Institute of Plasma Physics

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2019-04-15
07:49
The investigation of an Al-Zr-Ti alloy prepared by spark plasma sintering of atomized powder
Molnárová, O. ; Málek, P. ; Lukáč, František ; Chráska, Tomáš ; Cinert, Jakub
The microstructure and mechanical properties of a powder metallurgical Al-Zr-Ti alloy was studied. Fine powder with a typical size below 50 ?m was prepared by gas atomization. The smallest powder particles with a diameter below 10 ?m exhibited a segregation free microstructure. Larger droplets were found to contain intermetallic particles rich in Zr and Ti. The gas atomized powder was consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at various temperatures ranging from 450 to 550 °C. During SPS the materials microstructure remained nearly unchanged and a fine grain size between 2 and 3 ?m was observed. All SPS samples exhibited a microhardness of around 90 HV. The annealing (1 h, 500 °C) of the sample sintered at the highest temperature (550 °C) resulted in a decrease of microhardness to 75 HV as a result of changes in the phase composition, the fine grain size was retained. Natural aging at room temperature was not observed.

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2019-04-15
07:49
The effect of spark plasma sintering on the porosity and mechanical properties of Ti-15Mo alloy
Terynková, A. ; Kozlík, J. ; Bartha, K. ; Chráska, Tomáš ; Dlabáček, Zdeněk ; Stráský, J.
Metastable β-titanium alloys are receiving much interest for various applications such as aircraft industry and medicine thanks to their excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility. The common way of preparing the titanium alloys is hindered by its production costs. Powder metallurgy (PM) approach is a promising route for cost-effective fabrication of titanium alloys due to possibility of near net shaping. In this study, binary biomedical Ti-15Mo alloy was prepared by PM. Gas atomized powder was sintered by spark plasma sintering (SPS) above the β-transus temperature of the studied alloy. The compaction of the powders was accomplished by short-time sintering. The effect of the time of sintering on the porosity and the microhardness in centre part as well as in periphery part of the sample was investigated. The samples revealed significant inhomogeneity the porosity increases with the distance from the centre of the specimen. With increasing sintering times the porosity decreases and simultaneously the microhardness increases.

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2019-04-15
07:49
Microstructure of commercially pure titanium after cryogenic milling and spark Plasma sintering
Kozlík, J. ; Harcuba, P. ; Stráský, J. ; Chráska, Tomáš ; Janeček, M.
Commercially pure titanium was prepared by advanced powder metallurgy methods with the aim to produce the ultra-fine grained material. Cryogenic attritor milling was used as a first step to refine the microstructure at liquid argon temperatures to suppress recovery and dynamic recrystallization. Spark plasma sintering was subsequently employed to produce bulk material, exploiting its ability to achieve fully dense structure in short time and thus to reduce the grain growth. In order to understand the undergoing microstructural changes during the process, detailed investigation was performed after each preparation step. Powder morphology was changed significantly after milling, while particle fragmentation was only limited. Grain size after sintering was in micrometer scale, relatively independent of sintering conditions.

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2019-03-28
15:08
Relativistic effects in plasma produced with sub-nanosecond 3-TW laser
Krása, J. ; Klír, Daniel ; Řezáč, Karel ; Cikhardt, Jakub ; Krůs, Miroslav ; Velyhan, Andriy ; Pfeifer, Miroslav ; Dostál, Jan ; Dudžák, Roman ; Krupka, Michal ; Kaufman, J. ; Pisarczyk, T. ; Kalinowska, Z. ; Chodukowski, T.
This contribution deals with observations of relativistic electrons produced in a laser plasma interaction experiment at the PALS laser system operated at the Institute of Plasma Physics in Prague. The PALS laser is a near-infrared 3-TW iodine laser designed to deliver irradiance on target of 1016 Wcm2- in≈300 ps pulses at the wavelength of 1.315 μm. Various foils of 6 500 μm in thickness were irradiated with Iλ2 ≈5×1016 W cm-2 μm2 Under these conditions we have observed relativistic electrons expanding into the vacuum with maximum energy going beyond 4 MeV. The relativistically accelerated forward electrons escaping from the rear target surface were observed with the use of electron energy analysers. The observed electron energy spectra indicate that the applied laser intensity was increased by the thermal and relativistic self-focusing. The application of a unique femtosecond interferometry technique allowed us to observe bunches of thermal electrons occurring in the plasma expanding against the focused laser beam.

