National Repository of Grey Literature 210 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
The influence of urban greenery on the quality of the environment
Prokš, Dominik ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (referee) ; Doležalová Weissmannová, Helena (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with the topic of the impact of urban green space on the quality of the environment. As the first topic the concept of urbanization appears and closely related to this is what the city as such represents for society. Furthermore, much attention is already paid to urban green spaces and their functions and effects on the urban environment. Public greenery has an impact on air and climate functions, as well as on rainwater management, preventing the spread of noise, trapping dust and, finally, greenery has a positive effect on the psyche of the inhabitants. Furthermore, the maintenance and care of plants and grassland is addressed. In the practical part, is discussed the concept of management and form of public urban greenery in the territory of the Statutory City of Brno, where, among other things, are described the assigned individual managers of urban greenery in the territory of the city and their duties and problems associated with maintenance. The function of the geological and informative system called GIS is also presented, which is an application for the administrators and the public for a clear orientation in the city and its environment. The last chapter is devoted to the measurement of pollutant concentrations in Brno's air.
Possibilities of using the multigenerational test on the organism Daphnia magna
Měšťánková, Anna ; Maršálková, Eliška (referee) ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (advisor)
This bachelor thesis focuses on the study of the effects of pharmaceutical substances ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and acetylsalicylic acid, as well as their combinations, on the freshwater organism Daphnia magna through multigenerational ecotoxicological tests. The presence of pharmaceutical residues in ecosystems is a significant environmental problem, which necessitates a deeper understanding of their long-term effects on organisms, including aquatic ones. The work monitored the influence of the aforementioned pharmaceuticals through acute tests, as well as chronic ones. While the acute toxicity of these substances is not significant, their long-term impact was demonstrated through chronic tests. A significant decrease in the reproductive capacity of D. magna was observed, manifesting not only in the delay of the first brood but primarily in the overall decrease in offspring numbers across generations. The findings indicate that the combination of drugs can have synergistic toxic effects, which in some cases may lead to a complete cessation of reproduction. Additionally, growth inhibitions, behavioral changes, and body deformations in exposed organisms were observed. These multigenerational tests provide a comprehensive and realistic view of the potential ecotoxicological risk of pharmaceuticals in freshwater ecosystems and support the need for in-depth research on the impact of pharmaceuticals on aquatic organisms.
Horse mane as a possible bioindicator for the assessment of environmental contamination by risk elements
Smékalová, Šárka ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (referee) ; Komendová, Renata (advisor)
This bachelor’s thesis focuses on the determination of trace metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn in horse manes and used horse feed. Samples were collected from two locations, and the selected metals were quantified using AAS. The measured Hg concentrations in the horse mane ranged 0.0032–0.0077 mg/kg. Cd concentrations were below the limit of detection in all horse mane samples. Concentrations of Cr ranged 0.312–3.527 mg/kg, Cu concentrations 4.274–7.336 mg/kg, Pb concentrations 0.143–1.403 mg/kg, Ni concentrations 0.611–2.401 mg/kg, and Zn concentrations 37.0–253.2 mg/kg. In the feed samples, Hg concentrations ranged 0.001–0.015 mg/kg. Cadmium was detected only in three feed samples in the range 0.052–0.194 mg/kg. Other risk elements were measured in all feed samples: Cr 3.511–13.195 mg/kg, Cu 1.670–25.241 mg/kg, Pb 0.171–2.709 mg/kg, and Ni 1.106–5.917 mg/kg. Concentrations of Zn in the horse feed ranged 8.6–242.2 mg/kg. Based on the measured data, it is not possible to definitively assess the ability of metals to accumulate in horse manes. It is also not possible to confirm a dependence of the concentration on age, gender, color, or breed of horses, except for more significant recurring differences in gender.
