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Analysis of biodegradable polymers in soils
Paluchová, Natálie ; Řezáčová, Veronika (referee) ; Kučerík, Jiří (advisor)
Currently, there is a growing interest in usage of biodegradable polymers, regardless of their possible risk of generation of residues. The methods that are used for determination of residues usually include pre-treatment and are expensive and time consuming. Therefore, this bachelor thesis focuses on the development and verification of analytical method that would identify and quantify of biodegradable polymer residues in soils to eliminate the problems arising from sample pre-treatment. Therefore, thermogravimetry, which appears to satisfy the above conditions, was used for the analysis. The area of polymer degradation in three types of soils during thermal oxidation and the effect of polymer on soil during the analysis was investigated. Poly(3 hydroxybutyrate) was chosen to be the representative biodegradable polymer and there were two approaches used to its detection and quatification. The methods were tested for 6 concentrations of poly(3–hydroxybutyrate) (0,1; 0,5; 1; 2; 3; 5 %). The first approach concentrated on the usage of polymer analysis in the presence of a blank (without contaminat), which was subtracted from the blank. Using this method, the temperature interval of polymer degradation and weigh loss changes in this interval were observed. The second method focused on a soil universal model, that allows the identification and quatification of samples when the blank is not present. The blank is simulated by 19 equations, that allow the identification of intervals, in which degradation of samples occurs and also it provides the possibility to determinate the type of the polymer. However, the principle component analysis indicated that the method is sensitive to the type of soil and therefore it needs adjustments. Samples were incubated for 4 months, to verify the sensitivity of the method, in case of partial or complete decomposition of samples by soil microorganisms,. Thereafter, the concentrations of poly(3-hydroxybutryrate) in soil determined by respirometry and thermogravimetry were compared. The results indicated that accelerated degradation caused by poly(3-hydroxybutrylate) or contamination of the sample with the surrounding atmosphere during respiration may have occurred. Residual poly(3–hydroxybutyrate) was thermogravimetrically verified and results were compared to respirometry. According to the results it can be observed that there was an interaction between the soil organic matter and biota or contamination of the sample with the surrounding atmosphere. The results revealed, that there is a possibility of determination of biodegradable polymers in soils by thermogravimetric analysis. There are good results using the blank method, but it is limited by the existence of a blank. The method that is using the soil universal model (without blank) has a great potential in the future, but adjustments still need to be done.
Biodegradable bone implants
Galanová, Zuzana ; Vondrák, Jiří (referee) ; Sedlaříková, Marie (advisor)
This master thesis is focused on producing orthopaedic implant materials and measuring their corrosion properties. It describes the bone and its structure, types, bone ossification and healing. It defines functions of orthopaedic implants and mentions the types of implants – biodegradable and non-biodegradable. The thesis interprets what corrosion is, what categories of corrosion exist and how does the corrosion influence orthopaedic implants. Preparing the solution of stimulated body fluid and manufacturing samples of different metal combinations (of iron, manganese, phosphorus, magnesium, silver and zinc) is included in this thesis, together with corrosion measurements, microscopic observations, EDAX analysis, metallographic analysis, microhardness testing of samples and pH changes measurements of solutions, and the results are interpreted and explained.
Polycaprolactone, synthesis, characterization, and degradability
Boháčová, Zdeňka ; Vojtová, Lucy (referee) ; Hermanová, Soňa (advisor)
Presented diploma thesis deals with the study of ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of caprolactone catalyzed by novel organic and organometallic compounds. In the theoretical part of the thesis a summary of polymerization strategies and catalytic/initiators systems for ROP of polyesters is overviewed on the basis of reported background research. In experimental part a series of caprolactone polymerization runs with the view of polymerization conditions (solution/monomer ratio, catalyst/initiator ratio, monomer/initiator ratio and monomer concentration) at the temperature range of 25-70 °C was carried out. The experimental study was focused on catalytic precursors based on organic carbenes (tBuNCH=CHN+tBu)CH Cl- (NHC-tBu) in tetrahydrofuran solution and complex of aluminium{O,O’-[4,5-P(O)Ph2tz]-AlMe2} Ph = phenyl, tz = triazole, (OAlMe2) in chlorobenzene solution. Obtained polymers were precisely characterized by means of 1H NMR spectroscopy (Bruker Avance), Differential scanning calorimetry (TA Instruments Q 2000) and Gel permeation chromatography (Agilent Technologies 1100 series) methods. The microbial degradability of synthesized polymer sample having Mn = 12 kg/mol, Mw/Mn = 2.5 and crystallinity degree of 53 % was examined. The polymer in the form of melt-pressed films and powder form was bacterially aged in Bacillus subtilis (BS) strain inoculated mineral and nutrient media for 42 days. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) confirmed the crack development on the surface of films as the consequence of microbial attack in comparison with unchanged control samples. Moreover, the pink coloration of polymer suspension was observed as the consequence of bacterial activity.
