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Složení a využití masa ryb
Žilková, Lucie
The diploma thesis "Composition and use of fish meat" is focused on the loss of water during smoking of fish fillets, the chemical composition of fish muscle, color measurement and a questionnaire survey of the consumption of fish and fish products. For the experimental part, African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fish samples were used at the age of 6-9 months (smoking, chemical composition, color measurement) and 5-6 years (chemical composition, color measurement). Smoking was carried out with warm smoke for fish samples in the form of fillets with skin. The water loss per 1 kg of fish muscle was 220 g, i.e. 22% water loss. During the chemical determination of the composition of fish muscle, where dry matter, fat and proteins were determined, the dry matter content of the raw fish before smoking was 20-22%, fat 1-4% and protein 16-18%, after smoking the dry matter content was 27-32%, fat 2-7% and protein 22-25%. (depending on the part of the carcass.) Determination of chilled and frozen fish muscle showed a dry matter content of 23-34%, fat 3-17% and protein 15-20% for chilled, dry matter content for frozen 21-36%, fat 1-20 % and protein 14-19% (depending on the type of muscle and part of the carcass). Color measurement using a spectrophotometer in the CIELab color space did not yield any statistically significant difference when comparing smoked and raw fish or when comparing the color of light and dark muscle in chilled and frozen conditions. The questionnaire survey investigated the consumption of fish and fish products. A number of 200 respondents said that they consume fish in the range 1x a week to 1x a month. Most of the respondents had not heard of the new products, but they would like to try fish sausages, ham or tartare.
Attitudes of active smokers, patients of outpatient services, after a stroke towards smoking
Horvátová, Tatiana ; Svěcená, Kateřina (advisor) ; Kulhánek, Adam (referee)
Background: "A stroke is a brain disease caused by a sudden vascular supply malfunction" (Růžička, 2019, p. 213) and "nn the Czech Republic, it affects more than 50,000 people every year" (Zámečník et al., 2019, p. 676). Smoking is one of the most common modifiable risk factors of its occurrence. Chemicals in cigarettes are involved in the development of atherosclerosis and other pathologies leading to stroke and heart disease (Kim et al., 2012). Research suggests that even a complex life event, such as a stroke, does not lead to quitting smoking in many patients. This may be related to the low awareness of the population that smoking is a risk factor for stroke despite relatively high awareness of the negative effects of cigarettes in general. The emotional relationship of smokers to smoking is strong and the rationalization of smoking is strong as well. Aim: The aim of the thesis is to find out the attitudes of active smokers after a stroke towards smoking. The thesis is divided into a theoretical part and a research part. The theoretical part focuses on the issue of stroke, risk factors for its occurrence and explains the conative, cognitive, and emotional components of attitudes. In the research part, the attitudes towards smoking of active smokers after a stroke are determined. Methods: Data...
The impact of advertisement and promotion of alternative tobacco and nicotine products on tobacco users: online survey
Jirásková, Alžběta ; Kulhánek, Adam (advisor) ; Zachová, Kateřina (referee)
Background: In the last few years, a large number of nicotine products have appeared on the Czech market, which are intended, among other things, to serve as alternatives to conventional cigarettes. These alternatives are often visually very distinctive and attractive. They are often perceived by users as less harmful and suitable for substitution for conventional cigarettes. At the same time, these products are not subject to legislation as strict as conventional cigarettes or packaged tobacco. Currently, approximately one quarter of the Czech population are at least occasional smokers, and a significant proportion are either currently using alternative nicotine products or are considering changing their use. Aims: The main objective of this work was to determine how active tobacco users perceive new alternatives on the market, specifically in terms of health harms, marketing presentation and appearance. In particular, another objective is to map preferences in the choice of use form and to compare the above mentioned alternatives with conventional cigarettes. Methods: The data was obtained through quantitative research. It was carried out using an online questionnaire survey in the Survio platform interface and distributed in the social networking environment. Respondents were collected through...
Cognitive-behavioral therapy in smoking cessation: a review of the literature
Brdičková, Naděžda ; Kulhánek, Adam (advisor) ; Rolová, Gabriela (referee)
Background: Smoking cessation is associated with significant health benefits. A review on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in smoking cessation would help identify proven effective interventions and enable more informed treatment decisions. Objective: The aim of this theoretical review is to map the effectiveness of CBT and its components in smoking cessation using a non-systematic search. Methods: 272 reviews published in English in the last 10 years were found in the PubMed database using keywords. These were sorted out and supplemented with other articles for a total of 108 processed articles. Results: The effectiveness of CBT in smoking cessation as a stand-alone treatment or treatment enhancing the pharmacotherapy has been demonstrated in large clinical trials, both in individual (RR vs. minimal intervention 1.57 (1.40 - 1.77)) and in group counseling (RR vs. self-help program 1.88 (1.52 - 2.33)). The effectiveness increased with the intensity of the therapy. Of the individual components, commitment, feedback to behavior, social reward, identity associated with changed behavior and financial reward were significantly effective. Information about emotional consequences and reframing the slip had a significantly negative impact. The effectiveness of improving coping skills...
