Ústav pro hydrodynamiku

Nejnovější přírůstky:
2019-05-16
18:17
Detekce mikroplatsů ve zdrojích vody a v pitné vodě na ÚV Káraný, Želivka a Podolí
Pivokonský, Martin ; Pivokonská, Lenka ; Čermáková, Lenka ; Novotná, Kateřina
Na vyžádání společnosti Pražské vodovody a kanalizace, a. s. byly analyzovány vzorky surové a upravené vody ze tří zdrojů sloužících pro zásobování pražské aglomerace pitnou vodou. Předmětem analýzy bylo stanovení množství a složení mikroplastových částic.

Úplný záznam
2019-03-14
15:59
Analýza vzniku kritické situace ohrožení kulturního dědictví přírodní pohromou
Hnilicová, Soňa ; Šípek, Václav
Analýza vzniku různých typů povodňových situací a hodnocení faktorů ovlivňující tvar povodňové vlny. Mechanismus komplexní protipovodňové ochrany včetně konkrétních opatření na území hl. m. Prahy.

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2019-03-14
15:59
Effect of pipe inclination on flow behaviour of fine-grained settling slurry
Vlasák, Pavel ; Chára, Zdeněk ; Matoušek, Václav ; Konfršt, Jiří ; Kesely, Mikoláš
The effect of flow parameters of fine-grained settling slurry on the pressure drop-velocity relationship, deposition limit velocity and local concentration distribution was studied in an experimental pipe loop of inner diameter D = 100 mm with inclinable pipe sections for pipe inclination ranging from – 45° to +45°. The slurry consisted from water and narrow particle size distribution glass beads of mean diameter d50 = 0.18 mm. The concentration distribution was studied with application of a gamma-ray densitometry. The deposition velocity was defined as the flow velocity at which stationary deposit started to be formed at the pipe invert. The study revealed the stratified flow pattern of the studied slurry in inclined pipe sections, for slurry velocities below to the deposition limit sliding or stationary bed were created in ascending pipe sections. For low pipe inclination (􀄮 < ± 25°) the effect of inclination on local concentration distribution was not significant. Mean transport concentration for descending flow was lower than that for the ascending flow Deposition limit in inclined pipe was slightly lower than that in horizontal pipe. Frictional pressure drops in ascending pipe were higher than that in descending pipe, the difference decreased with increasing velocity and inclination.

Úplný záznam
2019-03-14
15:59
Local velocity scaling in upward flow to tooth impeller in a fully turbulent region
Šulc, R. ; Ditl, P. ; Fořt, I. ; Jašíková, D. ; Kotek, M. ; Kopecký, V. ; Kysela, Bohuš
The hydrodynamics and flow field were measured in an agitated vessel using 2-D Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (2-D TR PIV). The experiments were carried out in a fully baffled cylindrical flat bottom vessel 400 mm in inner diameter agitated by a tooth impeller 133 mm in diameter. Distilled water was used as the agitated liquid. The velocity fields were investigated in the upward flow to the impeller for three impeller rotation speeds – 300 rpm, 500 rpm and 700 rpm, corresponding to a Reynolds number in the range 94 000 < Re < 221 000. This means that fully-developed turbulent flow was reached. This Re range secures the fully-developed turbulent flow in an agitated liquid. In accordance with the theory of mixing, the dimensionless mean and fluctuation velocities in the measured directions were found to be constant and independent of the impeller Reynolds number. On the basis of the test results the spatial distributions of dimensionless velocities were calculated. The axial turbulence intensity was found to be in the majority in the range from 0.4 to 0.7, which corresponds to the middle level of turbulence intensity.

Úplný záznam
2019-03-14
15:59
Droplets breakage in flow conditions of an agitated tank
Kysela, Bohuš ; Konfršt, Jiří ; Chára, Zdeněk ; Šulc, R. ; Kotek, M.
Production of two immiscible liquid dispersions used in chemical or metallurgical industry is usually performed by a mixing process. The droplets of secondary liquid are predominantly dispersed by the shear flow forces to the primary liquid. It is well known, that the real droplet size distribution is limited by the physical properties of both liquids, the acting forces and residence time. This phenomenon is investigated experimentally or numerically simulated by several methods. In this study, the simplified mixing test case was studied. The single droplet dispergation was simulated using finite volume method and multiphase VOF (Volume-of-Fluid) model. The capability of the local remeshing method was investigated. The increase of calculation performance and the phases mass imbalance during automatic mesh refinement is summarized.

