National Repository of Grey Literature 26 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Phytoextraction of Selected Pharmaceuticals
Hatasová, Nicolette ; Smrček, Stanislav (advisor) ; Soudek, Petr (referee)
The aim of this bachelor thesis is a study of phytoextraction of trazodone which represents the active component of an antidepressant sold under the name Trittico. Trazodone is not completely metabolized in organisms and part of drug is excreted unchanged by urinary system to wastewater. Phytoextraction represents new and economical method used to remove residual concentrations of pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. These substances enter the environment even after previous cleaning in wastewater treatments plants. The removal of pharmaceutical residues is generally not sufficient which is related to development of more effective methods. Plant maize (Zeamays) was used for this experiment in which degradation effectivity was monitored for eight days. Concentrations of trazodone in various cultivations were determined by HPLC. Results showed that selected antidepressant was extracted during the experiment and phytoextractiontook place. Key words: phytoextraction, wastewater treatment plants, wastewater, pollution, antidepressants, trazodone
Phytoextraction of benzodiazepines
Rychlovská, Kristýna ; Smrček, Stanislav (advisor) ; Soudek, Petr (referee)
The aim of this study was to carry out experiments with maize (Zea mays) for the purpose of finding out the efficiency of phytoextraction of chosen pharmaceuticals from the nutrient solution. The plants were cultivated for three weeks in a sterile environment. Then was added a nutrient solution enriched with chosen benzodiazepines - diazepam, flunitrazepam, nitrazepam and bromazepam - in concentration 5-10 mg/L. The samples from each plant were taken every day (24 hours) and then were analyzed with HPLC/UV. The efficiency of phytoextraction was evaluated in two ways. The first one as an percentage of a decrease of the concentration of the pharmaceuticals in the solution with time, the second one as an amount of phytoextracted pharmaceutical in milligrames per gram of the plant matter. From the standpoint of the decrease of the concentration was as the most efficient measured the phytoextraction of nitrazepam (74,7 %), less efficient diazepam and bromazepam (55,2 %, respectively 53,9 %) and the least efficient flunitrazepam (38,0 %). When converted to the mass of the plant matter the most efficient was found the phytoextraction of bromazepam (0,08 mg of drug to 1 gram of plant matter), lower efficiency by bromazepam and diazepam (both 0,02 mg) and the lowest again by flunitrazepam (0,01 mg). key...
Preparation and phytoextraction of 125-I labelled pharmaceuticals
Luptáková, Dominika ; Smrček, Stanislav (advisor) ; Soudek, Petr (referee)
Pharmaceuticals are group of organic substances with significant worldwide consumption in human and veterinary medicine. These compounds may be metabolized in the organism, but in some cases they remain unchanged and both are usually excreted via renal excretion in the native form or as metabolites. Large quantities of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites contaminate municipal wastewater. The wastewater treatment plants are unable to remove these substances completely, so they contaminate surface water, groundwater and soil as well. Due to the biological activity of pharmaceuticals, long - term effect may cause bacterial resistance, endocrine influence, DNA and renal damages in non-target organisms. The phytoextraction and the translocation of radiolabeled diclofenac with 125 I were experimentally studied by using of in vitro cultivated plants Helianthus annuus and Zea mays. Efficiency od phytoextraction was monitored as decrease of radioactivity of tested substance [125 I]diclofenac in Murashige-Skoog cultivation medium. Both species are able to extract tested substance during 8 to 10 days of cultivation, with efficiency approximately 85 % using Zea mays and 79 % using Helianthus annuus. Better extraction ability of diclofenac was observed at Helianthus annuus - 80 mg/ kg of dry weight compared...
Dust particles in the environment and their effect on plants - possibilities for use in phytoremediation
Endlerová, Šárka ; Soudek, Petr (advisor) ; Podlipná, Radka (referee)
This bachelor thesis deals with dust particles, one of the substances polluting the enviroment, and their effect on plants, which can be used for phytoremediation. First part focuses on an oerview of substances that participate to air pollution and there are also given theri harmful effects on the environment. The next part describes the methods of phytoremediation and their use. In the last part is described experimental measurements of dust in the air and monitoring of polyaromatic hydrocarbons content in the atmosphere based on thein analysis on the surface of the leaves of trees. Key word: phytoremediation, dust particles, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, air pollution
Thorium accumulation and study of stress responces of plants on thorium presence
Kufner, Daniel ; Soudek, Petr (advisor) ; Petrová, Šárka (referee)
The ability of the accumulation of thorium and study of the stress responses on his presence was tested on a selected cultivar of tobacco, La Burley 21. Plants were cultivated in Hoagland's hydroponic medium under artificial light. Except to the ability of accumulation and distribution of thorium in the all parts of plant was investigated the effect of selected organic and inorganic additions on accumulation. Among organic substances included citric acid, tartaric and oxalic acid in their presence was observed the increase of thorium in all parts of the plant. Were also tested products from the diamine and polyamines (putrescine, cadaverine, spermine and spermidin). These substances, also known for their antioxidant activity in plants, had an impact on reducing the accumulation of thorium, especially in the root system of plants. The most important factor influencing the accumulation of thorium was the absence of phosphate ions in a hydroponic medium, which caused the rise of the concentration of thorium about several levels in all parts of the plants. The initial decrease of pH after additions of organic acids or addition of high concentrations of thorium and the gradual increase of pH during cultivation had proved significant. It was also compared the uptake of accumulation and distribution of...
