National Repository of Grey Literature 153 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Derivatization of Sodium Hyaluronate as a Possible Tool for Increasing of the Stability of Model Artificial Synovial Fluid
Hrochová, Eliška ; Mravec, Filip (referee) ; Kalina, Michal (advisor)
This master thesis deals with the optimization of the procedure of modification of hyaluronic acid structure for the use in the artificial synovial liquids. Based on the literature research, the amino acid alanine was used for the modification of carboxylic group in the glucuronic acid. The main subject of study is the improvement of the stability and mechanical properties of synovial liquid. DLS microrheology, macrorheology, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), multi-angle light scattering with flow-field flow fractionation (AF4-MALS) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used for characterization. The theoretical part of this theses submits review of the musculoskeletal system, role of hyaluronic acid in metabolism and summary of synovial liquid. The experimental part focuses on the measurement of the stability and mechanical properties of three artificial samples (first with no modification, second with modified hyaluronic acid and third with modified hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulphate). These samples were compared with real horse synovial fluid and artificial viscosupplement Orthovisc®.
Mechanical and Transport Properties of Hybrid Hydrogel Systems
Klímová, Eliška ; Sedláček, Petr (referee) ; Kalina, Michal (advisor)
This master´s thesis deals with the study on mechanical and transport properties of hybrid hydrogel systems. Considering applications of hydrogels, especially in chemical industry, pharmacy, or eventually medical applications, for the study gellan and alginate-based hydrogels were selected. In order to compare individual characteristics physical and hybrid hydrogels were prepared. Gellan hydrogels were prepared in deionization aqua solution, calcium chloride dihydrate and tween 80 solution. Alginate hydrogels were prepared in calcium chloride dihydrate solution as well, and polyacrylamide with N,N´–methylenbisacrylamide. For the study of mechanical properties moisture analyser and rheology measurements were selected. Transport properties were studied using the diffusion experiments combined with UV-VIS spectroscopic detection. Concluding of this thesis is summarization of measured values, which provides comprehensive review of the problematics. It was discovered that the conveniently selected concentrations of structural components of hydrogel matrix and the additives can influence both the mechanical as well as the transport properties of studied hydrogels.
Biotribology of artificial tears for the treatment of dry eye syndrome
Černohlávek, Mikuláš ; Daniel, Matej (referee) ; Vrbka, Martin (advisor)
This master thesis is a part of the project TAČR TREND, which aim is the development of new ingredient for treatment of dry eye syndrome. Developed ingredient is derivative of hyaluronic acid, which is in this thesis compared with native hyaluronic acids and commercial eye drops. Aim of this thesis is to describe rheological and tribological properties of measured samples in terms of viscosity, mucoadhesivity and coefficient of friction. Coefficient of friction was measured on created tribological model of the eye in pin-on-plate configuration which represents physiologically relevant sliding speeds of blinking. Comparison with native hyaluronic acids and commercial products of eye drops showed, that derivative reaches higher values of viscosity, has mucoahesive properties and has low values of coefficient of friction. Those key parameters show that modification of hyaluronic acid is promising way for drug development for dry eye disease.
Physical hydrogels based on biopolymers and surfactants
Velcer, Tomáš ; Lehocký, Marián (referee) ; Kráčalík, Milan (referee) ; Pekař, Miloslav (advisor)
This doctoral thesis studies the properties and behaviour of phase-separated hydrogels. These can be prepared by interaction of polyelectrolytes with oppositely charged surfactants. Negatively charged polysaccharide hyaluronan and cationic surfactant carbethopendecinium bromide (Septonex), whose properties, behaviour and utilization are described in the first two chapters of theoretical part, were selected for this role. Hyaluronan is naturally-occuring in living organisms and is known for his specific targeting to the tumour cells. Septonex is used as antiseptic and disinfectant. Experimental part of this work is focused on examination of the structure and behaviour of these types of hydrogels especially from rheological point of view. The crucial part of this study was to establish mechanical properties and their dependence on environment. This led to design further studies. Structural analysis was held using the methods of ATR-FTIR, ionic chromatography and ICP-OES helping to measure the inner content of entry materials in the gels and supernatants respectively. The last chapter deals with antimicrobial activity. The results of this study indicate a potential usage of these substances in the field of medical applications.
Localization of deformation in rocks with existing anisotropy: consequences for geodynamic interpretations
Bukovská, Zita
Localization of deformation occurs in Earth's crust as a consequence of applied stress and is widespread phenomenon that can be found in crustal rocks. Such localization of deformation can be mostly seen in a form of shear zones. Small shear zones referred as shear bands or S-C structures are often used as kinematic indicators. However, the evolution and kinematic continuity of such structures is not well identified, which makes it problematic when interpreting regional geodynamic evolution. Two possible cases were distinguished and described in this thesis: a) kinematically discontinuous S-C structures formed during two deformation events and b) kinematically continuous S-C structures formed during single deformation event. Kinematically unrelated S-C structures were studied in westernmost part of Tauern Window in Eastern Alps and in Gemer-Vepor Contact Zone in Central West Carpathians where previous geodynamic interpretations might have misinterpreted localization structures. Kinematically continuous shear bands were studied in South Armorican Shear Zone where the S-C fabrics were originally defined and described (Berthé et al., 1979). Two fabrics that crosscut each other at small angles forming S-C geometries were documented during field work and studied from macroscale down to microscale or...
