National Repository of Grey Literature 371 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.03 seconds. 
Application of the so-called Magnitsky Act in the European Union and in the United States of America
Hajdová, Kristýna ; Pulgret, Miroslav (advisor) ; Romancov, Michael (referee)
This bachelor's thesis explores the application of the so-called Magnitsky Law in the United States of America and the European Union. The so-called Magnitsky generic collective name for the sanctions regimes created in response to the death of Sergei Magnitsky, a Russian lawyer who exposed tax fraud by Russian officials. Magnitsky himself was falsely accused of tax fraud and wrongfully imprisoned for almost a year. In prison, he was systematically tortured in an attempt to get him to change his testimony, he was denied medical care, and died after 358 days in prison due to his health problems. His death sparked a strong global reaction, and over the next decade, states around the world gradually adopted sanctions regimes punishing human rights abuses inspired by Sergei Magnitsky. This thesis examines Sergei Magnitsky Rule of Law Accountability Act of 2012, The Global Magnitsky Act of 2016 and EU Global Human Rights Sanctions Regime. Before embarking on a more detailed examination of the functioning and legislation of these sanctions regimes using a comparative analysis, in several chapters I present a brief context of the historical development of sanctions, which were gradually transformed from large-scale embargoes to targeted sanctions, and also provide an overview of the events that led up to...
Implementation of the human rights-based approach in development cooperation by Czech non-governmental non-profit organizations
Stehlíková, Magda ; Muhič Dizdarevič, Selma (advisor) ; Košák Felcmanová, Alena (referee)
This thesis seeks to describe the development and theoretical anchoring of the concept of the human rights-based approach (HRBA) in the context of development cooperation and to examine how it is taken into account by Czech NGOs. The theoretical part focuses in particular on the still controversial issues related to the universalism and cultural relativism of human rights, as well as their mostly individualistic nature. Then, the gradual penetration of human rights into international development discourse and the role and specifics of development NGOs are described in more detail. The thesis presents theoretical insights and concrete examples of the application of the human rights-based approach by NGOs. Critical perspectives and problematic implications associated with its application by NGOs are also discussed. In the Czech environment, the implementation of the HRBA is examined through a case study of two prominent NGOs.
Belarusian civil society from the perspective of Ales Bjaljacki
Markautsova, Viktoryia ; Klípa, Ondřej (advisor) ; Muhič Dizdarevič, Selma (referee)
This diploma thesis explores the perspective of Nobel Peace Prize laureate Ales Bjaljacki on the issue of the Belarusian civil society, particularly in the realm of human rights and human rights organizations of civil sector. These organizations have been operating in Belarus since the late 20th century and have consistently faced pressure and repression from the Belarusian regime of Alexander Lukashenko. The theoretical section is focused on defining contemporary concepts of civil society and addressing the inclusion of the Belarusian civil society within existing definitions. The practical section consists of an analysis of an interview with Ales Bjaljacki. It examines what the respondent considers key factors in the development of civil society, how he assesses the influence of the political situation on the Belarusian civil society, and his views on its past and future. Ales Bjaljacki perspective in this work is contrasted with the views of the author Andrew Wilson, who analyses the Belarusian civil society in the book "Belarus: The Last European Dictatorship." Additionally, Bjaljacki viewpoint in this work is compared with the opinions of various other authors who have researched civil society in Belarus, and their main findings are presented in the books "Civil society in Belarus 2000-2015,...
Comparison of the legal regulation of citizenship of the Czech Republic and Ukraine during the period of independent states
Veretelnyk, Iegor ; Uhl, Pavel (advisor) ; Hřebejk, Jiří (referee)
1 Comparison of the legal regulation of citizenship of the Czech Republic and Ukraine during the period of independent states Abstract The aim of this thesis is to take a closer look at the phenomenon of state citizenship through the prism of the state-citizenship regulation of two young states with different legal continuity and history. Namely, the Czech Republic and Ukraine. State citizenship is a dynamic concept undergoing transformation simultaneously within human society and its values in general and legal culture in particular. The transformation of this phenomenon can be generalized on the dichotomous scale of "state power - individual", when in the context of, among other things, international law and specifically human rights doctrine, the concept of citizenship in most states is increasingly approaching the pole of individual; when it ceases to be the sovereign domain of state discretion and unlimited state power but begins to be seen as a human right or even a free choice of the individual. The main objective of this thesis was to determine whether the two countries of study have also approached this concept with their state-citizenship arrangements, and to determine to what extent the current Czech and Ukrainian citizenship legislation is shaped, or influenced, by previous legal arrangements in...