Study of plant stress responces in presence of pharmaceuticals in cultivation medium
Bystroňová, Jana ; Soudek, Petr (advisor) ; Podlipná, Radka (referee)
The aim of this study was to verify the possibility of ibuprofen degradation by selected plant cultures and determination of activities of antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase) as markers of oxidative stress caused by ibuprofen. Nicotiana tabaccum (cv. La Burley 21, cv. SR 1 and their GMOs) and Nicotiana glauca were used as experimental plants. The rate of removal of ibuprofen tested by tobacco was decreasing in the following order: N. tabaccum SR1 > N. tabaccum Zm-P60-1-T4 > N. tabaccum TRI 2T2 > N. glauca > N. tabaccum TRI 2T1 > N. tabaccum cv. La Burley > N. tabaccum Zm-P60-1-T5. As the most suitable tobacco for the removal of ibuprofen seemed untransformed N. tabaccum SR1. The long-term experiment showed that plant stress is being manifested even after longtime. N. tabaccum cv. La Burley 21 seemed to be the most tolerant to ibuprofen in compare with the total enzyme activities in cultures with the presence of ibuprofen and controls. N.glauca was the least tolerant cultivar. Keywords: phytoremediation, ibuprofen, Nicotiana tabaccum, Nicotiana glauca, HPLC, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathion-S-transferase
Radionuclide accumulation by plants cultivated under laboratory and real conditions
Dvořáková, Barbora ; Soudek, Petr (advisor) ; Petrová, Šárka (referee)
Environmental contamination with radionuclides is a growing problem in many places all over the world. Phytoremediation works as a safety alternative for some energy demanding and expensive methods of soil cleaning. Phytoremediation uses various abilities of plants and microorganisms to change the mobility of contaminants in soil as well as soil properties. The uptake and transport of radionuclides to plants is affected by their chemical form. Radionuclides in soil are taken up by plants and can thus enter the food chain. The number of nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima operation of nuclear power plants, mining and processing of uranium ores and testing of nuclear weapons result in global contamination of our planet by artificial radionuclides.
Study of accumulation of cadmium ion by energy crops
Berkyová, Petra ; Soudek, Petr (advisor) ; Petrová, Šárka (referee)
Cadmium is heavy metal toxic for plants and animals and environmental contaminant which must be removed from natural environment. In recent years a new method phytoremediation is getting more attention. This method uses plants called hyperaccumulators for extraction of heavy metals from soils. Hyperaccumulators have, however, after accumulation of heavy metals no other use. Therefore new possibilities are discussed in last few years. Energy plants, in this thesis sorghum and malva, could be used for accumulation of heavy metals from soils and after that these plants could be used as energy source. This thesis wants to find out if sorgum and malva are able to grow in cadmium contaminated environment and if these plants will accumulate cadmium. It also compares different cultivars of sorghum in toxicity tests and compares ability of these cultivars to grow in cadmium contaminated environment and to accumulate this heavy metal. Further it focuses on affection of uptake of kadmium ions by sorhum in presence of glutathione or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid.
Study of physiological changes in plants under stress by zinc ions
Adam, Rostislav ; Soudek, Petr (advisor) ; Petrová, Šárka (referee)
Heavy metals are part of us life for many centuries. Some of them are for living organism neccessary, but in large amount they have toxic effects. So we should decrease amount of heavy metals in the Environment. We have many way to do it. A relatively new way are the phytoremediation. If we would use the phytoremediation, we should know, what they do in plants. We must use specific plants, which are tolerant to certain heavy metal. If we would select a suitable plant, we have to try, how heavy metals in soil solution are toxic to plants. Zinc is no expection, although it is important part of many proteins. In plants it make rusty leaves and reduct aboveground and root biomass production. In hydroponic experiment I investigated that mallow Malva verticillata was very sensitive to low additon of Zn(NO3)2. The toxic efect appeared in 2 weeks. In sorghum Sorghum bicolor zinc show expressive toxic effect at concentration 1 mmol/l. I studied six cultivars of Sorghum bicolor, DSM 14-535, Expres, Honey Graze BMR, Nutri Honey, Sucrosorgho 506 and Sweet Virginia. According EC50 I as- sessed that the most sensitive was Sucrosorgho 506 and very tolerant were Nutri Honey and Sweet Virginia. Cultivar Nutri Honey was characteristic. It had the highest ratio concentration in shoot to concentration in root. I studied...
The effect of spoil-mining subtrate with heavy metal contents on leaf physiological status with emphasis on phenolics content.
Kovářová, Monika ; Lhotáková, Zuzana (advisor) ; Soudek, Petr (referee)
5 ABSTRACT Heavy metals abundance in the environment increases via natural and anthropogenic processes, mainly mining and industrial activities. Spoil mine substrates of the Sokolovsko Region characteristic by high heavy metal contents are recultivated by tree planting, e.g. of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The diploma thesis is a part of a larger project aimed on interpretation of hyperspectral remote sensing data for monitoring of vegetation physiological state. That is why it is focused on non-specific indicators of stress by heavy metals, which can be detected by foliage spectral analyses. The experimental part of thesis comprises 1) field research on P. sylvestris needles and 2) model pot experiments on tobacco plants. Field research was accomplished in 2009 and 2010 on one control locality and three spoil mine banks localities with different heavy metal soil contents (Hg, As and Cu). Photosynthetic pigments', phenolic compounds'and lignin contents were determined spectrophotometrically. Model pot experiments with tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun) - pilot experiment and experiments 1 and 2 using the spoil mine substrates in 2011 and experiment 3 in 2012 also included treatments with different mercury concentration in irrigation (10 and 15 ppm HgCl2). Gasometric measurements (net...

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See also: similar author names
1 Soudek, P.
2 Soudek, Pavel
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