National Repository of Grey Literature 34 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Pathobiochemistry of inhibin A and its application in prenatal screening of chromosomal abnormalities
Loucký, Jaroslav ; Průša, Richard (advisor) ; Procházka, Martin (referee) ; Matouš-Malbohan, Ivan (referee)
Aims: Currently, prenatal testing is based on an ultrasound examination, the testing of certain biochemical markers and most recently, also on the analysis of fragments from the extracellular DNA of the fetus in the mother's blood. The aim of this work was to verify whether inhibin A testing during pregnancy can help improve the results of prenatal screening (risk assessment) for Down syndrome and thus reduce the number of unnecessarily invasive procedures. Methods: The concentrations of inhibin A were measured using chemiluminescent immunoassay with paramagnetic particles on the Access system from Beckman Coulter. Risk assessments of screenings were performed using Alpha software, LMS. The results were compared in two groups of screening tests, a triple test and an integrated test. In the first case, the risks in these two groups were determined without inhibition A and included only high-risk results. Subsequently, the inhibin A results were included in the screening protocols and the existing risks were revised. Results: The first group of screening tests (triple test) included a total of 277 pregnant women. The second group (integrated test) included 91 pregnant women. The resulting risk for pregnant women without the determination of inhibin A was higher or equal to 1:300 (triple test),...
Biomarkers of early renal injury
Fořtová, Magdaléna ; Průša, Richard (advisor) ; Kalousová, Marta (referee) ; Ryšavá, Romana (referee)
Aims: The thesis deals with the biomarkers of early renal injury, namely albuminuria and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). The aims in the case of albuminuria were the implementation of HPLC method, comparing HPLC with immunoturbidimetric (IT) method and monitoring the relationship to the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. The aim of urinary NGAL (and eventually other markers) examination was to verify its reliability in the prediction of acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods: We investigated albuminuria in fresh urine samples in the groups of 636 diabetics and 456 nondiabetics using the HPLC method (Agilent 1200, Agilent Technologies, USA) and immunoturbidimetrically (Cobas Integra 400, Roche Diagnostics); we studied the correlations and relationships between albuminuria and glycated hemoglobin HbA1c. We investigated urinary NGAL by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (Architect i4000, Abbott) in children's groups: 1) after renal transplantation (N = 15), 2) with acute or chronic kidney disease (N = 28); and in adult patient's groups: 1) after cardiac surgery (N = 10) and 2) post angiography (N = 41). Results: Albuminuria determined by HPLC was statistically significantly higher than albuminuria determined by IT. We excluded nonspecificity of the HPLC method. Results indicate...
Individualization of the treatment of prostate cancer patients based on the immunocytochemical detection of circulating tumor cells
Škereňová, Markéta ; Zima, Tomáš (advisor) ; Průša, Richard (referee) ; Svoboda, Marek (referee)
Introduction: Together with the introduction of new therapeutic options in castration- resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), an advance in individual disease characterization is required. Since common biopsy methods are not suitable for the majority of CRPC patients, one possible solution is the liquid biopsy that is, the analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) isolated from the cancer patients' blood. Methods: A method based on the immunomagnetic enrichment of CTCs and subsequent PCR detection of tumor-associated genes (AdnaTest, Qiagen) was characterized and used for the detection of CTCs in 41 CRPC patients. Each patient was screened at the time of CRPC diagnosis and after the 3rd cycle of docetaxel therapy. A panel of genes associated with therapeutic decision-making was established and validated. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) method on a BioMark platform (Fluidigm, USA) was used to determine the expression of the gene panel in the CTC-enriched and primary tumor samples and the results were analyzed. Results: CTCs were found in 85% and 45% of CRPC patients before and during the therapy, respectively. The presence of CTCs, as well as EGFR and AR PCR fragments, was associated with a decreased sPSA response and lower survival. The gene expression of the CTC- enriched and primary tumor samples differed...
Oxidative and carbonyl stress in kidney diseases
Kratochvílová, Markéta ; Tesař, Vladimír (advisor) ; Průša, Richard (referee) ; Zadražil, Josef (referee)
Aims: 1. Determination of AGEs (Advanced Glycation End products) in patients with various types of nephropathy. 2. Association AGEs with nutritional parameters and anemia. 3. Influence of renal parameters on sRAGE (soluble form of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products) levels. 4. Technics and proceeding methods of the podocytes cultivation. 5. Determination of urine podocytes. Methods: We determined fluorescent AGEs by spectrofluorometry, sRAGE by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). Podocytes were passaged and identified immunocytochemically. Podocytes in urine were specified by flow cytometry method. Results: 1. We did not find significant differences in AGEs serum levels among various types of nephropathy, even though the pathogenesis differs. 2. The albumin and prealbumin levels positively and haemoglobin levels negatively correlate with AGEs in patients with CKD grade 1-5, without necessity of dialysis. 3. Serum sRAGE levels are increased in patients with decreased renal function independently on the course of renal disease. 4. We implemented the methods and technics of podocyte cultivation. 5. Urine podocytes observation and confirmation that podocyturia relates to disease activity. Conclusion: We confirmed that AGEs serum levels depend more on renal function than the type of...
