National Repository of Grey Literature 11 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Determination of absolute quantum yield of luminescence
Smísitel, Petr ; Valenta, Jan (advisor) ; Herynková, Kateřina (referee)
In this bachelor thesis we will study the determination of absolute quantum yields (efficiency) of photoluminiscence, which is equal to the ratio of number of emitted photons and number of absorbed photons. The common approach is to compare the absorption and luminescence spectrum. The main experimental problem is to eliminate the influence of angular dependence of reflection, emission and scattering. Therefore it is convenient to use the integrating sphere which eliminate most of the problems of relative measurements of quantum yield. In detail we will describe the method to determine the quantum yields of luminescence using the integrating sphere including the description of the experimental equipment and the procedure of processing data and estimation of uncertainty. Finally, we apply the procedure to solid and liquid samples containing silicon nanocrystals. We will measure the dependence of quantum yields on the applied excitation wavelength. 1
Development of sensors based on porous silicon
Vrkoslav, Vladimír ; Jelínek, Ivan (advisor) ; Mička, Zdeněk (referee) ; Herynková, Kateřina (referee) ; Volf, Radko (referee)
5 Conclusion PS samples with defined macroporous structure were prepared and they were used as sensing layer in PL chemical sensors' concentration dependence of pL quenching response of standard PS was measured ro,ío*orogical set of linear alcohols in gas and liquid phase. From oU*'""a *tl"l"tion' of quenching sensitivity with dielecnic constant and saturated vapour it""ut" in gas and liquid phases follolrs: r. :r _L^-a io .nnrrolled bv dielectric - PL quancbing response of PS in liquid phase is controlled by streng*r ofmlYta - PL quenching response of PS in gas phase is controlled more by equilibriumconcentrationofanalýeinsideporousmatrix.Dielectric strength of analýe is not so important. PSsurfaceswerefunctionalizedwithcobaltphthalocyanine, polypyrrole, permethyl-6r-heptenoylamino-6I-deoxy B-cyclodextrins' methyl-lO-undeceonate and by oxidation' (The work is focused on using the first three compounds') We performed a measurement of concentration dependence of PL sensor response functionalized PS samples for selected organic species in gas phase' We can conclude that the PL quenching.",pň," was modiťred by functionalization of PS with selected compounds, due to change of surface polarity and molecular recognition. The magnitude of sensor response modification is dependent on kind of anallte' Another...
Ultrafast spectroscopy of hybrid nanosystems
Galář, Pavel ; Malý, Petr (advisor) ; Herynková, Kateřina (referee) ; Vrňata, Martin (referee)
Title: Ultrafast spectroscopy of hybrid nanosystems Author: RNDr. Pavel Galář Department: Department of Chemical Physics and Optics Supervisor: prof. RNDr. Petr Malý, DrSc. Abstract: This Ph. D. thesis is focused on physical phenomena located at the interface of hybrid nanostructure composed of polycrystalline diamond and polymer polypyrrole. The main method used in our experimental study was ultrafast laser spectroscopy that allowed us to gain new findings about electron recombination processes in polycrystalline diamond layers, polypyrrole and in their hybrid structures. The research was focused on mutual influence of both components, especially through energy and charge transfer. In the first step of our research we carried out optical characterisation of different kinds of polypyrrole and complex study of recombination processes dynamics of photoexcited charge carriers in polycrystalline diamond. The measurements were realized by the methods of time-resolved photoluminescence and transmission spectroscopy in the time scale from picoseconds to milliseconds. On the basis of the obtained results the model explaining the origin of luminescence signal related to the different kinds of electron recombination processes in non- diamond phase and on surface defects of diamond grains in polycrystalline layers was...
Time-resolved spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures
Kořínek, Miroslav ; Trojánek, František (advisor) ; Herynková, Kateřina (referee) ; Němec, Hynek (referee)
Title: Time-resolved spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures Author: RNDr. Miroslav Kořínek Department: Department of Chemical Physics and Optics Supervisor: doc. RNDr. František Trojánek, Ph.D., Department of Chemi- cal Physics and Optics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague Abstract: This Ph.D. thesis is focused on the study of relaxation and re- combination processes in silicon nanocrystals embedded in dielectric (SiO2, SiC and Si3N4) matrices that were fabricated within the EU 7th Framework Pro- gramme Silicon Nanodots for Solar Cell Tandem (NASCEnT). Different host ma- terials, in which silicon nanocrystals are incorporated, not only provide different transport properties, but also differently affect the nanocrystal surfaces. A large part of the thesis is devoted to research of SiO2-embedded silicon nanocrystals having various sizes (in the order of nanometers) and various inter-nanocrystal separation, that differ also in the manner of an additional annealing. Experimen- tal techniques of optical spectroscopy are used to monitor the photoexcited charge carrier dynamics on a wide time scale from picoseconds to milliseconds. The initial (picosecond) dynamics is characterized very well using a relevant rate equation. We propose a theoretical description of how the...
Studium optických nelinearit v polovodičích a polovodičových nanostrukturách
Kozák, Martin ; Trojánek, František (advisor) ; Herynková, Kateřina (referee) ; Kužel, Petr (referee)
This Ph.D. thesis is focused on the study of optical nonlinearities and dynamics of excited charge carriers in monocrystalline diamond, nanocrystalline diamond and silicon. The dynamics of high density carriers in bulk diamond is investigated in detail (the transition from excitons and free carriers to electron-hole liquid or plasma). We study the picosecond dynamics of electron-hole liquid condensation using several techniques of time-resolved optical spectroscopy and demonstrate its evaporation by femtosecond laser pulses. We also propose two new optical techniques for measurement of lifetime, diffusion coefficient and surface recombination velocity of excitons in diamond. The results obtained by these techniques are described theoretically using diffusion equation and compared with the results obtained by the transient grating diffraction measurement. Further we study two- and three- photon absorption and nonlinear refractive index in diamond. In nanocrystalline diamond we study the second and third harmonic generation and its physical origin. In superlattices of silicon nanocrystals in SiO2 matrix we investigate the nonlinear transient absorption dynamics and carrier diffusion.
