National Repository of Grey Literature 40 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
The effect of yttrium and samarium oxide nanoparticles on plant development
Brandová, Zuzana ; Soudek, Petr (advisor) ; Petrová, Šárka (referee)
This thesis is based on hydroponic experiment conducted on Hordeum vulgare with nanoparticles of rare earth elements in concentration 2·10-4 mol/L and REEs chlorides in concentration 3·10-4 mol/L. The comparison of the the effect on their acumulation of another nanoparticles in the sloution and normal medium is included as well. In this case the hydroxyapatite NPs were chosen in the same concentration as yttrium and samarium NPs. The role of type and form of the elements on their acumulation and impact is also studied. Negative effect of REEs was proven by enzymatic analysis that detects reducting enzymes and determination of plant pigment levels by high performance liquid chromatography. Because both types of substances can reduce reactive oxygen radicals. Acumulation of REEs was determined by ICP spektrometry. Key words: nanoparicles, reare earth elements, reductive enzymes, plant pigments, acumulation, oxidative stress
Phytoextraction of mixed drug samples from aqueous solutions
Hájková, Eliška ; Smrček, Stanislav (advisor) ; Soudek, Petr (referee)
A number of contaminants have been detected in the environment, including pharmaceuticals. Their presence in soil, water sources can have a toxic effect on organisms due to their constantly increasing concentration. The method of phytoremediation uses the ability of plants to absorb these contaminants and detoxify them by various mechanisms. The aim of this work was the phytoextraction of ibuprofen using maize (Zea mays) from aqueous solutions. Phytoextraction of ibuprofen after cultivation with added dextromethorphan was also carried out. The quantitative amount of extracted ibuprofen was detected by HPLC with UV detection. Ibuprofen has been very well extracted by plants. In the presence of dextromethorphan, the efficiency of phytoextraction was decreased. The phytoextraction efficiency of ibuprofen was 0.10 mg per gram of leaf fresh weight, while in the presence of dextromethorphan, the phytoextraction efficiency was 0.09 mg per gram of leaf fresh weight. After phytoextraction of ibuprofen, the antioxidant capacity was determined by FRAP method of leaf and root extracts of the plants, of which the highest values were observed in the roots of plant grown with ibuprofen in combination with dextromethorphan. The phenolic compounds were also detected in leaves and roots, where the highest percentage...
Study of physiological changes in plants under stress by zinc ions
Adam, Rostislav ; Soudek, Petr (advisor) ; Petrová, Šárka (referee)
Heavy metals are part of us life for many centuries. Some of them are for living organism neccessary, but in large amount they have toxic effects. So we should decrease amount of heavy metals in the Environment. We have many way to do it. A relatively new way are the phytoremediation. If we would use the phytoremediation, we should know, what they do in plants. We must use specific plants, which are tolerant to certain heavy metal. If we would select a suitable plant, we have to try, how heavy metals in soil solution are toxic to plants. Zinc is no expection, although it is important part of many proteins. In plants it make rusty leaves and reduct aboveground and root biomass production. In hydroponic experiment I investigated that mallow Malva verticillata was very sensitive to low additon of Zn(NO3)2. The toxic efect appeared in 2 weeks. In sorghum Sorghum bicolor zinc show expressive toxic effect at concentration 1 mmol/l. I studied six cultivars of Sorghum bicolor, DSM 14-535, Expres, Honey Graze BMR, Nutri Honey, Sucrosorgho 506 and Sweet Virginia. According EC50 I as- sessed that the most sensitive was Sucrosorgho 506 and very tolerant were Nutri Honey and Sweet Virginia. Cultivar Nutri Honey was characteristic. It had the highest ratio concentration in shoot to concentration in root. I studied...
Phytoextraction of benzodiazepines
Rychlovská, Kristýna ; Smrček, Stanislav (advisor) ; Soudek, Petr (referee)
The aim of this study was to carry out experiments with maize (Zea mays) for the purpose of finding out the efficiency of phytoextraction of chosen pharmaceuticals from the nutrient solution. The plants were cultivated for three weeks in a sterile environment. Then was added a nutrient solution enriched with chosen benzodiazepines - diazepam, flunitrazepam, nitrazepam and bromazepam - in concentration 5-10 mg/L. The samples from each plant were taken every day (24 hours) and then were analyzed with HPLC/UV. The efficiency of phytoextraction was evaluated in two ways. The first one as an percentage of a decrease of the concentration of the pharmaceuticals in the solution with time, the second one as an amount of phytoextracted pharmaceutical in milligrames per gram of the plant matter. From the standpoint of the decrease of the concentration was as the most efficient measured the phytoextraction of nitrazepam (74,7 %), less efficient diazepam and bromazepam (55,2 %, respectively 53,9 %) and the least efficient flunitrazepam (38,0 %). When converted to the mass of the plant matter the most efficient was found the phytoextraction of bromazepam (0,08 mg of drug to 1 gram of plant matter), lower efficiency by bromazepam and diazepam (both 0,02 mg) and the lowest again by flunitrazepam (0,01 mg). key...
