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Infectious diseases transmitted by arthropods
This thesis deals with infectious diseases transmitted by arthropods in the Czech Republic in period of 2002 - 2011. Meeting the objectives and answer the research questions, I managed using secondary analysis of reported cases infectious diseases transmitted by arthropods in the information system for reporting and recording of infectious diseases - EPIDAT and literature review and subsequent analysis of scientific articles. Important additional informations were provided by State Veterinary Institute in Prague and the National Reference Laboratory for arboviruses in Ostrava. Thesis does not deal with number of single values, but it is focused on epidemiological severity of analyzed cases, severity of clinical course and risk of introducing infection in the Czech Republic. Theoretical part of the thesis describes selected arboviruses infections. Tick-borne encephalitis is one of the most important diseases transmitted by arthropods in our surroundings. Number of reported cases of tick-borne encephalitis was quite constant in monitored period 2002 - 2011, according to my research and statistical verification. Highest morbidity was in 2006. The same year the highest incidence of disease Tick-borne encephalitic was reported in region of Vysočina. This number is far closer to number of reported cases in region of South Bohemia which was the most affected region thought the entire period. Prevention exists against tick-borne encephalitis. It is vaccination which is recommended for people staying in natural foci of infection in the Czech Republic and abroad. In the Czech republic becomes more important West Nile fever. Increased incidence of this disease is recorded in the USA, but also in many European countries (eg Greece, Hungary, Italy) in recent years. One of the goals of this thesis is to characterize the surveillance of West Nile fever in the Czech republic. Monitoring antibody titer against West Nile virus in the serum of horses is one of the basic elements of surveillance of this disease in our country. 5 samples of the blood serum was increased titers of antibodies to West Nile virus. Various geographic distribution of horses and high specific antibody titers indicate increasing activity of West Nile virus. Clinical disease of horses not being recorded in the Czech republic. In the field of human medicine have been reported three imported cases of West Nile fever. Other arboviruses infections, that appeared in our country, is dengue disease and viral disease Chikungunya. In the monitored period there were a total of 98 reported cases of imported disease. Most cases were imported from India. Three cases of Chikungunya disease were reported in 2006 in connection with a stay on the island of Mauritius, where was the epidemic at this time. People can travel freely and there is the risk of importing diseases from the tropics and subtropics. Some infections transmitted by arthropods are in areas where it was previously absent recently. Prevention is essential. Specific and non-specific prevention. Another important element of prevention is strict adherence to methods for surveillance of disease.Viral infections transmitted by arthropods are among the most important emergent infectious diseases. In addition to malaria, malnutrition and helminth infection are the largest public health problem, not only in third world countries.
Presence of tick-borne encephalitis in Pribram district with its level of awareness and general attitude to vaccination against it in selected populations
Central European tick-borne encephalitis is a disease belonging to the group of zoonosis, which is transmitted by the tick Ixodes ricinus. It is an acute neuroinfection caused by the RNA virus that can seriously endanger people?s lives. Tick-borne encephalitis is one of the diseases typical for its natural pocket. The most common way of transmission onto a human being is by the bite of an infected tick. However, there have been cases where the contagion took place by consuming unpasteurized milk or dairy products. Although it is a disease which can be easily prevented, vaccination is still very low in our country. If we do not press people to improve this situation, we can expect frequency of tick-borne encephalities will be increased.
The attitude of paediatricians towards tick-borne meningoencephalitis vaccination in areas of the country with the highest prevalence of the disease
The number of TE disease in the Czech Republic is higher and higher. It is very important to protect children and also adults. The most effective protection is a vaccination. My Bachelorś these is aimed towards finding out the percentage of vaccinated children and teenagers in region of České Budějovice and also the attitude of paediatricians towards the TE disease. The result of this research has shown that percentage of vaccinated children is much higher than in the previous years, the paediatricians realize how serious this disease id they inform parents about TE problem and recommend the vaccination against TE to children and adults.