Viscoelastic properties of ferrofluid - Study of normal stresses differences
Šustková, Hana
Since 1960, a liquid becoming strongly magnetized in the presence of a magnetic field, called ferrofluid, is known. This colloidal liquid made of ferro- or ferrimagnetic nanoparticles, with diameter in range 10-20 nm, suspended in a carrier fluid. This work focuses on the study of the viscoelastic properties of a selected ferrofluid - the steady-state and dynamic properties of the fluid with comparison to a standard fluid (basis fluid, etc.) and a MR fluid. Rheological measurements are carried out using a commercial rheometer. A magnetic cell for this rheometer is designed and built. In this magnetic cell the experiments are realized, the whole system is calibrated and the experiments performed. The ferrofluid APG513a, MR-fluid and reference fluid were used. Study of normal stresses differences (N1,N2) in liquids is carried out. According to derived theoretical model, the course of N1 and N2 should be strongly dependent on the field - this was studied directly by measuring of the normal forces or indirectly applying the Laun's rule. A good accordance of theory and experiment was found and an anisotropic behaviour of ferrofluid was studied. The shear-thinning ability of the ferrofluid in normal direction for shear experiment is found to be much stronger than in shear direction. In dynamical mode, the...
Antibacterial electrospun membrane prepared from poly(vinylidene fluoride)-co-hexafluoropropylene with lauric acid monoacylglycerol
Zelenková, Jana ; Peer, Petra ; Pleva, P. ; Janalíková, M. ; Sedlaříková, J. ; Filip, Petr
The aim of this study was to prepare an antibacterial nanofibrous membrane using electrospinning technique. The nanofibrous membranes were spun from polymer solution of poly(vinylidne fluoride)-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-co-HFP) dissolved in N,N´-dimethylformamide. Monoacylglycerol of lauric acid (MAG C12) was used as an antimicrobial agent at the concentrations ranging from 1 to 3 wt%. The impact of MAG C12 incorporation on the rheological, structural and antibacterial properties was investigated. The rheological tests of polymer solutions, as steady shear and oscillatory shear, proved that addition of MAG C12 changed marginally rheological quantities such as viscosity, elastic (storage) and viscous (loss) moduli. Measurement of mean nanofibres diameter indicated a slight decrease with increasing MAG C12 concentration. Antimicrobial activity of PVDF-co-HFP nanofibre membranes with incorporated MAG C12 against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli was studied. An antibacterial activity was revealed for the samples containing MAG C12 at all concentrations against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus by the disk diffusion method.
Evaluation of rheological properties of nasal sprays
Tisoň, Jakub ; Šnejdrová, Eva (advisor) ; Vraníková, Barbora (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove Department of Pharmaceutical Technology Author: Jakub Tisoň Title of thesis: Evaluation of rheological properties of nasal sprays Supervisor: PharmDr. Eva Šnejdrová, Ph.D. The aim of the submitted diploma thesis was to develop a comprehensive methodology for testing the rheological and especially thixotropic properties of nasal suspensions. Characterize the original preparation Avamys® and samples of a generic preparation at various stages of the formulation by selected tests. Within the theoretical part of the work, the nasal application of drugs, nasal preparations were discussed, the basics of rheometry were summarized and the principle of relevant rheological tests was described. Flow curves were measured on a Kinexus rotary rheometer using plate-to-plate geometry and analyzed by power law. The yield stress of nasal suspensions was determined. The thixotropic properties were evaluated by the area of the hysteresis loop, and especially by the three-step thixotropy test. The conformity of selected rheological characteristics of the tested samples with the original preparation was evaluated. Key words: nasal sprays, viscosity, yield stress, thixotropy.
Optimization of preparation and characterization of hybrid hydrogels with respect to viscoelastic and flow properties
Zhurauliova, Darya ; Kalina, Michal (referee) ; Smilek, Jiří (advisor)
This bachelor thesis focuses on the study of hybrid hydrogels that combine the properties of the hydrogel system together with oleogels, which is a gel on the base of oil. The aim of the thesis is to carry out a study of the current state of the solved issue on the topic of preparation of hybrid hydrogels, on this basis to design and optimize the appropriate procedure of preparation and in the form of viscoelastic measurements to perform the basic reological characterization of the prepared systems. A system based on sodium alginate dissolved in deionized water and meshed with calcium chloride solution was chosen as a suitable hydrogel system, and a system based on beeswax dissolved in sunflower oil was chosen as oleogel. Sodium alginate has been chosen because it is used as a thickener, emulsifier, stabilizer or gelling agent in the creams and preparation of pharmaceutical forms. By mixing hydrogels and oleogels of different proportions, a hydrogel/oleogel system, also called bigel, was created, the properties of which were tested in terms of flow and viscoelastic properties. In the practical part, amplitude, frequency and flow tests of both the hydrogel itself and the hybrid hydrogel with a ratio of 50:50 (hydrogel vs. oleogel) were measured. These tests provided information on gel preparations, i.e. what is their character, what are the mechanical properties and how it depends on the amplitude of deformation. By comparing the measurement results, it was possible to determine how oleogel acts on the properties and structure of the hydrogel.
Influence of particle size of cosmetic pigments on final properties product
Obručová, Kateřina ; Hurčíková, Andrea (referee) ; Zemanová, Jana (advisor)
This diploma thesis is focused on the study of the influence of the of size cosmetics pigments on the properties of the final product. This effect was studied on samples of make-up given by industry partner. Make-up samples were measured by the rheology method and the yield stress of all samples was determined. Scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the size and shape of the pigment particles. Particle size was also measured by dynamic light scattering, but the results were influenced by forming aggregates. To easier determination of the types of pigments in the sample was determined elemental composition of the pigments (Ti, Fe, O, Al) by EDS detector. Due to the unknown composition of make-up, the information was supplemented by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, and it was possible to determine the compounds TiO2 (anatase and rutile), FeOOH and Fe2O3. The results obtained by these methods showed what pigments can be found in make-up samples, what their sizes and shapes are. It has been shown that the smaller the pigments are, the higher the viscosity and yield stress of the final product. The higher these quantities, the harder it is to handle the product.

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