Úplný záznam
2019-03-14
15:59
Settling slurry flow near deposition velocity in inclined pipe of negative slope
Kesely, Mikoláš ; Matoušek, Václav ; Vlasák, Pavel
Pipe flow of sand-water slurry (settling slurry) is sensitive to pipe inclination. The effect of the angle to which the partially stratified flow is inclined from the horizontal has been subject to investigation in numerous studies. However, almost all of them focus on ascending flows, i.e. flows inclined to positive angles of inclination. It is well known that settling slurry flows inclined to negative slopes (descending flows) differ from those inclined to positive slopes, particularly at velocities near the deposition limit. The deposition limit velocity is the flow velocity at which stationary deposit starts to be formed at the bottom of the pipe. We investigate the effect of the negative slope on pipe flow near deposition limit velocity in the broad range of inclination angles. Besides the deposition limit, we focus on the distribution of solids across the pipe cross section. We combine experimental approach with mathematical modelling. Our new experiments with medium-to-coarse sand (mass-medium grain size 0.87 mm) in a 100-mm pipe inclined from 0 to -45 degree provide suitable data for a validation of predictions of our layered model for partially stratified flows in inclined pipes.

Úplný záznam
2019-03-14
15:59
Measurement of drop size distribution time rate for liquid-liquid dispersion using IPI method
Jašíková, D. ; Kotek, M. ; Kysela, Bohuš ; Šulc, R. ; Kopecký, V.
The liquid-liquid dispersion properties are studied mainly by image analysis (IA) and Interferometric Particle Imaging (IPI). Drop sizes will be investigated in dilute dispersion since in this case the break up phenomena is the dominating and is not affected by phase fraction. Characteristics of the size distribution and the evolution of two liquid-liquid phase’s disintegration were studied. The IPI method was used for subsequent detailed study of the disintegrated droplets. We compared two liquids: Rhodosil Oil 47V50, and Silicone Oil AP1000 under stirrer rate of 540 rpm, and 760 rpm. The experiment run in the scaled model of agitated tank with Rushton turbine.

Úplný záznam
2019-03-14
15:59
Image analysis of particle size: effect of light source type
Formánek, R. ; Kysela, Bohuš ; Šulc, R.
Agitation of two immiscible liquids or solid-liquid suspension is a frequent operation in chemical and metallurgical industries. The sizes of particles, bubbles or droplets can be determined by the Image Analysis Technique. It is known that the quality of captured images depends significantly on the original image background that is mainly affected by the type of the light source. The aim of this contribution is to investigate the effect of light source type on image quality. The four types of light sources were tested: 1) 1000 W halogen lamp, 2) 72 W LED bar panel, 3) 60 W LED chip, and 4) 90 W LED chip. The illumination intensity and image background quality were investigated for each tested light sources. The effect of the shutter speed on evaluated particle sizes was tested using monodisperse spherical calibration particles having diameter of 1.19 mm. The difference observed between particle sizes evaluated by image analysis for given light source and declared calibration particle diameter was used as a measure of light source quality.

Úplný záznam
2019-03-14
15:59
Dispersion kinetics in mechanically agitated vessel
Bucciarelli, E. ; Formánek, R. ; Kysela, Bohuš ; Fořt, I. ; Šulc, R.
Agitation of two immiscible liquids or solid-liquid suspension is a frequent operation in chemical and metallurgical industries. Prediction of mean drop/particle size and drop/particle size distribution (DSD) is vital for emulsification, suspension polymerization, solid particle dispersion or crystallization. Simulation of particulate systems requires the knowledge of DSD and its time evolution. The time evolution of drop size distribution was investigated in baffled vessel mechanically agitated by a Rushton turbine and a high-shear tooth impeller. The system water –silicone oil was used as a model liquid. The volume fraction of the dispersed phase was 0.047 %. The drop sizes were determined by image analysis. The time evolution of the drops size dp32 was studied for both impellers tested. The model used involves the first order kinetics. Finally, the following correlations predicted by the Kolmogorov-Hinze theory were evaluated at steady state: dp32/D = C1.We-0.6 and dpmax/D = C2.We-0.6, where We is the impeller Weber number.

Úplný záznam
2019-03-14
15:59
Plasty v pitné vodě
Čermáková, Lenka ; Novotná, Kateřina ; Peer, Petra ; Janda, V. ; Pivokonský, Martin
Výzkum byl zaměřen na výskyt mikroplastů ve zdrojích vody a v samotné pitné vodě. V poslední době je téma výskytu plastů ve vodě velice aktuální. Většina prací je včak zaměřena na kvantifikaci mikroplastů ve vodě mořské, sedimentech či povrchových vodách, které nejsou zdrojem surové vody pro úpravu na vodu pitnou, a zároveň se téměř vždy zabývají analýzou částic ve velikostním rozmezí 0,3-5 mm. Předmětem předkládané studie bylo kvantifikovat mikroplasty již od velikosti 0,2 μm, a to v surové a upravené vodě ze třech nejmenovaných úpraven vody v České republice, určit jejich velikostní distribuci, tvar a materiálové složení. Bylo zjištěno, že v závislosti na zdroji vody a technologii dané úpravny se počet mikroplastů pohyboval v rozmezí 1414-7006 částic I-1 v surové vodě a 305-921 částic I-1 ve vodě upravené. Velikostně dominovaly částice menší než 10 μm a tvarově ve dvou zdrojích fragmenty a v jednom zdroji vlákna. Z hlediska materiálového složení analyzovaných mikroplastů převládal poyethylentereftalát a polypropylén.

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