National Repository of Grey Literature 46 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Bioinformatic analysis of RNA dynamics during mammalian oocyte-to-embryo transition
Horvat, Filip ; Svoboda, Petr (advisor) ; Bruce, Alexander (referee) ; Vioristo, Sanna (referee)
The oocyte-to-embryo transition (OET) is a complex biological process during which a terminally differentiated oocyte undergoes numerous and coordinated changes to emerge as a collection of totipotent cells - initial blastomeres of a preimplantation embryo. In mammals, this process is primarily controlled through post-transcriptional regulation of maternal RNAs and transcriptional induction of zygotic RNAs. Technological advancements of next-generation sequencing methods during the last decade enabled studying OET through bioinformatic studies of high-throughput transcriptomics and genomics datasets. The work presented in this thesis explores mechanisms of post-transcriptional regulation and dynamics of different RNAs during OET by utilizing in-depth computational analyses. The presented work is divided into three topics, all covering distinct regulatory facets of the mammalian OET and illustrating roles of different RNA species. The first topic discusses dynamics of maternal transcriptomes in mouse. In our research, we explored roles of deadenylase CNOT6L in the maternal mRNA turnover in mice. We provided evidence that animals deficient in Cnot6l expression are subfertile, due to disruption in deadenylation and degradation of maternal mRNAs deposited in the oocyte. In another study, we...
Sequence variants in metastatic colorectal cancer and their evolution during the disease course and treatment
Jandová, Eliška ; Boublíková, Ludmila (advisor) ; Vymetálková, Veronika (referee)
A deeper understanding of the molecular background of colorectal cancer (CRC) can help explain the development of the disease and its resistance to treatment, predict disease progression, and improve treatment prognosis. Some minimal molecular testing has been incorporated into standard clinical management to determine if a particular patient will benefit from a particular therapy, but more and more new genetic alterations are being discovered that appear to be associated with the development of resistance. Tissue biopsy of the tumor is the gold standard in terms of molecular testing, but there is an increasing demand for more non- invasive methods such as liquid biopsy. Using targeted next-generation sequencing, we analyzed sequence variants present in primary tumor, metastases, and cell-free tumor DNA - ctDNA of patients with metastatic CRC. The objectives were to analyze sequence variants of the primary tumor and identify possible pathogenic variants, to analyze differences between DNA of the primary tumor and metastases, to evaluate the use of ctDNA as a diagnostic tool, and to identify potential tumor-specific markers in ctDNA that can be used to monitor disease progression. Our results suggest the feasibility of using ctDNA for diagnostic purposes or even to monitor disease progression, but...
Diferenciální exprese genů po infekci virem klíšťové encefalitidy u lidských primárních nervových buněk
This study focuses on the differential expression of genes in the human primary neural cells after tick-borne encephalitis virus infection. Changes in gene expression were determined using qRT-PCR and compared by correlation analysis with results previously obtained by next generation sequencing. The difference in gene expression determined by qRT-PCR correlated with those obtained from the next generation sequencing.
Složení společenstev endoyfytických mikroorganismů osídlujících listy hemiparazitických rostlin
This bachelor´s thesis focuses on describing the community composition of endophytic microorganisms colonizing foliar parts of selected Central-Europaean species of parasitic plants and their potential hosts. The aim is to find specific differences in the structure and diversity of bacterial and fungal endophytes between plant species with parasitic and non-parasitic life strategy.
Evolutionary dynamics of satellite DNA in plant genomes
Satellite DNA (satDNA) belongs to the highly repetitive fraction of eukaryotic genomes. It is best characterized by the formation of long arrays of almost identical sequences that are tandemly repeated. These repeats are widely distributed in plant species where they can make up a substantial proportion of their genomes. Despite the long history of satDNA research, the classic methodology did not allow for its comprehensive characterization. Consequently, the fragmentary information gathered during the last 60 years does not answer the many questions surrounding the evolution of these elements. The development of new techniques in sequencing, together with the availability of new bioinformatics tools for analyzing different genome fractions, has presented an opportunity to advance studies of tandem repeats. This thesis describes the landscape characterization of satDNA in the genome of Fabeae species by exploring the diversity of satDNA within a genome, the association of these elements with functional centromeres, as well as their genome-wide organization. We employed new computational pipelines specifically designed for the analysis of tandem repeats from next generation sequencing data, and combined their results with molecular and cytogenetic methods to achieve comprehensive characterization of the satellite repeats.
Factors limiting the distribution of the mycoheterotrophic plants in fragmented landscape
This thesis investigates the influence of habitat, dispersal abilities and evolution on distribution of mycoheterotrophic plants represented by six orchid species. Several methods including seed trapping, in situ seed germination, fungal barcoding, gene flow study and stable isotopes analyses were used to examine this topic. The final synthesis of these approaches shows lower limitation by dispersal abilities and stronger limitation by habitat.