Attitudes of healthcare workers towards tobacco smoking and smoking cessation: a questionnaire survey
Krejčí, Veronika ; Kulhánek, Adam (advisor) ; Jandáč, Tomáš (referee)
Background: Non-smoking staff and a non-smoking environment are prerequisites for high- quality health care. Despite this, the prevalence of smoking among healthcare workers is still high. Healthcare workers represent a specific group that should be informed about the harm of smoking. The aspect that strengthens the motivation to smoke among healthcare workers seems to be the demanding nature of work in hospital, which is associated with a higher level of stress. Part of the ethical issue of smoking is delegating one's work duties to other people and disrupting collegiality and relationships in the team in general. Aims: The aim is to determine the proportion of smokers and non-smokers in a selected sample of non-medical healthcare workers. To further identify what role a cigarette plays in the smokers' working day and how the consequences of smoking during working time are subjectively perceived. To determine the level of motivation to quit smoking and awareness of a smoking cessation program offered by the employer. To determine whether smoking affects interpersonal relationships in the workplace. Material and methods: Quantitative data collection in the form of an online questionnaire via the Google Forms platform was chosen for the implementation of the research. The basic set of research...
Smoking as a maladaptive strategy in overweight and obese women
Zdeňková Kroužková, Pavlína ; Kulhánek, Adam (advisor) ; Šťastná, Lenka (referee)
Introduction: Smoking and obesity (overweight) together represent a significant risk factor for a number of diseases. So far, not much has been published about the effect of weight reduction on smoking. Aim: The aim of the work was to map the most significant risk factors that lead women, tobacco smokers, overweight and obese to maladaptive behavior based on a comparison of a series of case studies. A partial goal was to find out whether compliance with the reduction program does not affect the number of cigarettes smoked. Methods: This is a case series, prospectively followed for three months (December 2022- March 2023), in which 21 female tobacco smoking patients undergoing a weight reduction program were followed. Monitoring the effect of weight reduction on the number of cigarettes smoked was complemented by structured interviews with female respondents on the topic of the most significant risk factors leading to smoking. The results were evaluated using the rapid assessment method. By searching for common psychosocial factors between individual case studies, individual types of clients were supplemented. Sample: The research sample of 21 female smokers was selected using a simple purposive sampling method based on availability and voluntariness. The age composition of the research sample...
Motivation to quit smoking among manual workers: research in manufacturing industry
Riegrová, Kateřina ; Kulhánek, Adam (advisor) ; Kočvarová, Linda (referee)
Background: Smoking cessation is still a debatable topic in addiction services as well as in other circles of the professional public. The use of tobacco products is examined both in clients of addiction services and in the general population. Many studies that deal with the use of tobacco products are focused on specific groups in the general population (e. g. pregnant women, Roma and people in prison). However, if we wanted to focus on the part of the population in the Czech Republic which is specific working in blue-collar professions, we would find a very limited number of resources. Objectives: The main target of the research was mapped the motivation to quit smoking among manual workers who work in industrial production. This goal was mapped through questions that focused on motivational factors, level of motivation to quit smoking, attempts to quit smoking, and reasons for relapse. The secondary goal was to verify the interest of production workers in the employer's smoking cessation support program. The main intention was to find out how many employees would participate in the program if the employer would offer to them. This secondary goal was also related to the mapping of the use of professional services by employees in case they were informed about them. Methods: The research was...
The influence of alcohol consumption and smoking on the physical condition of senior women
Teplá, Jana ; Heller, Jan (advisor) ; Kramperová, Veronika (referee)
Title: The influence of alcohol consumption and smoking on the physical condition of senior women Objectives: Assessment of the influence of alcohol consumption and smoking on the physical condition of senior women over 60 years of age Methods: The work will be processed as a cross-sectional study, in which data will be collected using a questionnaire regarding alcohol consumption and smoking during life and four physical tests selected from the test battery Senior fitness test. In order to complete the study, data regarding the lifestyle of the participants will be collected by additional questions. Results: 34 senior women aged 61-89 participated in the study. The average age of the participants was 72,1 years. Three senior women reported consumption of 15 cigarettes per day, one 12 cigarettes, two 10 cigarettes, one 10 cigarettes and one 7 cigarettes per day. Three of these women met or exceeded the normative range for their age in all physical tests, two did not reach the normative range only once, both in the 6-minute walk test, one met the norm only in the 30-Second Chair Stand, and the remaining two did not meet the norms in any test. Seventeen senior women do not consume alcohol, seven stated an average alcohol consumption of up to 20 g per day, ten over 20 g of alcohol per day and two...
Spatial Differentiation of Tobacco Smoking Rates in
The bachelor thesis examines the spatial differentiation of tobacco smoking rates in the world at the national level. The thesis is divided into theoretical and practical parts. It aims to analyse tobacco use rates in different countries of the world and to produce more general outcomes at the macro-regional level based on the results obtained. The sociopathological phenomenon under study is analyzed using nine socio-economic indicators, which are divided into three groups - economic, social and other. Using correlation analysis of the selected determinants, the dependence of each indicator with the proportion of adult smokers is observed. With the help of the created map outputs, some spatial differences, certain specifics and regularities of the observed phenomenon are clarified, which in the conclusion of the work confirm or refute the established hypotheses.

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