National Repository of Grey Literature 78 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Response to abiotic stress in plants growing in green façades of temperate urban environment
Hrochová, Růžena ; Lhotáková, Zuzana (advisor) ; Havelková, Lenka (referee)
With increasing urbanization the temperature of cities is increasing and an effect of urban heat island arises. Vegetation, particularly vertical greenery systems: facades and walls, is mitigating urban heat island and reducing temperature. The aim of this work was to define these systems, their effects on the urban microclimate, to create an overview of the most used plants for greenery systems and to summarize their reactions to abiotic stresses of cities in a temperate region. Mediterranean studies were used in this work due to the scarcity of temperate climate research, which results could become valuable with climate change. Selecting proper vegetation can be done using habitat template, plants that are acclimated or adapted to the urban environment. Plants affect the urban microclimate through shading and transpirational cooling, which ideally contribute to reducing the heat island effect with optimal irrigation. Stressors followed in this work were drought, high temperature and irradiance, air pollution and salinity. To all these stressors plants reacted with limiting physiological functions and reducing growth. The common reaction was a decrease photosynthesis rate and chlorophyll content. Ractions of plants of vertical greenery systems to different stressors and their combinations are...
Thermal imaging as a tool for evaluation of plant's cooling effect in green façades
Nohová, Michaela ; Lhotáková, Zuzana (advisor) ; Schwarzerová, Kateřina (referee)
Urbanisation and global warming are gaining momentum, and with it the need to improve the thermal comfort of urban citizens is growing. Due to the geometry of the city and the thermal properties of the materials from which the city consists, the so-called urban heat island effect occurs, which causes the temperature in city centres to be higher than in rural areas. One possible way to mitigate the urban heat island effect is to incorporate vegetation into the urban infrastructure. Green architecture is designed to do just that, and in this thesis I specifically focus on green facades and their cooling effect. Since green facades are usually large areas of green surface, this thesis focuses on thermal imaging and its use to measure the cooling rate of buildings and ambient air by green facades. It is the use of thermal cameras that is characterized by the ability to image large areas and record their temperature in real time, making thermal cameras an ideal tool for green facade research. As this topic is very specific and not yet so widespread in the literature, I discuss thermography from several perspectives in the context of its use for research on plant physiological parameters, and I also discuss the various methods and pitfalls of working with thermal image data. Key words: abiotic stress,...
Autumn leaf senescence in temperate and boreal woody species under changing climate
Kosová, Barbora ; Lhotáková, Zuzana (advisor) ; Konrádová, Hana (referee)
Autumn senescence of the foliage of deciduous trees of temperate and boreal zones is an annually recurring phenological phenomenon, which is part of the adaptation to life in the temperate and boreal zones with periods of frost and restriction of solar radiation. During foliar senescence, photosynthetic pigments decompose, mineral nutrients are remobilized and foliage falls off. The timing of foliage senescence in boreal and temperate deciduous trees is controlled by external and internal factors. The biggest role in the timing of senescence is played by photoperiod and temperature, which gradually decrease by he end of the growing season. The temperature is increasing due to global warming, thus affecting the length of the growing season and the sequestration of carbon into forest stands. Other factors (such as water availability) are also affected by climate change. The above-mentioned factors affect the trees of boreal and temperate forests to varying degrees, and it is, therefore, important to address them in order to be able to estimate the future development of foliage senescence and carbon sequestration in temperate and boreal forests.