Optimization of methods for the analysis of pharmaceuticals residues in different crops
Súkeníková, Kamila ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (referee) ; Mravcová, Ludmila (advisor)
Aim of this thesis is to optimize the extraction method for extracting pharmaceuticals from various types of matrices. Presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment represent an increasing problem, even though they are only found in low concentrations. Therefore, great emphasis is placed on their analysis. Since the concentration of pharmaceuticals is often low and their chemical diversity is large, their analysis presents a significant challenge. For this reason, this thesis is focused on optimizing the extraction method from plant matrices. This optimization is carried out in order to obtain the best possible extraction method, and thus ensuring the highest possible yield of pharmaceuticals from radish, carrot, and mustard matrices. The optimization of the extraction method involved finding the parameters for individual steps of the QuEChERS extraction method that showed the best average yield for all pharmaceuticals.
Detection of aromatic compounds in plants
Tilešová, Kristína ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (referee) ; Krčma, František (advisor)
This bachelor thesis is focused on the detection of aromatic compounds in plants. Selected plant was Celery (Apium graveolens). In the theoretical part, methods for the volatile substances analysis were reviewed. In the experimental part, celery sample was converted from solid to liquid form and then analyzed using proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Aromatic compounds with a stronger signal were selected using PTR-TOF-MS, which were analyzed and identified using GC/MS. Monoterpenes represented the main group of compounds in celery seed essential oil, the most important is D-Limonene. Celery also contains phthalides, aldehydes, alcohols, esters. Using a combination of PTR-TOF-MS and GC/MS was obtained the quantitative and qualitative composition of celery essential oil.
The use of the Daphnia magna organism in the evaluation of the efficiency of domestic wastewater treatment plants
Petrová, Adela ; Komendová, Renata (referee) ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (advisor)
The aim of this bachelor thesis was to assess the efficiency of two domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with a capacity of 30–500 equivalent inhabitants (EO), with 10 to 20 inhabitants using them. The evaluation was carried out through ecotoxicological tests on the aquatic organism Daphnia magna, and analytical analysis, where selected indicators specified in Government Regulations No. 401/2015 Coll. and No. 57/2016 Coll. were investigated. In the acute tests, a significant reduction in the toxicity level of the water at the outlet of the treatment plant, compared to the water at the inlet, was observed. In both treatment plants, EC50 values were determined only at the influent, as there was no mortality above 50 % at the effluent. The EC50 values for WWTP 1 were calculated to be 653.9 ml/l (24hEC50) and 471.1 ml/l (48hEC50). For WWTP 2, these values were determined to be 286.4 ml/l (24hEC50) and 186.2 ml/l (48hEC50). Chronic tests also showed that the treated water from the treatment plant at concentrations of 10 % and 1 % did not have a negative effect on the growth and reproduction of D. magna, but promoted the growth of algae used as food. From an analytical point of view, the treatment efficiency in both treatment plants was COD above 70 %, but only WWTP 1 did not exceed the maximum COD value of 220 mg/l for discharge of treated water to surface water. This plant also met the conditions for discharge to groundwater, unlike WWTP 2.
Study of the use of crops for phytoremediation of contaminated soil by pharmaceuticals
Hamplová, Marie ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (referee) ; Mravcová, Ludmila (advisor)
Pharmaceuticals leaking into the environment from wastewater and livestock farms raise concerns about the impact on the ecosystem and human health. Residues of pharmaceuticals present in soil are subject to a number of biotic and abiotic processes, including uptake, translocation and accumulation by plants. The ability of plants to accumulate or degrade pharmaceuticals could have potential applications in the process of 'phytoremediation', where plants and their associated micro-organisms are used to stabilise, degrade or remove contaminants from the environment. In the framework of this thesis, experiments on phytoremediation of drug-contaminated soil by the cover crop oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. Oleiformis) under controlled conditions were conducted. Soil samples were extracted by ultrasonic extraction, plant samples by QuEChERS method and the final analysis of drugs was performed by UPLC-MS/MS. Oilseed radish produced a large amount of aboveground biomass compared to the other two crops and the presence of drugs had no negative effect on its growth. However, the determined levels of each drug in the soil and in the crop showed insufficient effectiveness of phytoremediation. The accumulation of drugs by the crop was low except for residues of the antidepressant venlafaxine. Therefore, according to these results, oilseed radish is not a suitable crop for phytoremediation of drug-contaminated soil. Experiments were also carried out with the root vegetable radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. Sativus) and carrot (Daucus carota L.) to assess the risk to human health associated with the accumulation of drugs in vegetable roots. The risk has not been demonstrated in terms of the amount of established drugs in the roots. Only the metabolite clofibric acid accumulated to a higher extent and the antibiotic trimethoprim was the most translocated to the aerial parts of the crop. The rate of uptake and translocation of drugs by the plant depended on many factors, as their content varied considerably between drug groups and between parts and types of crops.
