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Z pouličních protestů do La Monedy: dynamika studentského hnutí v Chile
Kuklová, Michaela
This bachelor theses analyses the rise of student leaders to the leadership position of the country after the 2011 Protests. As for the methods, the literary research method was chosen. The main goal of this theses is to evaluate how did the governments of Chile reacted to the demands of the movements after the 2011 Protests, that culminated in the draft of a new constitutional law. These new laws were supposed to replace the 1980 Chilean Constitution, that was introduced under the government of Augusto Pinochet Ugarte. The first part of the theses introduces the process of implementation of Neoliberal policies in Chile, with focus on the field of tertiary education in connection to the demands of the students during the 2011 Protests. In the second chapter of the theses, the Students Confederation CONFECH is introduced as a key actor as a mediator during these protests together with two selected protagonists of the confederation, who worked their way up to the head of the country´s leadership. Last chapter focuses on the two main events of the political development of Chile after 2019, in which the students played key role: the 2021 Presidential election and the already mentioned Draft of the new Constitution.
Contemplated reforms of the U.S. presidential election
Trunda, Jakub ; Horák, Filip (referee)
1 Contemplated reforms of the U.S. presidential election Abstract This diploma thesis is dedicated to the U.S. presidential election, specifically the greatest attention is paid to the electoral system called the electoral college which is used during the election. The text of my thesis relates to the US presidential election which is generally a very extensive topic therefore it is not possible to analyze in detail all the individual aspects of the process and thus provide a complete thorough analysis within this thesis. As a result of this, my aim is to briefly present the historical development of the electoral college along with its current functioning during the election process of the President of the United States. Subsequently, I am going to focus closely on potential reforms of the presidential elections that could significantly contribute to the improvement of the entire process of selecting (electing) the president of the United States. This thesis is divided into three consecutive parts, each part is then divided into several individual chapters. In the first part I am discussing the main historical reasons leading the founding father of the United States to adopt the current presidential electoral system and I am also focusing on its early discovered insufficiencies which had been corrected by...
Impartiality in the U.S. Supreme Court: Navigating Judicial Values in a Political Arena
Doskočil, Jan ; Pondělíček, Jiří (advisor) ; Kozák, Kryštof Přemysl (referee)
Impartiality is an important theoretical concept that determines the ability of judges to provide both parties of litigation with a fair trial. Despite this, judicial impartiality is relatively unexplored in academic writings. This thesis aims to correct this discrepancy by delving into varying interpretations of impartiality and the occurrence of impartiality debates in the context of the Supreme Court confirmation hearings. The thesis seeks to answer the question of whether impartiality plays an important role in the appointment of new justices and whether impartiality concerns are overshadowed by political concerns. Furthermore, the thesis explores possible avenues for changes that would ameliorate impartiality discussions, both with respect to theoretical interpretations of impartiality and practical reforms of the confirmation process. Through an analysis of recent confirmation hearings, the thesis concludes that while impartiality is important in considerations of judicial candidates, the problem lies in its competing interpretations, which are mostly divided along the lines of partisan affiliation. Moreover, impartiality is at the core of all kinds of judicial philosophy, which complicates its theoretical separation from various schools of legal thought. This interpretational ambiguity,...
Contemplated reforms of the U.S. presidential election
Trunda, Jakub ; Antoš, Marek (advisor) ; Grinc, Jan (referee)
1 Contemplated reforms of the U.S. presidential election Abstract This diploma thesis is dedicated to the U.S. presidential election, specifically the greatest attention is paid to the electoral system called the electoral college which is used during the election. The text of my thesis relates to the US presidential election which is generally a very extensive topic therefore it is not possible to analyze in detail all the individual aspects of the process and thus provide a complete thorough analysis within this thesis. As a result of this, my aim is to briefly present the historical development of the electoral college along with its current functioning during the election process of the President of the United States. Subsequently, I am going to focus closely on potential reforms of the presidential elections that could significantly contribute to the improvement of the entire process of selecting (electing) the president of the United States. This thesis is divided into three consecutive parts, each part is then divided into several individual chapters. In the first part I am discussing the main historical reasons leading the founding father of the United States to adopt the current presidential electoral system and I am also focusing on its early discovered insufficiencies which had been corrected by...
Charitable Activities of the Congregation of the School Sisters of Notre Dame in the Czech Republic in the Light of the Social Teaching of the Church
KLEMPOVÁ, Martina Kateřina
The work deals with the activities of the Congregation of the School Sisters of Notre Dame in the territory of the Czech Republic in the light of the social doctrine of the Church, with focus on charitable activities. The first part of the thesis presents the life of St. Augustine who formulated the monastic rules which gave the base for the constitution of the Congregation of the School Sisters of Notre Dame. The work is also devoted to St. Peter Fourier and beatified Alix Le Clerc who founded an order called Canonesses of St. Augustine of the Congregation de Notre Dame in France at the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries. The next part of the work deas with Gabriel Schneider, a zealous priest, who introduced the Congregation of the Poor School Sisters of Notre Dame to Bohemia, and at the same time focuses on the activities of the Congregation of the School Sisters of Notre Dame in České Budějovice from 1871 to the present. The second part of the work deals with the monastic life and activities of the School Sisters of Notre Dame by St. Josef in Č. Budějovice, and at the same time describes the charitable activities of the Congregation. The third part of the work discusses the Social Doctrine of the Church, both in terms of its meaning and development, as well as its principles: caritas, personality, solidarity, subsidiarity and the common good. The last part of the work connects the principles of the Social Doctrine of the Church with the constitution and with the charitable activities of the Congregation.
