National Repository of Grey Literature 16 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
The development and variation of selected prepositional phrases in contemporary Czech
Prokšová, Hana ; Adam, Robert (advisor) ; Panevová, Jarmila (referee) ; Osolsobě, Klára (referee)
This doctoral dissertation is concerned with the dynamic processes that are at play in the development of the system of prepositions in contemporary Czech. In the first part, I review different treatments of prepositions as a word class in the Czech linguistic tradition. I use available descriptive accounts to discuss the features of two main subtypes of this category, i.e. primary and secondary prepositions, focusing in particular on the process of 'prepositionalization' of secondary prepositions, i.e. the grammaticalization path that leads to their emergence. The primary focus of the first part of the dissertation is the role of meaning and the semantic features of prepositions as function words, as well as the meaning which prepositions contribute to more complex linguistic items, i.e. the interrelation of prepositions and case marking and valency patterns derived from verbs. I also draw attention to prefixed words which are, in the majority of cases, derived from primary prepositions. I approach meaning mainly from the perspective of cognitive linguistics, employing also the view of construction grammar which treats prepositions both as constructions in their own right and as parts of higher order constructions. Chapter three is concerned with the processes of language change with regards to...
The Use of Verb Tense in Subordinate Content Clauses in Czech
Koutová, Marta ; Panevová, Jarmila (advisor) ; Karlík, Petr (referee) ; Janovec, Ladislav (referee)
The subject of this dissertation is an analysis of the use of verbal tenses in Czech subordinate clauses. This analysis is based on the notions of relative and absolute tenses and on the distinction between content and adjunct clauses. We test the hypothesis about the connection of relative and absolute tense with the type of a subordinated clause (content and adjunct) and propose a revised version of the views presented in Czech grammars, monographs and articles based on a detailed analysis of the data from the Czech National Corpus. The syntactic and semantic criteria for the classification of dependent clauses into content and adjunct classes are studied together with the conditions for the application of relative or absolute tense. The great amount of data exploited from the Czech National Corpus support the idea that beside the expected forms of tense (relative in content clauses, absolute in adjunct clauses) there exists some shifting of the presupposed forms of verbal tenses. The explanation of these shifts is presented in this dissertation as a new contribution to the study of the interplay between Czech morphology and syntax. Key Words: subordinate content clause, relative tense, absolute tense, factual predicate, indirect speech
Linguistic Issues in Machine Translation between Czech and Russian
Klyueva, Natalia ; Kuboň, Vladislav (advisor) ; Panevová, Jarmila (referee) ; Strossa, Petr (referee)
In this thesis we analyze machine translation between Czech and Russian languages from the perspective of a linguist. We work with two types of Machine Translation systems - rule-based (TectoMT) and statistical (Moses). We experiment with different setups of these two systems in order to achieve the best possible quality. One of the questions we address in our work is whether relatedness of the discussed languages has some impact on machine translation. We explore the output of our two experimental systems and two commercial systems: PC Translator and Google Translate. We make a linguistically-motivated classification of errors for the language pair and describe each type of error in detail, analyzing whether it occurred due to some difference between Czech and Russian or is it caused by the system architecture. We then compare the usage of some specific linguistic phenomena in the two languages and state how the individual systems cope with mismatches. For some errors, we suggest ways to improve them and in several cases we implement those suggestions. In particular, we focus on one specific error type - surface valency. We research the mismatches between Czech and Russian valency, extract a lexicon of surface valency frames, incorporate the lexicon into the TectoMT translation pipeline and present...
Particle Character Units and Their Function in Text Structure, especially in Topic- Focus Articulation
Štěpánková, Barbora ; Hajičová, Eva (advisor) ; Panevová, Jarmila (referee) ; Pešek, Ondřej (referee)
B. Štěpánková K funkci výrazů částicové povahy ve výstavbě textu... ABSTRACT This dissertation is devoted to a specific type of particle unit which we refer to as the actualizer. Actualizers are differentiated from other particles primarily due to a combination of the following properties: the ability to imply a presupposition and the ability to actualize or emphasize a nearby expression. They play an important role in the topic-focus articulation of a sentence by drawing attention to elements with a greater degree of communicative dynamism, not only in focus or contrastive topic, but also in other parts of the sentence. Unlike previous studies which have concentrated mainly on prototypical representatives of these units, this dissertation tries to capture the greatest possible number of actualizers. At the same time, it aims to describe their semantic characteristics, and based on this, it attempts to categorize actualizers into three semantic groups. From this perspective, we can distinguish between restrictive, inclusive, and temporally emphasizing actualizers. These groups can be further divided according to their specific features. The dissertation also analyzes the possible positioning of the actualizers in various places in a sentence and investigates which expressions can occur in the surroundings...
Semantic representation of ellipsis
Mikulová, Marie ; Panevová, Jarmila (advisor) ; Karlík, Petr (referee) ; Štěpánek, Jan (referee)
This dissertation answers the question what is and what is not ellipsis and specifies criteria for identification of elliptical sentences. It reports on an analysis of types of ellipsis from the point of view of semantic (semantico-syntactic) representation of sentences. It does not deal with conditions and causes of the constitution of elliptical positions in sentences (when and why is it possible to omit something in a sentence) but it focuses exclusively on the identification of elliptical positions (if there is something omitted and what) and on their semantic representation, specifically on their representation on the tectogrammatical level of the Prague Dependency Treebanks. In this dissertation, the dependency approach (used in the Prague Dependency Treebanks) is also compared with the generative approach (used in the Penn Treebank). It is possible to utilize this comparison in the (automatic) conversion from constituency trees to dependency trees.
