the speed of verification processes that are performed in the early phases of the design cycle. In this Ph.D. thesis, the attention is focused on the verification approach called functional verification. Several challenges and problems connected with the efficiency and the speed of functional verification are identified and reflected in the goals of the Ph.D. thesis. The first goal focuses on the reduction of the simulation runtime when verifying complex hardware systems. The reason is that the simulation of inherently parallel hardware systems is very slow in comparison to the speed of real hardware. The optimization technique is proposed that moves the verified system into the FPGA acceleration board while the rest of the verification environment runs in simulation. By this single move, the simulation overhead can be significantly reduced. The second goal deals with manually written verification environments which represent a huge bottleneck in the verification productivity. However, it is not reasonable, because almost all verification environments have the same structure as they utilize libraries of basic components from the standard verification methodologies. They are only adjusted to the system that is verified. Therefore, the second optimization technique takes the high-level specification of the system and then automatically generates a comprehensive verification environment for this system. The third goal elaborates how the completeness of the verification process can be achieved using the intelligent automation. The completeness is measured by different coverage metrics and the verification is usually ended when a satisfying level of coverage is achieved. Therefore, the third optimization technique drives generation of input stimuli in order to activate multiple coverage points in the veri\-fied system and to enhance the overall coverage rate. As the main optimization tool the genetic algorithm is used, which is adopted for the functional verification purposes and its parameters are well-tuned for this domain. It is running in the background of the verification process, it analyses the coverage and it dynamically changes constraints of the stimuli generator. Constraints are represented by the probabilities using which particular values from the input domain are selected.       The fourth goal discusses the re-usability of verification stimuli for regression testing and how these stimuli can be further optimized in order to speed-up the testing. It is quite common in verification that until a satisfying level of coverage is achieved, many redundant stimuli are evaluated as they are produced by pseudo-random generators. However, when creating optimal regression suites, redundancy is not needed anymore and can be removed. At the same time, it is important to retain the same level of coverage in order to check all the key properties of the system. The fourth optimization technique is also based on the genetic algorithm, but it is not integrated into the verification process but works offline after the verification is ended. It removes the redundancy from the original suite of stimuli very fast and effectively so the resulting verification runtime of the regression suite is significantly improved.

Packet Classification Algorithms
Puš, Viktor ; Dvořák, Václav (advisor)
This thesis deals with packet classification in computer networks. Classification is the key task in many networking devices, most notably packet filters - firewalls. This thesis therefore concerns the area of computer security. The thesis is focused on high-speed networks with the bandwidth of 100 Gb/s and beyond. General-purpose processors can not be used in such cases, because their performance is not sufficient. Therefore, specialized hardware is used, mainly ASICs and FPGAs. Many packet classification algorithms designed for hardware implementation were presented, yet these approaches are not ready for very high-speed networks. This thesis addresses the design of new high-speed packet classification algorithms, targeted for the implementation in dedicated hardware. The algorithm that decomposes the problem into several easier sub-problems is proposed. The first subproblem is the longest prefix match (LPM) operation, which is used also in IP packet routing. As the LPM algorithms with sufficient speed have already been published, they can be used in out context. The following subproblem is mapping the prefixes to the rule numbers. This is where the thesis brings innovation by using a specifically constructed hash function. This hash function allows the mapping to be done in constant time and requires only one memory with narrow data bus. The algorithm throughput can be determined analytically and is independent on the number of rules or the network traffic characteristics. With the use of available parts the throughput of 266 million packets per second can be achieved. Additional three algorithms (PFCA, PCCA, MSPCCA) that follow in this thesis are designed to lower the memory requirements of the first one without compromising the speed. The second algorithm lowers the memory size by 11 % to 96 %, depending on the rule set. The disadvantage of low stability is removed by the third algorithm, which reduces the memory requirements by 31 % to 84 %, compared to the first one. The fourth algorithm combines the third one with the older approach and thanks to the use of several techniques lowers the memory requirements by 73 % to 99 %.

Acceleration of Object Detection Using Classifiers
Juránek, Roman ; Zemčík, Pavel (advisor)
Detection of objects in computer vision is a complex task. One of most popular and well explored  approaches is the use of statistical classifiers and scanning windows. In this approach, classifiers learned by AdaBoost algorithm (or some modification) are often used as they achieve low error rates, high detection rates and they are suitable for detection in real-time applications. Object detection run-time which uses such classifiers can be implemented by various methods and properties of underlying architecture can be used for speed-up of the detection.  For the purpose of acceleration, graphics hardware, multi-core architectures, SIMD or other means can be used. The detection is often implemented on programmable hardware.  The contribution of this thesis is to introduce an optimization technique which enhances object detection performance with respect to an user defined cost function. The optimization balances computations of previously learned classifiers between two or more run-time implementations in order to minimize the cost function.  The optimization method is verified on a basic example -- division of a classifier to a pre-processing unit implemented in FPGA, and a post-processing unit in standard PC.

Image analysis in tribodiagnostics
Machalík, Stanislav ; Zemčík, Pavel (advisor)
Image analysis of wear particles is a suitable support tool for detail analysis of engine, gear, hydraulic and industrial oils. It allows to obtain information not only of basic parameters of abrasion particles but also data that would be very difficult to obtain using classical ways of evaluation. Based on the analysis of morphological or image characteristics of particles, the progress of wearing the machine parts out can be followed and, as a result, possible breakdown of the engine can be prevented or the optimum period for changing the oil can be determined. The aim of this paper is to explore the possibilities of using the image analysis combined with the method of analytical ferrography and suggest a tool for automated particle classification. Current methods of wear particle analysis are derived from the evaluation that does not offer an exact idea of processes that take place between the friction surfaces in the engine system. The work is based upon the method of analytical ferrography which allows to evaluate the state of the machine. The benefit of use of classifiers defined in this wirk is the possibility of automated evaluation of analytical ferrography outputs; the use of them eliminates the crucial disadvantage of ferrographical analysis which is its dependence on the subjective evaluation done by the expert who performs the analysis. Classifiers are defined as a result of using the methods of machine learning. Based on an extensive database of particles that was created in the first part of the work, the classifiers were trained as a result, they make the evaluation of ferrographically separated abrasion particles from oils taken from lubricated systems possible. In the next stage, experiments were carried out and optimum classifier settings were determined based on the results of the experiments.

Physically-based Modeling and Simulation
Dvořák, Radim ; Zbořil, František (advisor)
The thesis deals with the modeling of air pollution transportation and dispersion processes in the atmosphere, more precisely with the numerical approaches to solve such models. The modeling of air pollution has a great importance for prediction of the contaminations and it helps with understanding of the process and with elimination of its consequences. The models which are described by partial differential equations, namely advection-diffusion equations, and thus they can be solved by numerous analytical/numerical methods are in the scope of the thesis. In particular, well known method of lines (MoL) and several models based on it together with the possibility to accelerate the computation are studied in the first half of the work. It is shown that MoL approach is still suitable for many concrete models and it has a great potential for parallelization on graphics cards. Quite young ELLAM method and its application to solved atmospheric advection-diffusion equations is the second objective. A concrete form of ELLAM method and its proposed adaptation approaches are evaluated and it is shown that it overcomes the current state of the art methods in many cases.