Transfer prices: meaning and definition from constitutional law perspective
Hájek, Jan ; Marková, Hana (advisor) ; Mrkývka, Petr (referee) ; Sejkora, Tomáš (referee)
140 Transfer prices: meaning and definition from constitutional law perspective Abstract The thesis deals with the problem of the definition of transfer prices in the substantive tax law, which in general terms it puts in connection with the constitutional requirements arising from the theory of law and normative formation. Thus, the basic grounds for the regulation of transfer pricing in Act No. 586/1992 Coll., on Income Taxes and the OECD Model Double Tax Convention as primary sources of law, legislative definition of this area in domestic and international tax law are defined. These are further elaborated into the detailed level of the methodology of determining the transfer price, which follows from the Instruction of the General Tax Directorate D - 34 and the OECD Transfer Pricing Guideline, and are also subjected to a critical examination in terms of their legal bindingness, position in the legal system, but also from the perspective of the rule of law maxim in the sense of the clarity of the law and its predictability. On the basis of the submitted argumentation, it is concluded that none of the above-mentioned documents defining the procedure by which the transfer price is to be determined is a binding source of law a limine and will always constitute only a non-binding instruction or guide to its...
Constitutional quarantees of territorial self-government
Borovička, Roman ; Hřebejk, Jiří (advisor) ; Mlsna, Petr (referee)
Constitutional guarantees of territorial self-government Abstract The aim of this diploma thesis is to present selected institutes of constitutional and administrative law, which are connected with territorial self-government and which guarantee territorial self-governing units their existence and functioning, analysis and evaluation of application of these institutes in practice, warning of their potential difficulties, or proposal their modifications or improvements so as to provide sufficient legal guarantees for independent activities and the existence of local self-government in the Czech Republic. The method of selective literary research is applied in the diploma thesis. Materials related to its topic are used for the elaboration of the work, mainly works from the branches of constitutional law, administrative or municipal law, corresponding legal acts and comments. The method of observation was also used, in which the author tries to find out how the individual institutes, which are in any way connected with the issue of constitutional guarantees of local government, behave in reality, approach their main purpose and also analyse their real effectiveness thanks to elements of the analytical method. in particular through the broad case law of the Constitutional Court. The author of the thesis adds...
Kurdistan Regional Government: Internal Constrains and Failed Quest for Independence
Hussein, Nuha ; Doboš, Bohumil (advisor) ; Riegl, Martin (referee)
Since 2003, Iraq went into a significant shift of political authority in which many political parties fighting for leadership failed to keep peace in the region; however, for many - like ruling parties in Kurdistan Region of Iraq - a golden compass was in the pot to gain more authority high political positions in the region. The new Iraqi Constitution recognized KRG as an autonomous entity of Iraq, and Kurdish politicians were taking high political positions within the new Iraqi government. Despite these achievements, the political instability post-Iraq War remained and was shaped by internal factors like security, economy, and unresolved issues over disputed territories. Regional and international interventions also had a hand in these internal conflicts. For Kurdistan Regional Government, the question of Kurdish statehood never dissipated. The internal political setting post-2010 provided an environment of possible Kurdish statehood - or at least as the Kurdish leaders anticipated. In 2017, the KRG went for an unsupported referendum of independence that soon shifted the political dynamic between Kurdish parties and Baghdad into a turmoil of power struggle. The thesis builds a comprehensive discussion of factors of internal conflict in the KRG and analyzes how these internal disputes affected...
Development of the Presidential Office in the Czech Republic
Šváblová, Sára ; Hájek, Lukáš (advisor) ; Mlejnek, Josef (referee)
This bachelor thesis focuses on the development of the presidential office from 1918, when the Czechoslovak Republic was founded, to 2018. In particular, it focuses on presidential powers. The purpose of the first part is to describe and trace, on the basis of constitutional texts, the changes in the individual competences of the head of state, as well as changes in his or her electability and accountability, and to place them in the context of constitutional development in the Czech lands. The aim is to present information about the presidential office in a clear and comprehensible way. The second part of the thesis focuses on a comparative analysis of specific powers. The thesis focuses on four presidential powers: the right to reverse a law or the right of veto, amnesty and pardon, and the appointment and dismissal of the government. The comparative analysis is conducted from the perspective of the constitutions and focuses on the distinctive elements of these powers. The aim is to assess, on the basis of the elements being compared, under which constitution the presidency was strongest in that particular power.

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