Specifics of plant mineral nutrition on serpentine soils
Škopová, Lucie ; Tylová, Edita (advisor) ; Lhotáková, Zuzana (referee)
Serpentine is a metamorphosed ultramafic rock on which a substrate with specific combinations of properties responsible for creating the typical inhospitable conditions for plant life is formed. The characteristic chemical composition of serpentine soils consists of a low ratio of Ca:Mg ions, low content of biogenic elements (P, K, N) and a high concentration of heavy metals (Co, Cr, Ni). Abiotic factors such as rocky surface, shallow soil and lack of water also hinder the life of local plant. The aim of this bachelor thesis was to summarize the complex of characteristic serpentine phenomenon that in many ways create stress conditions for plants growth. Thanks to this specificity, the serpentine areas are characterised by a specific flora and vegetation with a number of endemics. This work focuses on the specific mineral nutrition of plants and summarizes the knowledge on the mechanisms of adaptation of plants growing on serpentine substrates. I focused mainly on the typical low Ca:Mg ion ratio in serpentine soil and described the functions of these elements in plants and the stress effect of excess Mg. Throughout this work, I also address the mechanisms of uptake and transport of serpentine-relevant nutrients in the plants identified so far. In conclusion, I discuss ability of plants to survive in...
Effect of artificial light at night on ecophysiological functions of plants
Ležal, Lukáš ; Konrádová, Hana (advisor) ; Lhotáková, Zuzana (referee)
Artificial light at night, as a significant source of anthropogenic pollution, has long been overlooked, both among the general public and in the scientific community as well as at the legislature level. Steps to reduce the negative impacts of artificial light at night have been taken late and to an insufficient extent, and it was the low general awareness that was one of the motivations for the bachelor thesis on this topic. Plants are a group of organisms that receive less attention than, for example, humans, although they far exceed them in ecological importance. Artificial light at night has the potential to alter the composition of plant communities and the food webs that are linked to them, of which humans are at the top. This is done by shifting plant phenological phases, disrupting the natural perception of day and night, modifying growth patterns and morphological characteristics, increasing irradiance stress or reducing the efficiency of photosynthesis. It is through a comprehensive knowledge of the interaction of plants with artificial light at night that society can effectively protect nature and introduce the necessary new standards and technologies to ensure sustainable development.
Assessment of drought response in local Scots pine ecotypes using anatomical, biochemical, and fluorescence stress markers.
Štěpánová, Kristýna ; Lhotáková, Zuzana (advisor) ; Stejskal, Jan (referee)
Global climate change and associated global warming is already a problem for temperate forest ecosystems and will continue to exacerbate the problem in the coming decades. Many species will have to adapt to a multifactorial combination of stresses, with increases in average air temperature, frequency and intensity of precipitation increasing drought episodes and drought-affected areas will enlarge. It is necessary to find ways to help the landscape cope with these intensifying phenomena. The possibility of planting suitable tree species that can manage water efficiently and survive even in periods of intense water scarcity is an option. The drought tolerance of trees is related to their phenotypic plasticity and ecotypic differentiation. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is characterised by modest ecological demands on the environment and climate of the habitat, is phenotypically plastic and relatively drought resistant. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate and compare the response of different Scots pine ecotypes to drought stress due to reduced water availability using anatomical, biochemical, and fluorescence indicators of physiological status, and 2) to determine the biochemical phenotype of selected genotypes within a local Scots pine ecotype in a seed orchard in terms of...
Experimental cultivation systems in root system research
Střelec, Petr ; Soukup, Aleš (advisor) ; Lhotáková, Zuzana (referee)
The growing awareness of plant root importance has contributed to the continuous development of cultivation methods that facilitate more efficient and effective root research. Due to their sessile nature, plants rely extensively on roots for water and ion absorption (Meister et al., 2014). As a result, plant roots must adjust to an array of unfavorable conditions such as salinity, drought, and high temperatures. To better understand root response and promote agricultural development, researchers simulate various stressors in controlled conditions. More recently developed transparent soils and soilless cultures aim to overcome the limitations of traditional soil cultivation, which include imprecise variable control, heterogeneous conditions, and destructive root sampling (Gregory et al., 2009). When planning an experiment, it is crucial to select an appropriate cultivation method to ensure success. The aim of this thesis is to provide a comprehensive overview of the benefits and limitations of commonly used cultivations techniques in plant stress research. Transparent soil reliably mimics the mechanical properties of soil whilst allowing for easy root access and use of numerous visualization techniques. On the other hand, it still maintains the need for a larger cultivation area just like soil. The...