Biodegradable plastics
Schifferová, Zuzana ; Jan, Vít (referee) ; Molliková, Eva (advisor)
The aim of this bachelor theses is to discuss the process of biodegradation occurring with biodegradable polymers including factors affecting this process. The theses also introduces some types of biodegradable plastics including their properties. At last it discusses waste management of these plastics and their ecological impact.
Biotransformation of nitro aromates
Tomeček, Jaromír ; Bednařík, Karel (referee) ; Friedl, Zdeněk (advisor)
Contamination by nitroaromatic compounds, such as explosives, pesticides or other nitroaromatic compounds, is worldwide environmental problem. This text focuses on contamination by compounds from military and ammunition industry, most especially 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (RDX) and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX). First goal of this work is to provide the reader with a aerobic biodegradation and transformation processes of nitroaromatic compounds named above. The second goal is to compare the toxicity of initial nitroaromates and their transformation intermediates.
Thermophilic microorganisms application to biodegradation
Varmužová, Tamara ; Márová, Ivana (referee) ; Babák, Libor (advisor)
This thesis is focused on study of biodegradability of modified polyurethane elastomeric films in synthetic medium with minerals and vitamins on tempered shaker by mixed thermophilic aerobic bacterial culture Bacillus and Thermus genera. In most cases addition of all used fillers (carboxymethyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, acetylated cellulose, acetylated starch and glutein) led to increased biodegradability of elastomeric films with modifying agent in comparison with elastomeric films without modifying agent (referential). The growth of cultures was strongly increased in presence of elastomeric films modified by 10 % acetylated cellulose and 10 % carboxymethyl cellulose. Elastomeric film biodegradation mechanism included probably two stages: abiotic destruction of elastomeric films and consequent utilization of degradation products by bacterial culture.
Biodegradable polyurethanes based on poly(ethylene glycol)
Kupka, Vojtěch ; Žídek, Jan (referee) ; Vojtová, Lucy (advisor)
Predložená diplomová práce se zabývá syntézou biodegradabilních polyuretanu (bio-PU) na bázi polyethylenglykolu (PEG-u) a polykaprolaktonu (PCL) pro využití k medicínským úcelum. Cílem práce bylo vyvinout metodiku prípravy elastomerního polyuretanu, ze kterého by se dal v budoucnu pripravit skafold (nosic bunek) použitelný v tkánovém inženýrství pro humánní regenerativní medicínu. Teoretická cást práce shrnuje informace o materiálech využitelných pro zamýšlenou aplikaci. Zahrnuty jsou také techniky prípravy skafoldu, jejich biokompatibilita a charakterizace vlastností výsledného materiálu. Praktická cást je pak zamerena na navržení vhodné metodiky pro prípravu funkcních vzorku obsahujících PEG, PCL, hexamethylen-diisokyanát (HMDI) a ethylhexanoát cínatý jako katalyzátor. U pripravených vzorku byl zjištován vliv jejich složení (predevším ruzný obsah a molekulová hmotnost PEG-u) na botnání a hydrolytickou stabilitu spolecne s testováním mechanických vlastností, sledováním kinetiky sítování a stanovením stupne konverze. Morfologie vzorku byla sledována pomocí optické mikroskopie, chemické složení bylo potvrzeno infracervenou spektroskopií a tepelné vlastnosti byly urceny diferencní kompenzacní kalorimetrií. Vývoj v metodice prípravy ukázal, že je nezbytné odstranit pred syntézou z výchozích látek veškeré necistoty, predevším vodu a kyslík, jinak vznikaly nedokonale zreagované vzorky s velkým obsahem póru ruzných velikostí. Syntéza všech vzorku probíhala pod dusíkovou atmosférou ve dvou krocích, kdy v prvním se pouze homogenizovaly oba polyoly (PEG i PCL) na vakuové lince pri 130 °C a ve druhém pak vznikaly výsledné bio-PU za pridání HMDI pri 65 °C v inertní atmosfére manipulacního boxu. Vzorky pak byly dopolymerovány ve forme pri 65 °C pod dobu 48 hodin v sušárne. Ruzné fyzikální podmínky metodiky vedly k príprave jak nepruhledných bílých filmu, tak i vzorku s viditelnou separací fází až po flexibilní transparentní filmy. Pozorování optickým mikroskopem vzorku s fázovou separací prokázalo prítomnost sférolitické struktury krystalické fáze PCL v amorfní fázi matrice PEG-u. Sledování kinetiky sítování pomocí soxhletovy extrakce potvrdilo maximální konverzi polymerace (96 %) již za 4 h dopolymerování v sušárne. Testování zkouškou v tahu ukázalo, že výrazný vliv na pevnost v tahu má isokyanátový index (pomer NCO/OH skupin). Molekulová hmotnost PEG-u ovlivnovala pevnost v tahu jen u vzorku zcela zesítovaných. Merení botnání vzorku ve vode prokázalo, že s rustem molekulové hmotnosti PEG-u roste i obsah vody (od cca 28 až po 58 hm.%) ve vzorcích. Také degradace filmu ve vode pri 37 °C probíhala dle predpokladu rychleji u vzorku s vyšší molekulovou hmotností PEG-u. V predložené diplomové práci bylo potvrzeno, že množstvím a molekulovou hmotností polyethylenglykolu je možné rídit hydrolytickou stabilitu výsledných biodegradabilních polyuretanových elastomeru.