Possibility interference interest in vaccination against curse encephalitic in focus infection
This diploma thesis addresses the topic of informing people of tick-borne encephalitis and vaccination against this disease. Our diploma thesis has four objectives in total. The first objective was to ascertain how many of the respondents were vaccinated against tick-borne encephalitis. The second and the third objectives were to demonstrate the reasons of vaccinated and unvaccinated respondents. The fourth objective was to analyze the attitudes of the respondents to publicization of the tick-borne encephalitis issue. As an infection with the natural focus, the disease is caused by a tick-borne encephalitis virus belonging among flaviviruses. The carrier is a sheep tick (Ixodes ricinus). Ticks live as parasites on reservoir animals, such as small rodents, ungulates and domestic animals. The clinical picture of the disease has mostly two stages and the symptomatologic form affects in particular adults and seniors. South Bohemia is a significant focus of tick-borne encephalitis with the sickness rate considerably exceeding the average of the Czech Republic. The most efficient prevention of the disease is vaccination. Two vaccines have been registered in the Czech Republic at present, namely FSME-Immun of Baxter and Encepur of Novartis. Both the vaccines are intended for children from 1 year of age. The basic vaccination scheme consists of 3 doses and the vaccinated person needs to be revaccinated every 3-5 years. It follows from the questionnaire research that 49 % of the total number of 136 respondents are vaccinated. As expected, the most frequent reason for vaccination (65 %) is the fear of becoming infected with tick-borne encephalitis. Other reasons are the interventions of the surrounding persons persuading the person to become vaccinated (19 %) and the financial contribution of the health insurance company or the employer (16 %). 35 % of the unvaccinated respondents do not plan to become vaccinated in the future. Approximately 40 % of the unvaccinated respondents feel that they do not need the vaccination or do not trust vaccination as such. 42 % of the unvaccinated persons would agree to vaccination if they received a financial contribution of the health insurance company or the employer, but nothing at all would convince 35 % of the unvaccinated respondents. It follows from the research that most respondents are satisfied with the quantity and the content of the information about tick-borne encephalitis. They do not think that anything should be changed in the system of informing of the disease. This thesis contributes to monitoring the trends in thinking of the public, and will eventuate in the finding which way the education of people about tick-borne encephalitis should be directed.
Vaccination Rate of Adults against Tick-borne Meningoencephalitis in České Budějovice
The aim of this thesis was to map vaccination rate against tick-borne encephalitis in adults in the town of České Budějovice, the town in the focus of infection. Tick-borne encephalitis is a very malign and dangerous neurodegenerative disease. At the beginning there appear only inconspicuous flu-like symptoms. It is transmitted either by infected ticks or by eating products made from non-pasteurized milk of infected animals (goats, sheep). People living in areas with higher occurrence of ticks infected by one of the diseases (tick-borne encephalitis, borreliosis, ehrlichiois) should pay attention to prevention. In case of tick-borne encephalitis vaccination is possible. It is recommended during winter months, when ticks are not active. This precaution is done in cold weather so that in spring when ticks are active, the body has sufficient amount of antibodies against tick-borne encephalitis. During warm months it is possible to apply accelerated scheme of vaccination so that the body produces antibodies quicker, however, their survival is rather shorter. My research was carried out by means of questionnaires which were filled in by the group of randomly chosen inhabitants of České Budějovice. The form of processing was the method of quantitative research. The questionnaires were processed by the form of descriptive study. Total number of returned questionnaires was 541 (77%). The generation until 29 (68%) had the highest distribution; this age category has the highest vaccination rate (56%). The total proportion of vaccinated against non-vaccinated is 49% to 51 %. On the contrary, the lowest vaccination rate is in generations of 70 years old and older people, where 1 of 18 is vaccinated (5.5 %). In women, who created 76 % of examined sample, the vaccination rate makes up 53 % and in men, who took 24 %, there were 35 % vaccinated. The next aim of my thesis was to monitor attitudes of inhabitants to vaccination. We found out that in non-vaccinated inhabitants the main reason was opinion that vaccination is not necessary (43 %), the next was finance (20%) and further some other reasons, for example laziness. In vaccinated inhabitants the most common reason was the fear of infection and further persuasion by another person (24 %). The third place is occupied by the stay in risky environment (18 %).
Awarness of Public of Tickborne Encefalitis Infection
In my bachelor work I monitor the awareness of the general public on the tick-borne encephalitis and the attitude of the general public to vaccination against this disease. I have found out using research that the population is aware of the tick-borne encephalitis but the population is not interested in vaccination against the disease.
Complete genome sequence analysis of TBE virus, strain Hypr, in different passages in host \kur{in vivo}.
I have compared genomic sequences of three variants of tick-borne encephalitis virus, strain Hypr. The variants used were Hypr5 {--} virus passaged five times in suckling mice brains, Hypr50/V {--} a variant highly passaged in vivo in Vienna, and Hypr50/CB {--} a variant highly passaged in vivo in České Budějovice. Both high-passage variants were passaged in suckling mouse brains as well. I was interested in changes in nucleotide sequence of genomes of high-passage variants Hypr50/V and Hypr50/CB compared with Hypr5 and also consequential changes in amino-acid sequences of viral proteins. I have found several identical changes in amino-acid sequences of E protein, NS3 and NS5 proteins in both high-passage variants and also a number of substitutions unique to one of the variants in proteins E, NS1, NS2A, NS2B, and NS3. A nucleotide substitution was found also in 5{\crq}UTR of the viral genome.

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