Study of common bean drought response with the use of leaf optical properties
Svitáková, Lenka ; Lhotáková, Zuzana (advisor) ; Zámečník, Jiří (referee)
The negative effects of climate change have affected the conditions of agriculture areas, which leads to hampered cultivation of crops, including the common bean's cultivation. Changes, such as extreme temperature swings and lowered water availability in soil create a big challenge for today's agriculture in seeking solutions for safeguarding the food security for all people on our planet. The aim of this thesis was to study a wider range of genotypes of common bean to quantify their resistance against lowered water availability in soil, and to establish new approaches for detecting drought stress with the use of leaf optical properties. From the methodological point of view, this thesis connects the leaf optical properties with anatomical and biophysical leaf traits. The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and the tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) were employed as the model organisms. Plants were cultivated in two differing environments - in a greenhouse setting at the Faculty of Science of the Charles University in Prague and on the experimental fields in Colombia at the international research institute for tropical agriculture - Alliance of Biodiversity International and CIAT. There were 48 genotypes included into the field experiments in Colombia. These included genotypes from both Mesoamerican...
Relationship between leaf biochemistry, physiology and specie's competitiveness in selected grasses of relict tundra in Krkonoše Mts.
Mamula, Petr Martin ; Lhotáková, Zuzana (advisor) ; Tylová, Edita (referee)
The Krkonoše (Giant Mountains) Arcto-Alpine Tundra is an area that is part of the Krkonoše National Park with a unique ecosystem and biodiversity. In history, this area was very fundamentally influenced by the intervention of man, who farmed here and thus caused the creation of today's rare matgrass (Nardus stricta L.) meadow ecosystem. Thanks to the low growth and sparse foliage of the matgrass, many other plant species grow in these matgrass meadows, which are often endemic and protected by the law. In recent years, however, the matgrass has been overgrown by other grasses, such as the hairy reed grass (Calamagrostis villosa J.F. Gmelin), which, due to its taller growth and dense canopy covering the surface, does not allow the growth of rare species such as matgrass. Therefore, the aim of this work was for matgrass (N. stricta) and three other selected species of grasses - tufted hair grass (Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) P. Beauv.), moor grass (Molinia caerulea (L.) Moench) and hairy reed grass (C. villosa), to identify, based on biochemical, structural and physiological foliar parameters, a parameter or a combination of parameters that could give competing fennel grasses a competitive advantage. Field research and collection of foliage samples, for subsequent laboratory processing, took place in...
Adaptation of Plantago plants to environmental conditions: the role of carbohydrate balance
Skulníková, Barbora ; Konrádová, Hana (advisor) ; Lhotáková, Zuzana (referee)
Sorbitol is a linear sugar alcohol which is, together with sucrose, the primary photosynthetic product in the Plantaginaceae family. Sorbitol and sucrose are used for long-distance transport of photosynthetically fixed carbon via phloem. Many plant species accumulate sugar alcohols during drought or salt stresses, and it leads to higher tolerance to these stress conditions. The aim of this diploma thesis is to describe selected metabolic and structure differences with a focus on the sorbitol and sucrose balance, in two Plantago species - glycophytic Plantago lanceolata and halophytic Plantago maritima, which differ in life strategies. The plants were cultivated hydroponically in Araponics boxes. Previous results of our team show, that sorbitol accumulates in Plantago leaves up to ten-times higher concentrations compared with sucrose. This difference is deepened when the plants are exposed to salt stress. Sorbitol to sucrose ratios vary between vascular tissue and phloem sap. We assume that increased salt tolerance of P. maritima is based on the different distribution of assimilates through the plant, and by their partitioning between metabolic, storage and transport pools in mature leaf, which also manifests under non-stress conditions. In both genotypes, I compared growth rates under standard...

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1 Lhotáková, Z.
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