Biodegradability of bacterial natural and modified polyesters and their composites
Pala, Martin ; Babák, Libor (referee) ; Obruča, Stanislav (advisor)
Presented work was focused on biodegradability of bacterial natural and modified polyesters and their composites. The first part of the work was focused on study of influence of PHA granules structure on their biodegradability using selected enzymes and influence of physiological conditions on PHA stability. Overall, tested polymer either in crytalinne or amorphous phase seems to be rezistent to attack of seleced hydrolytic enzymes such as lipases or proteases and is stable in simulated physiological fluids as well. Because of thies results, it is possible to use tested PHA materials in biomedical applications requiring rather resistant biomaterials. Second part of the work was focused on microbial degradation of modified PHA materials considering their potential environmental impact. Both mixed thermophillic culture originaly used in wastewater treatment plant and bacterial strain Delftia acidovorans were employed for biodegradation tests. Composites containing chlorine PHB and PHB films modified using plasticizers were tested. Films containing chlorine PHB cause inhibition of biomass growth to both tested cultures. The highest rate of degradation (31%) was observed in presence of bacterial culture with film containing 10% chlorine PHB. The results show that used microbial population is important factor affecting biodegradability.
Utilization of Heat in Biodegradation Processes as Electricity Savings Potential
Kuběna, Michael ; Šejvl, Radovan (referee) ; Baxant, Petr (advisor)
The present thesis deals with a non-traditional use of biomass–in particular the use of heat generated by the biodegradation processes, involving the degradation of organic substances. The theoretical part of the thesis discusses common uses of biomass in general first, later focusing on the description of biodegradation processes. Various types of bioreactors, in which biodegradation processes take place, are also briefly examined. Moreover, modern systems using this type of heating are described. The practical part focuses on the construction of a bioreactor with the system of heat dissipation. The bioreactor was monitored with temperature sensors to survey the ongoing processes inside the bioreactor and to determine the appropriate time to abstract the heat.
Utilization of PHA producing bacteria in bioremediation technologies
Šuráňová, Zuzana ; Sedláček, Petr (referee) ; Obruča, Stanislav (advisor)
The aim of this work is study of utilization of PHA producing bacteria in bioremediation technologies. For this study were used bacteria Pseudomonas putida KT2440 and two isolates from soil contaminated by petroleum - Pseudomonas gessardii (D2) a Pseudomonas fulva (D3). The experimental part describes especially study of feather biodegradation using selected microbial strains. All the tested bacterial strains were capable of feather degradation and utilization as the sole carbon source. During biodegradation experiment, we monitored weight loss of feather, protease and keratinase activity, concentration of bacterial biomass and PHA content as well as pH. The highest biodegradation ability and keratinase activity was observed in Pseudomonas putida. None of tested bacteria accumulated detectable amount of PHA during growth on waste feather, nevertheless, bacterial biomass grown during feather degradation can be used as an inoculum for PHA production on waste frying oil and octanoic acid. Using this experimental setup, high PHA content (54% of cell dry weight) was achiaved in Pseudomonas putida. Another part of the thesis deals with biodegradation of petroleum oil. The highest capability of growth on this carbon source were determined in Pseudomonas fulva.

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