Role of Next Generation Sequencing in Diagnostics and Prognosis of X-linked Lysosomal Storage Disorders
Řeboun, Martin ; Dvořáková, Lenka (advisor) ; Fajkusová, Lenka (referee) ; Krejčí, Jan (referee)
The characterisation of the molecular-genetic etiology of monogenic diseases includes not only the identification of the pathogenic variant, but also the description of its effect on the RNA structure and stability. Additionally, the X-inactivation plays an important role in X-linked diseases. In the presented thesis, we applied the methods of next generation sequencing to study three lysosomal disorders (mukopolysacharidosis type II, MPS II; Danon disease, DD; Fabry disease, FD). Two methodological approaches have been used: 1) panel sequencing with hybridization probes for identification of single nucleotide variants, small deletions/duplications and structure variants (CNVs) 2) amplicon sequencing for analysis of somatic mosaicism and allele specific expression. The panel sequencing enabled us to confirm the molecular-genetic basis of DD in two patients with the identification of two exons duplication and five exons deletion in LAMP2, respectively. The somatic mosaicism was being analyzed by the amplicon sequencing in families with DD, MPS II. We could identify the first case of somatic mosaicism in a patient with DD. The allele specific expression has enlarged the group of methods used in X-inactivation analysis. Its impact has been proved particularly in minimizing misinterpretation of XCI...
Pathogenetic mechanisms of immune dysregulation and hematopoietic disorders
Svatoň, Michael ; Froňková, Eva (advisor) ; Filipp, Dominik (referee) ; Čermák, Jaroslav (referee)
Pathogenetic mechanisms of immune dysregulation and hematopoietic disorders Abstract The aim of my work was to introduce whole exome sequencing (WES) and a routine algorithm for data analysis in pediatric patients with suspected inborn error of immunity (IEI) or hematopoiesis. A clear molecular diagnosis based on genetic testingwas achieved in 25% of patients. Additionally, novel mutations not previously described in the pathogenesis of IEI or hematopoietic failure were revealed in 9% of the patients. Validation experiments were designed to confirm the causality of the identified mutations in the pathogenesis of the disease, based on literature review and known mechanisms of immune system development and regulation in these patients. Thanks to WES, we were able to elucidate the cause of two new congenital diseases - megaloblastic anemia due to a homozygous mutation of the SLC19A1 gene and immune dysregulation syndrome with autoimmune and autoinflammatory manifestations due to an X-linked mutation of the TLR8 gene in monozygotic twins with chronic autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). In five additional patients, novel mutations in the STAT3, SPTA1, SAMD9 and XIAP genes were identified and their causality in the pathogenesis of hematopoietic failure or IEI was demonstrated. In one patient with an atypical...
The role of WT1 gene and other molecular biological abnormalities in testicular germ cell tumors
Bakardjieva - Mihaylova, Violeta ; Boublíková, Ludmila (advisor) ; Chovanec, Michal (referee) ; Kiss, Igor (referee)
Testicular germinal tumors (TGCT) are relatively rare solid tumors in adults. Even so, they affect more than 700 men a year in the Czech Republic, mostly young patients aged 18- 45 years. A large number of patients are curable by a combination of surgery and chemotherapy, yet about 50 men a year in the Czech Republic succumb to this tumor, in the vast majority of cases due to the development of resistance to chemotherapy containing cisplatin. The rare occurrence and high curability are probably the cause of infrequent molecular and clinical studies carried out in these tumors, and our understanding of the biological processes leading to primary tumor development and the development of cisplatin resistance (CDDP) is still limited. At present, no specific molecular markers that could be used as prognostic or predictive factors and improve patient stratification or treatment tailoring are available in TGCT management. In this work, we studied the molecular-genetic background of TGCT development and CDDP resistance at several levels. To comprehensively study the development of cisplatin resistance, we prepared and analyzed CDDP-exposed TGCT cell lines. Long-term exposure to CDDP increased resistance 10-fold in the NCCIT cell line, while no significant resistance was achieved with Tera-2. The...
Significance of somatic mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Tauchmanová, Petra ; Savvulidi Vargová, Karina (advisor) ; Javorková, Eliška (referee)
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) represents the most prevalent leukemia in Europe and USA. CLL affects predominatly elderly people (median age, 70y). This lymphoproliferative disorder is characterised by an accumulation of mature B-cells in the peripheral blood, bone marrow and lymph nodes. The lifespan of CLL cells is longer than normal healthy B-cells due to impaired cell cycle and apoptosis. CLL cells dysplay several chromosomal aberations and genetic abnormalities. The next generation sequencing revealed many somatic mutations in CLL cells. Analysis of these somatic mutations in CLL facilitates detail understanding at the disease molecular basis and opens new possibilities to the personalised therapy. The main aim of this thesis is brief description of CLL as disease and to summarise the recent knowledge in the field of next generation sequencing with attention to CLL.

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