Right to education in European documents
Pehrová, Klára ; Tymofeyeva, Alla (advisor) ; Honusková, Věra (referee)
Right to education in European documents Key words Education, right to education, European documents, Court of Justice of the European Union, European Court of Human Rights, Human Rights Abstract The right to education is a fundamental human right that has been enshrined in numerous international legal documents. This thesis deals with the enshrinement of the right to education in European documents and in the complex of human rights since its enactment. The aim of the thesis is the analysis of the right to education in the European context while its main focus is to provide a characterization, analysis and comparison of the codification of the right to education in Euroepean documents. Firstly the thesis presents the enshrinment of the right to education in the European convention on human Rights as amended by the Additional Protocols which served as important source for the creation of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. Secondly the thesis presents the enshrinment of the right to education in the Charter of Fundamental rights of the European Union which is one of the youngest and most comprehensive catalogues of the human rights in the world. The thesis contains key case law from the European Court Human Rights and the Court of Justice of the European Union. Thrirdly in the...
Problematika potratů v Polsku
Medková, Gabriela
This Bachelor thesis deals with the issue of abortions in Poland. Primarily it focuses on anti-abortion legislation and public discourse. The main aim of the work is to analyse development of abortions laws in Poland and also major actors of this issue. Attention is mainly paid to the most current abortion legislation and the reactions which caused in society. Next it shows the connection between abortions and human rights. Therefore is this work complemented with the positions of selected organizations which deal with this topic in long term.
The human rights discourse in Japan and Japanese foreign policy
Zícha, Lukáš ; Karásek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Plechanovová, Běla (referee)
This diploma thesis attempts to provide an analysis of the human rights discourse in Japan and Japanese foreign policy. The author analyses the most important current issues (falling under the category of first-generation human rights) including: Korean minority issue, discrimination against persons of burakumin origin, gender issue and the topic of comfort women. In the second part of the thesis, the author explores the human rights discourse in the foreign policy of Japan. With the help of his research conducted in 2013 in Tokyo among diplomats, academics and NGO representatives, he examines three possible approaches to explain the current state of affairs: a national interests approach, a constructivist approach (cultural conditionality) and a policy-making approach (taking into account the role of intrastate actors).
Comparing human rights arguments against women's suffrage and same­sex marriage
Kubicová, Kateřina ; Hofmannová, Helena (advisor) ; Uhl, Pavel (referee)
This thesis focuses on the new human rights and their significance in the context of current legislation and case law. It defines their content and possibilities of their regulation, as well as provides specific cases and doctrinal concepts. The new human rights include the rights of members of the LGBTQ+ community. This thesis focuses in more detail on the topic of same- sex marriage, which is widely discussed (not only) in the Czech Republic. These marriages have not yet been allowed in our country, although the European trend is different - it is therefore appropriate to ask what the current arguments of their opponents are. They mention, for example, the historical aspects of the institution or the potential threat to traditional schemes. Its supporters, on the other hand, stress the importance of equal rights for all, regardless of their sexual orientation or gender identity. The thesis also uses a traditional constitutional law tool, the proportionality test, to compare these positions, which primarily weighs the importance of the rights on both sides. This paper focuses on comparing the arguments used by contemporary opponents of same-sex marriage with those historically used by opponents of women's suffrage. The primary reason for this choice is that these arguments overlap to a large extent. Yet,...
Ethical issues in multicultural nursing in the context of child Ukrainian war refugees
Kučerová, Jana ; Červenková, Denisa (advisor) ; Bouma, David (referee)
The diploma thesis deals with the approach of children's nurses to Ukrainian war refugee children requiring intensive oncological care. In nursing care, transcultural-multicultural nursing models are used as an ethical principle. In particular, the models of M. Leiningerová, J.N. Gigerová, and R. Davidhizarová created in the 1950s focus on holistic cultural care, health, and disease manifestations of individuals or groups and respect the common features of cultural values, beliefs, and practices. Keywords Ukrainians, migration, war, nursing, nursing model, transcultural-multicultural nursing, communication, human rights, child patient, the charter of children's rights in hospital, human dignity
Ethical reflection of human smuggling in the contemporary discussion
Cahlík, Jakub ; Jinek, Jakub (advisor) ; Štica, Petr (referee)
The thesis deals with the phenomenon of human smuggling into the European Union and the subsequent ethical reflection on such behaviour. Human smuggling is an illegal activity, the eradication of which has become one of the main objectives of European policy to curb irregular migration in recent years. However, this has been done without reflecting on the specific acts of smuggling, which has resulted in the criminalisation of actions that are morally right and even necessary, as they help to fulfil the fundamental human rights of migrants. This thesis presents people smuggling into the EU in its entirety, provides the socio-historical context from which the phenomenon emerges, and outlines an approach to how people smuggling can be ethically evaluated in specific situations so as to avoid condemning humanitarian acts. Key words Human smuggling, human rights, state sovereignty, irregular migration, ethics

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