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The Motif of Machine in Descartes' Metaphysics
Sedlická, Denisa ; Rybák, David (advisor) ; Hauser, Michael (referee)
The master's thesis discusses basic elements of metaphysics by René Descartes. The first part of the thesis focuses on his personal life because certain events shaped and influenced his further actions and ideas. To understand the context of time, the paper presents history knowledge that is relevant to the topic. René Descartes is still known today for his philosophical ideas which helped to develop findings in the field of metaphysics. During his lifetime, that is the first half of the 17th century, natural sciences were gaining in popularity. The thesis follows up with mathematization and geometrization of nature. Descartes' basic premise of knowledge is methodical skepticism which ultimately results in his first personal certainty of philosophy. Next part focuses on the clarification of the dualistic concept of two different substances - rez extensa and res cogitans. The largest and most important part deals with the mechanical conception of the human body. René Descartes believes that the human body is a machine operated by mechanical principles. The thesis introduces a systematic description of the body which logically justifies the primary ideas of this French philosopher. KEYWORDS René Descartes, methaphysics, dualism, mind, body, God, machine, mathematics, geometry
David Hume's analysis of causality
Pakandl, Martin ; Rybák, David (advisor) ; Hauser, Michael (referee)
This diploma thesis is focused on David Hume's analysis of causality. The two major philosophical works about this topic are A Treatise of Human Nature and Enquiries concerning Human Understanding. The first chapter is about intellectual background which Hume came from when he is dealing with cause-effect problem. At that time there were two main epistemological theories: rationalism and empirism. Both will be discuss there. The next chapter is about Hume's way of thinking about human understanding. This chapter is important for us beacuse there are many terms which will be useful for understanding causality. Crucial role plays The Theory of Ideas, according to each content of a mind has a source in experience. The first perceptions are called impresions and their copies are called ideas. Ideas are processed by memory and imagination. There are two categories of contents of human understanding: relations of ideas and matters of facts. We will focus on matters of facts because they are based on causality. Hume as a empirist is searching for a source of idea of causality in our experience. He finds out that we cant find it in objects of our minds themselves, but is based on relations among them. These relations are: contiguity, constant conjunction, priority of time in the cause before the effect and...
Skepticism in ancient Greece
Dědič, Ondřej ; Hogenová, Anna (advisor) ; Hauser, Michael (referee)
This bachelor's thesis deals with the topic of skepticism in ancient Greece. By the skepticism is not only meant one of the schools in the Hellenistic period, but also thought attitude based on skeptical relation to the world. One of the aims of the thesis is to clarify what skepticism means and which role it plays in philosophy and other one is to observe the phenomenon of skepticism during the beginning of philosophy, ie in ancient Greece. Special emphasis will be given to the already mentioned Hellenistic skepticism, which worked with skepticism in a more radical concept than previous philosophers. In this case will be used for understanding the only primary source called Outlines of Pyrrhonism by the late ancient thinker Sextus Empiricus. In addition to this work, the thesis will draw on a variety of secondary sources, such as Lives of eminent philosophers written by Diogen Laertius. KEYWORDS Greece, skepticism, philosophy, Pyrrho of Elis, Sextus Empiricus
Political Thought of Judith Butler
Sůsa, Jan ; Hauser, Michael (advisor) ; Fulka, Josef (referee) ; Kobová, Lubica (referee)
My thesis is focused on critical analysis of political thought of American philosopher Judith Butler. Butler is concerned with the relationship between individual identity and collective subjectivity, and her works - which caused many critical reactions - represent one of the most interesting discussion in the field of feminist political philosophy. Butler is mainly concerned with the question, how various political strategies (eg. feminism) could be based on common interests of various agents, and not on their supposedly stable identity (eg. sex and gender). Her criticism of unproblematized "natural" identities is important not only to the constitution of any individual identity, but also for the notion of the political dimension of a collective subject. The introductory chapters of my thesis are concerned with early thought of Butler, mainly with her critical relationship to the "second wave" feminism, and with her notion of the performative constitution of gender identity. Next chapters explore the shift in her thinking from analysis of gender and sex towards more general themes of political thought: nation, race, class, universalism, state censorship, possibility of resistance or emergence of a collective subject without stable unifying principle. I also try to analyze selected critical...
Non-Dogmatic Marxism of 1950s and 1960s in the Czechoslovakia (Karel Kosík a Milan Machovec)
Dvořák, Jaromír ; Hauser, Michael (advisor) ; Rybák, David (referee)
a zkoumá vliv tohoto myšlení na jejich stěžejní díla následující dekádě. V let, ve kterém se formovaly osobnosti a myšlenky obou autorů. tehdejším Č Kosíkovo a Machovcovo myšlení. V závěrečné části práce jsou nastíněny také filozof podněty přicház které autoři postupně včlenili do

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