Silicon nanocrystals, photonic structures and optical gain
Ondič, Lukáš ; Herynková, Kateřina (advisor) ; Oswald, Jiří (referee) ; Lauret, Jean-Sebastien (referee)
Silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) of sizes below approximately 5 nm are a material with an efficient room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) and optical gain. Optical gain is a pre- requisite for obtaining stimulated emission from a pumped material, and the achievement of stimulated emission (and lasing) from Si-based nanostructures is of particular interest of the field of silicon photonics. The aim of this work was (i) to investigate fundamental optical properties of SiNCs, (ii) to design and prepare a photonic crystal with enhanced light ex- traction efficiency and (iii) to explore a possibility of enhancing optical gain of light-emitting SiNCs by combining them with a two-dimensional photonic crystal. First, free-standing oxide (SiOx/SiO2)-passivated SiNCs were prepared by electrochemical etching of a Si wafer. Their optical properties were studied by employing time-resolved spectroscopy, also at cryogenic temperatures. The fast blue-green emission band of these SiNCs was linked with the quasi- direct recombination of hot electrons and holes in the vicinity of the Γ-point. Furthermore, the spectral shift of the slow orange-red band (of these SiNCs) as a function of temperature was explained on the basis of an interplay between tensile strain and bulk Si temperature-induced indirect bandgap shift. The...
Morfology and surface chemical composition of porous silicon prepared at various conditions
Konečný, Martin ; Dian, Juraj (advisor) ; Herynková, Kateřina (referee)
Title: Morfology and surface chemical composition of porous silicon prepared at various conditions Author: Bc. Martin KONEČNÝ Author's e-mail: konecmar@seznam.cz Department: Department of Chemical Physics and Optics Supervisor: Doc. RNDr. Juraj Dian, CSc. Supervisor's e-mail: Juraj.Dian@mff.cuni.cz Abstract: Porous silicon is a silicon-based material prepared mainly by anodic etching of crystalline silicon in hydrofluoric acid. Physical and chemical properties of porous silicon are governed by structures with sizes of the order of ones to tens of nanometers. Properties of nanostructure material are affected - as compared to macroscopic counterparts - by quantum confinement effect and enormous internal surface. According to type of silicon substrate (type of dopant, conductivity, crystallographic orientation) and technological conditions a material with different mean size of pores (macro-, meso- and nanoporous silicon) and surface chemical composition (different ratio of Si-O and Si-H bond) can be prepared. Morphology and surface chemical composition predestinated application potential of porous silicon for sensors of chemical species by taking advantage of strong sensitivity of physical properties of silicon nanocrystals - especially of photoluminescence - on the chemical state of a surface. Detection of...
Study of semiconductors by methods of laser spectroscopy
Dzurňák, Branislav ; Trojánek, František (advisor) ; Oswald, Jiří (referee) ; Herynková, Kateřina (referee)
Title: Study of semiconductors by methods of time resolved laser spectroscopy: Luminescence spectroscopy of nanocrystalline diamond Author: Branislav Dzurňák Department: Department of Chemical Physics and Optics Supervisor: doc. RNDr. František Trojánek, Ph.D. Abstract: The PhD thesis is focused on optical properties of nanocrystalline diamond prepared by chemical vapour deposition method. Photoluminescence of nanocrystalline diamond samples and effects of ambient temperature, pressure, pH and UV irradiation on it are studied by laser spectroscopy. Results suggest the keyrole of water and air adsorbates which affect the energy states in the sub-bandgap region of diamond. Photoluminescence decay of samples of different surface termination and structure and its dependency on ambient pressure and temperature is studied by methods of ultrafast (picosecond and nanosecond scale) laser spectroscopy. Results are analysed by power-law decay function which fits well the luminescence decay curves and also describes the dynamics of charge carriers in states localised within the bandgap. The model of interaction of nanocrystalline diamond with air adsorbates is proposed. Non-linear optical properties of nanocrystalline diamond are also studied, namely the generation of second and third harmonic frequency. The thesis...
Dynamics of photoexcited charge-carriers in diamond
Popelář, Tomáš ; Malý, Petr (advisor) ; Herynková, Kateřina (referee)
Title: Dynamics of photoexcited charge carriers in diamond Author: Bc. Tomas Popelar Department: KCHFO MFF UK Supervisor: prof. RNDr. Petr Maly DrSc., KCHFO MFF UK Abstract: In this work we examine the luminescence from diamond in the strong excitation regime by one-photon or two-photon absorption of femtosecond laser beam. Measured sample was very pure type IIa diamond prepared by CVD method which was held in cryostat in order to measure temperature dependant luminescence in range from 12 K to 300 K. The signal was collected and analyzed either by spectrograph or streak camera so we gained time-integrated and time-resolved results. We analyzed only the part of the spectrum containing contributions from electron-hole liquid (for low temperatures), free excitons and probably exciton complexes. For higher temperatures where the condensation is not possible the contribution from e-h plasma was too weak compared to free excitons and was only detectable by time-resolved measurements. Other time-dependant results were obtained by pump and probe experiment with which we examined a change of life- times based on mode of excitation (one-photon or two-photon one) and also an influence of other beams on the condensation into electron-hole drops. Keywords: CVD diamond, dynamics, e-h liquid, excitons

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