Influence of plasma activated water on seed germination and quality of corn
Kovařík, Martin ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (referee) ; Kozáková, Zdenka (advisor)
The bachelor's thesis deals with the effect of plasma-activated water on corn germination. After water comes into contact with plasma, the water changes its chemical composition and thus, it acquires new properties that can be used in agriculture. The theoretical part is divided into two basic parts. At the beginning of the first part, plasma is briefly characterized, and then this part deals with plasma-activated water, its formation, physical and chemical properties, and at the end of this part, its use. The second part of the theoretical part is devoted to the germination of plants, external influences affecting germination and statistical evaluation of germination. At the end of the theoretical part, this thesis deals with the ecotoxicity of plants. The content of the experimental part was the preparation of PAW, its subsequent application to corn seeds and the study of its effect on germination and plant quality. PAW was created from distilled or tap water using three different plasma systems and the effect of each PAW on the seeds was compared with that of each control sample. The obtained results indicate a positive effect of PAW on seed germination, but the final hypothesis would require more extensive experiments in different environments, especially in soil.
Introduction of enzymatic ecotoxicity tests and their use in assessing the quality of the soil ecosystem
Marcinko, Juraj ; Mravcová, Ludmila (referee) ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (advisor)
Assessment of soil quality is possible through a variety of approaches, including the use of ecotoxicological principles, at the organismal or sub-organismal level. It is for this reason that one of the objectives of this thesis was the introduction and implementation of selected enzymatic assays, specifically the evaluation of the enzymatic activities of three enzymes that can represent the microbial activity of the soil. For these purposes, a short-term test was carried out with Lactuca sativa, where pharmacological substances were selected as representatives of xenobiotics with a possible influence on microbial activity in soil and with a potential phytotoxic effect on higher plants. The results obtained indicate a possible inhibitory effect of pharmacological substances on enzymatic activity in soil. In the case of phytotoxicity of pharmacological substances, a significant effect was observed at the organismal level, which was manifested by root elongation. The effect at the sub-organism level was significantly manifested by a disturbance in the ratio of photosynthetic pigment content.
Assessment of the state of the environment with regard to the content of risk elements in fish bodies
Jonášová, Simona ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (referee) ; Komendová, Renata (advisor)
The diploma thesis deals with the study of the content of potentially toxic elements in fish bodies in the Jihlava River. The biological samples were first transferred into solutions by microwave digestion. Afterwards, the potentially toxic elements Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn in muscle, heart, liver, genital organs, gills and intestine were determined by AAS. A total of 20 fish samples were analysed. In european chub and common bream, the concentrations of elements decreased in the order Zn > Cu > Ni > Cr > Hg > Pb > Cd. In rainbow trout, common nase, common carp, european perch and common roach, element concentrations decreased in the order Zn > Cu > Ni > Cr > Hg > Cd > Pb. In northern pike the following decreasing trend was found: Zn > Cu > Hg > Ni > Cr > Cd > Pb. The assessment of the condition of the watercourse was made according to the individuals that were assumed to have been present in the Jihlava River for more than 1 year. According to these fish species, the contamination of the aquatic environment with elements Cr, Cu, Hg and Ni was demonstrated. All fish samples except sample 8 (perch) were assessed as suitable for consumption.

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