Study of plant stress responces in presence of pharmaceuticals in cultivation medium
Bystroňová, Jana ; Soudek, Petr (advisor) ; Podlipná, Radka (referee)
The aim of this study was to verify the possibility of ibuprofen degradation by selected plant cultures and determination of activities of antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase) as markers of oxidative stress caused by ibuprofen. Nicotiana tabaccum (cv. La Burley 21, cv. SR 1 and their GMOs) and Nicotiana glauca were used as experimental plants. The rate of removal of ibuprofen tested by tobacco was decreasing in the following order: N. tabaccum SR1 > N. tabaccum Zm-P60-1-T4 > N. tabaccum TRI 2T2 > N. glauca > N. tabaccum TRI 2T1 > N. tabaccum cv. La Burley > N. tabaccum Zm-P60-1-T5. As the most suitable tobacco for the removal of ibuprofen seemed untransformed N. tabaccum SR1. The long-term experiment showed that plant stress is being manifested even after longtime. N. tabaccum cv. La Burley 21 seemed to be the most tolerant to ibuprofen in compare with the total enzyme activities in cultures with the presence of ibuprofen and controls. N.glauca was the least tolerant cultivar. Keywords: phytoremediation, ibuprofen, Nicotiana tabaccum, Nicotiana glauca, HPLC, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathion-S-transferase
Phytoextraction of Selected Pharmaceuticals
Hatasová, Nicolette ; Smrček, Stanislav (advisor) ; Soudek, Petr (referee)
The aim of this bachelor thesis is a study of phytoextraction of trazodone which represents the active component of an antidepressant sold under the name Trittico. Trazodone is not completely metabolized in organisms and part of drug is excreted unchanged by urinary system to wastewater. Phytoextraction represents new and economical method used to remove residual concentrations of pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. These substances enter the environment even after previous cleaning in wastewater treatments plants. The removal of pharmaceutical residues is generally not sufficient which is related to development of more effective methods. Plant maize (Zeamays) was used for this experiment in which degradation effectivity was monitored for eight days. Concentrations of trazodone in various cultivations were determined by HPLC. Results showed that selected antidepressant was extracted during the experiment and phytoextractiontook place. Key words: phytoextraction, wastewater treatment plants, wastewater, pollution, antidepressants, trazodone
Thorium accumulation and study of stress responces of plants on thorium presence
Kufner, Daniel ; Soudek, Petr (advisor) ; Petrová, Šárka (referee)
The ability of the accumulation of thorium and study of the stress responses on his presence was tested on a selected cultivar of tobacco, La Burley 21. Plants were cultivated in Hoagland's hydroponic medium under artificial light. Except to the ability of accumulation and distribution of thorium in the all parts of plant was investigated the effect of selected organic and inorganic additions on accumulation. Among organic substances included citric acid, tartaric and oxalic acid in their presence was observed the increase of thorium in all parts of the plant. Were also tested products from the diamine and polyamines (putrescine, cadaverine, spermine and spermidin). These substances, also known for their antioxidant activity in plants, had an impact on reducing the accumulation of thorium, especially in the root system of plants. The most important factor influencing the accumulation of thorium was the absence of phosphate ions in a hydroponic medium, which caused the rise of the concentration of thorium about several levels in all parts of the plants. The initial decrease of pH after additions of organic acids or addition of high concentrations of thorium and the gradual increase of pH during cultivation had proved significant. It was also compared the uptake of accumulation and distribution of...
Tree rings and peat bogs as archives of recent trends in Pb and Hg deposition in the Czech Republic
Zuna, Milan ; Mihaljevič, Martin (advisor) ; Komárek, Michael (referee) ; Soudek, Petr (referee)
1 Tree rings and peat bogs as archives of recent trends in Pb and Hg deposition in the Czech Republic Milan Zuna, 2012 Abstract The environment polluted by toxic metals is currently one of the most topical subjects studied in a great many countries. Toxic metals and their forms are studied primarily because of their negative impact on the environment and also on human health. In the territory of the Czech Republic, direct measurements of the concentrations of these substances are available only for a limited time period. Consequently, indirect methods, such as geochemical archives, are used to determine the historical environmental burdens from these metals. Historical lead concentrations (Pb) were studied on peat bog profiles and tree rings in selected localities in the Czech Republic. Altogether 12 peat bog profiles and 33 wood cores (Picea abies) were studied, in the border territories of the Czech Republic with different historical burdens (Krušné Hory - Novodomské rašeliniště - ND, Jizerské hory - Bílá Smědá - BS, Šumava - Jezerní slat - JS), and in a historically burdened area polluted by processing of Pb- Ag ores (Příbram-Brdy). In the vicinity of Příbram, areas around the Brdy ridge (9 km east of the Pb metallurgical works) as well as in the immediate vicinity of the metallurgical works. We used the...
The effect of spoil-mining subtrate with heavy metal contents on leaf physiological status with emphasis on phenolics content.
Kovářová, Monika ; Lhotáková, Zuzana (advisor) ; Soudek, Petr (referee)
5 ABSTRACT Heavy metals abundance in the environment increases via natural and anthropogenic processes, mainly mining and industrial activities. Spoil mine substrates of the Sokolovsko Region characteristic by high heavy metal contents are recultivated by tree planting, e.g. of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The diploma thesis is a part of a larger project aimed on interpretation of hyperspectral remote sensing data for monitoring of vegetation physiological state. That is why it is focused on non-specific indicators of stress by heavy metals, which can be detected by foliage spectral analyses. The experimental part of thesis comprises 1) field research on P. sylvestris needles and 2) model pot experiments on tobacco plants. Field research was accomplished in 2009 and 2010 on one control locality and three spoil mine banks localities with different heavy metal soil contents (Hg, As and Cu). Photosynthetic pigments', phenolic compounds'and lignin contents were determined spectrophotometrically. Model pot experiments with tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun) - pilot experiment and experiments 1 and 2 using the spoil mine substrates in 2011 and experiment 3 in 2012 also included treatments with different mercury concentration in irrigation (10 and 15 ppm HgCl2). Gasometric measurements (net...

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1 Soudek, P.
2 Soudek, Pavel
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