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2019-03-14
15:59
Vývoj řešení optického řešení Prototypu I
Pintr, Pavel
V této práci byly zkoumány jednak možnosti klasického leštění nikl-fosforové (NiP) vrstvy pomocí diamantových leštících suspenzí, dále pomocí Ceroxu jakožto standartního optického leštiva a v neposlední řadě možnosti využití CNC subaperturního leštění pro dosažení optickými aplikacemi vyžadované mikrodrsnosti resp. pro potlačení periodických povrchových struktur vznikajících při procesech opracování pomocí technologie Single Point Diamond Turning.

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2019-03-14
15:59
Optický element pro dopravní tabule 2G25 varA
Pintr, Pavel
Výzkumná zpráva popisuje vývoj a měření optiky pro dopravní informační tabule označenou jako 2G25 varA. První část zprávy popisuje vývoj kolimovaného svazku a tvorbu obdélníkového spotu dle požadavků normy ČSN EN 12966. Druhá část zprávy popisuje provedená optická měření.

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2019-03-14
15:59
Methodology of camera spectral response measurement
Melich, Radek ; Václavík, Jan ; Žídek, Karel
Spectral response of the camera will be measured using monochromator in conjunction with an integration sphere. Camera without objective will be placed in one port of the integrating sphere and light beam from monochromator will be fed into perpendicular port. Sensor of the camera sensor will be therefore uniformly illuminated by diffused light from monochromator. Proposed FWHM of the monochromator is 15 nm as a trade-off between light intensity provided by monochromator and deformation of spectral characteristic (Picture XY). Diameter of the integrating sphere has to be larger than 100 mm to ensure uniform illumination over sensor area.

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2019-02-26
15:24
Fluctuations in the scrape-off layer and edge plasma of the COMPASS tokamak
Seidl, Jakub ; Jiráková, Kateřina ; Adámek, Jiří ; Grover, Ondřej ; Horáček, Jan ; Hron, Martin ; Vondráček, Petr
We have identified two distinct types of turbulent fluctuations in COMPASS plasmas, the high-frequency edge oscillations and low-frequency SOL blobs. The transition region is localized in the near SOL, where both types spatially overlap and interact and the radial particle transport gradually transfers from high to low frequencies. Even though skewness of isat fluctuations is positive even inside LCFS, distinguishable Gamma-distributed PDF, formed by the low-frequency fluctuations, arises in the near SOL. This supports, together with turbulence spreading rate being positive in the near SOL but negative in the edge, the picture presented in [3] that most of the fluctuations that form a positive skewness in the edge region disappear around LCFS and new blobs are formed in the near SOL. Further, we cannot confirm the assumption that the blobs are generated randomly according to a Poisson process. Oscillations of all measured quantities, incl. radial particle flux, in the near SOL are peaked around ∼13 kHz. This seems to correspond to a poloidally rotating structure with a rather large poloidal wave-length ∼ 15 − 20 cm, that at least partly modulates blob generation. Nevertheless, we note that time separation of blobs becomes more random further in the SOL, possibly due to differences in their individual propagation. These observations hold for diverted plasmas, but the situation may be different in limited low-elongation plasmas where the radius of zero skewness was observed to be shifted significantly (several cm) inwards, compared to diverted configuration, and Gamma-like PDF is detected even inside the LCFS. Study of these plasmas is ongoing.

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2019-02-13
17:43
Electric probe measurements in the anode area of a DC arc plasma torch at low pressure
Ondáč, Peter ; Mašláni, Alan ; Hrabovský, Milan
We measured radial profiles of the electric field, plasma electrical potential and electron temperature in the hot anode area of a hybrid water-argon DC arc plasma torch with an external anode. The measurements were made under different values of the ambient pressure, during the restrike mode with a constricted anode arc attachment or during a supersonic mode with a diffuse anode arc attachment. The results provide first experimental data on plasma electrical potential in that anode area.

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2019-02-13
17:43
Realizace tenkých vrstev na optických komponentech
Budasz, Jiří
Zpráva se zabývá realizací tenkých vrstev na optických elementech určených pro funkční vzorky a prototypy. Popisuje rovněž zátěžové testování soustav vrstev na vzorcích.

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