Lexical-semantic Conversions in the Valency Lexicon
Kettnerová, Václava ; Lopatková, Markéta (advisor) ; Panevová, Jarmila (referee) ; Karlík, Petr (referee)
In this thesis, we provide an adequate lexicographic representation of lexical-semantic conversion. Under the term lexical-semantic conversion, the relation between semantically similar syntactic structures which are based on separate lexical units of the same verb lexeme is understood. These relations are associated with various changes in valency structure of verbs - they may involve a number of valency complementations, their type, obligatoriness as well as morphemic forms. These changes arise from differences in the mapping of situational participants onto valency complementations. On the basis of semantic and syntactic analysis of two types of Czech lexical- semantic conversions, the locative conversion and the conversion Bearer of action-Location, we propose to represent lexical units creating syntactic variants in the relation of lexical semantic conversion by separate valency frames stored in the data component of the lexicon. The special attribute -conv whose value is a type of lexical-semantic conversion is assigned to relevant valency frames. Then the rule component of the lexicon consists of general rules determining changes in the correspondence between situational participants and valency complementations. This proposal is primarily designed for the valency lexicon of Czech verbs, VALLEX....
Valency frames of Czech nouns: corpus-driven study
Čermáková, Anna ; Petkevič, Vladimír (advisor) ; Panevová, Jarmila (referee) ; Kopřivová, Marie (referee)
This thesis aims at providing a lexicological framework for systematic description of valency of Czech nouns. Valency is seen here as a lexicological property of words. Valency is an abstract relation with concrete textual realizations and the term "valency" is used here for both: the abstract notion and the concrete valency exponents and realisations. The analysis is corpus-driven and as such it is based on a rather loose notion of valency, devoid of any pre-conceived ideas, concentrating on typical structural patterns of occurrence on the right side of the noun under investigation. For the analysis the corpus SYN2000, a part of the Czech National Corpus has been used. The analysis is based on random selections of concordance lines of randomly chosen 99 nouns from the middle frequency range. In some cases, where the data proved insufficient, we have carried out additional specialized corpus queries. For high frequency nouns we assume highly differentiated valency profiles; to confirm this hypothesis we have carried out additional brief analysis of several high frequency nouns. The most frequent valency of Czech nouns is genitive complementation, which we find as occurring with more than 90% of the analysed nouns. For some of the nouns, the genitive valency is a very dominant valency pattern (in some cases...
Negative language transfer students for English-speaking Czech as a foreign language. Applied contrastive linguistic study on the material selected Czech and English verbs with the meaning of interpersonal communication
Daněk, Jan ; Machová, Svatava (advisor) ; Panevová, Jarmila (referee) ; Kolářová, Ivana (referee)
Práce je zaměřena na problematiku negativního jazykového transferu anglicky mluvicích studentů češtiny jako ciziho jazyka. Na materiálu deseti českých sloves s významem interpersonálni komunikace, totiž říci (si), říkat (si), říkávat (si), mluvit, hovořit, povědět, povídat (si), oznámit, informovat a konstatovat, ukazuje, jaký obraz jazykového jednáni je typický pro rodilé mluvči češtiny. V porovnáni s převzatou analýzou anglických lexémů speak, talk, say a tell stanovuje shody a rozdily obrazu jazykového jednáni v češtině a v angličtině a predikuje oblasti negativního jazykového transferu u anglicky mluvicich studentů češtiny jako ciziho jazyka. Tuto predikci následně ověřuje pomoci výzkumné sondy. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
Words that matter. Towards a Swedish-Czech colligational lexicon of basic verbs
Cinková, Silvie ; Vachková, Marie (advisor) ; Malmgren, Sven-Göran (referee) ; Panevová, Jarmila (referee)
Basic verbs, i.e. very common verbs that typically denote physical movements, locations, states or actions, undergo various semantic shifts and acquire different secondary uses. In extreme cases, the distribution of secondary uses grows so general that they are regarded as auxiliary verbs (go and to be going to), phase verbs (turn, grow), etc. ese uses are usually well-documented by grammars and language textbooks, and so are idiomatic expressions (phraseologisms) in dictionaries. ere is, however, a grey area in between, which is extremely difficult to learn for non-native speakers. is consists of secondary uses with limited collocability, in particular light verb constructions, and secondary meanings that only get activated under particular morphosyntactic conditions. e basic-verb secondary uses and constructions are usually semantically transparent, such that they do not pose understanding problems, but they are generally unpredictable and language-specific, such that they easily become an issue in non-native text production. In this thesis, Swedish basic verbs are approached from the contrastive point of view of an advanced Czech learner of Swedish. A selection of Swedish constructions with basic verbs is explored. e observations result in a proposal for the structure of a machine-readable Swedish-Czech...

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