Research of vitreous and vitreoretinal interface in microvascular retinal disorders focussed on eye complications of diabetes mellitus
Křížová, Libuše ; Zima, Tomáš (advisor) ; Průša, Richard (referee) ; Sosna, Tomáš (referee)
In this work I present conclusions of clinical-laboratory research focused on the patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). We performed biochemical and immunochemical analyses of vitreous samples that were collected during the pars plana vitrectomy. Moreover, at patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) we assessed morphological characteristics of DME using optical coherence tomography (OCT). According to our findings, the vitreous and serum concentrations of uric acid and glucose were significantly higher in patients with diabetic retinopathy and DME compared to controls. Also total ratio (serum/ vitreous concentration) of uric acid and glucose was in diabetics significantly higher than in controls. The most important determinant of increasing concentration of both uric acid and glucose in the vitreous was the grade of diabetic retinopathy. Moreover, we demonstrated significant correlation between vitreous concentration of uric acid and concentration of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with DME and NPDR. We found further, that the volume of the macula (cube volume - CV) computed with the software of Cirrus HD-OCT correlates in diabetics significantly with the vitreous VEGF concentration, but not with uric acid. This OCT parameter could be used to...
Novel biomarkers in patients with renal disease
Zakiyanov, Oskar ; Kalousová, Marta (advisor) ; Teplan, Vladimír (referee) ; Průša, Richard (referee)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and acute kidney injury (AKI) are major public health problems. It is important to be able to identify those at high risk of adverse outcome, CKD progression and associated cardiovascular disease. The aim of the thesis was to study novel promising biomarkers, their relationship to kidney function, chronic inflammation and/or cardiovascular risk - placental growth factor (PlGF), pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), calcium binding protein S100A12 or extracellular newly identified RAGE binding protein (EN-RAGE), and high mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB-1) in patients with renal diseases including CKD, haemodialysis (HD), AKI patients, and healthy controls for comparison. First study revealed that PlGF is elevated in patients with decreased renal function. Second study demonstrated the association of MMP-2 and PAPP-A with proteinuria in patients with CKD. Moreover, serum MMP-2, MMP-9 and PAPP-A levels significantly differed in patients with various nephropathies. EN-RAGE levels are not elevated in patients with CKD, but are related to inflammatory status. PAPP-A, EN-RAGE and HMGB-1 levels are significantly elevated, but sRAGE and PlGF...
Laboratory diagnostics of kidney function
Šálek, Tomáš ; Palička, Vladimír (advisor) ; Jabor, Antonín (referee) ; Průša, Richard (referee)
Laboratory diagnostics of kidney function The work deal with issue of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). GFR is the most important indicator of kidney function. Its decline is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as decrease of GFR bellow 1.0 ml/s/1,73m2 for more than three months. Patients with CKD receive nephroprotective drugs and have reduced drugs excreted by kidneys if needed. Early detection of CKD is of clinical importance. We compare GFR estimated from serum creatinine (eGFRcreatinine) and from serum cystatin C (eGFRcystatinC) in four cohorts of patients: 101 MGUS patients, 13 methanol intoxicated patients, 1515 diabetics and 352 patients with CKD. Creatinine was measured by enzymatic method traceable to international reference material NST SRM 967 in all patients. Cystatin C was determined by standardized immunoturbidimetric method traceable to DA ERM 471. This standardized method was not available only for MGUS patients. eGFR was always calculated according to the best available validated equation. MGUS patients were calculated according to MDRD equation for eGFRcreatinine and according to Grubb equation for eGFRcystatinC. Methanol intoxicated patients were estimated according to Lund-MalmÖ equation for eGFRcreatinine and according to...
New markers of liver fibrosis
Skřebská, Lenka ; Čepová, Jana (advisor) ; Průša, Richard (referee)
This material is talking about problems of liver fibrosis. It Is a very fundamental liver's disease which is bringing about a chronic harm of the liver's tissue. An effect of it is a process defect of fibrogenesis and fibrolysis which has to be balanced. A diagnosis of liver fibrosis on time is important for start an efficient therapy. At this time we are getting diagnosis of the liver fibrosis by liver's biopsy which is bringing many risks for patients and it is disadvantageus for them. This situation is running us to search for a new non-invasive methods. It is a lot of calculations they are using a specific and unspecific markers to determine fundamental measures of specific fibrotisation and nonspecific too. A goal of this work it is to get a contrast between a new automatic imunochemicle ELF test which is using specific markers for the liver fibrosis and using calculations APRI and the Hepascore until now. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
The Heme Catabolic Pathway in Chronic Hepatitis C
Subhanová, Iva ; Zima, Tomáš (advisor) ; Průša, Richard (referee) ; Kráslová, Ivana (referee)
This thesis focuses on the importance of the heme catabolic pathway in chronic hepatitis C (HCV). The aim is mainly to investigate, whether expresion/activity of key enzymes of the heme catabolic pathway, heme oxygenase (HMOX) and biliverdin reductase (BLVRA) in the liver and blood (study A) or promoter variations of HMOX1 and UDP- glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A1) (study B) may be associated with the progression of fibrosis and may also predict antiviral treatment outcome in patients chronically infected with HCV. We set up a new sensitive method to quantify HMOX activity by reduction gas chromatography. We developed and extensively validated RealTime PCR assay for HMOX and BLVRA expression in the liver and peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL). The (GT)n and (TA)n dinucleotide variations in HMOX1 and UGT1A1 gene promoters, respectively, were determined by fragment analysis. No association was detected between either expression of HMOX/BLVRA or the HMOX1/ UGT1A1 promoter variants and the individual histological stages of liver disease in the HCV positive patients. A marked difference in BLVRA expression in PBL between the sustained responders (SVR) and patients with treatment failure (NVR) was detected before antiviral treatment and during the follow-up. Our data suggests, that BLVRA basal expression...

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3 PRŮŠA, Radek
2 Pruša, Radomír
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