National Repository of Grey Literature 104 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Natural restoration of mining sites: Vegetation succession and soil development: A case study from granodiorite quarries and dumps near the town Skuteč
Chuman, Tomáš ; Šefrna, Luděk (advisor) ; Novák, Jan (referee) ; Hradecký, Jan (referee)
Ir !ntroduction Environmenta| impaď caused by mining is considerab|e' The impact of mining on re|ief and landscape character is particularly substantial as could be documented on earth material transfer. While transfer of earth material caused by natural processes (erosion, sedimentation) is about 4 millions of cubic meters per year, anthropogenic transfer is close to 330 millions (Kukal' 2006) and material transfer due to mining represents the greatest proportion' lt is estimated that the surface minera| extraďion already covers 1% of the |and surface (Wa|ker & del Moral 2003). |n the czech Republic the extent of mining sites reached 0,8% in 2006 (Statistical Environmental Yearbook of the Czech Republic 2008). Miningcausesineversib|emodificationofre|ieíremovesvegetationandsoi|cover causing loss of biotopes. on the other hand mining creates new sites in the landscape e'g' water bodies, rock walls and screes. These sites are often unique and contrasting with the surrounding landscape and might harbor specific species afrer mine/quarry abandonment. Traditional approach to restoration was considered to be the restoration (reclamation) of production, whether agricultural or forestry, causing elimination of potential site diversity by morphology adjustment' topsoil application and tree planting or trefoil-grass...
Aboveground litterfall fluxes of selected elements in central European temperate forest
Bašta, Jan ; Oulehle, Filip (advisor) ; Chuman, Tomáš (referee)
5 Abstract Aboveground litterfall is the most important intrasystem flow in the temperate forest ecosystem. It is also the largest input flux to the soil surface for most of the macronutrients (N, P, Ca, Mg, K). However, under Central European conditions, studies on the magnitude of this flux in relation to elemental stocks are lacking. GEOMON Small Forest Catchment Network is used to investigate long-term trends in nutrient cycles in temperate forests of Central Europe and the human influence on them. As part of this network aboveground litterfall collectors were placed in 14 catchments at a total of 19 sites at the end of 2019. Litterfall was then collected bimonthly, weighed and sorted into different fractions. These fractions were analyzed to determine the concentration of the elements of interest. From these values, the fluxes of the elements in the aboveground litterfall were calculated. The observed values were compared with the characteristics of the individual sites and the element budgets in the catchments. The monitored elements can be ranked according to the size of the flux of the element through the aboveground litterfall in relation to other inputs of that element to the soil as follows: C, P, N, Ca, Mg and K. The average amount of aboveground litterfall in the GEOMON network is 4.6...
Concept of critical loads of sulphur and nitrogen for ecosystems and modelling of soil chemistry and vegetation species composition of ecosystems affected by acidification and nutrient degradation for selected sites in the Czech Republic
Lebedová, Michaela ; Chuman, Tomáš (advisor) ; Šefrna, Luděk (referee)
The knowledge of the emission history and deposition trends of the main pollutants is key to understanding changes occurring in ecosystems. High levels of sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) deposition, which peaked in the Czech Republic in the 1970s and 1980s, have caused significant acidification and damage to forest ecosystems. Due to the political and economic changes in the 1990s, there was a significant reduction in emissions and an improvement in the conditions of forest soil. Futures ecosystems development and recovery are affected primarily by climate change and still excessive nitrogen loads. To model the future development of ecosystems affected by acidification and nutrient degradation in the Czech Republic the dynamic model VSD+ Studio in combination with the vegetation model PROPS was used in this work. Two forest catchments of the GEOMON network (Liz and Uhlířská) were selected as model sites. The catchment areas significantly differed in the historical sulphur and nitrogen deposition loads. The results indicate that excessive depositions of S and N between 1970 - 1990 caused significant soil acidification and reduced the level of base saturation in both monitored locations. There is also a decrease in the C:N ratio and organic carbon content in the mineral soil. The vegetation model PROPS...
Carbon dynamics in the chernozem region after half a century of intensive cultivation
Juřicová, Anna ; Chuman, Tomáš (advisor) ; Dostál, Tomáš (referee) ; Maerker, Michael (referee)
Soils are vital for global food security and recently they have also received attention as a tool potentially mitigating climate change due to their ability to store large amounts of carbon (C) and provide other vital non-productive functions. However, several forms of degradation threat these functions. In agricultural soils, the decline of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil erosion are two of the degradation processes. Soil erosion laterally redistributes large amounts of SOC in hilly agricultural landscapes. Lateral fluxes further impact the SOC storage in soils and indirectly modulate the vertical C fluxes between the terrestrial sphere and the atmosphere. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the long-term (> 50 years) regional SOC changes and analyze the impacts of soil redistribution in C dynamics in a hilly agricultural landscape. We consider soil redistribution via water and tillage as the main erosion agents. The study uses a comparison of recently resampled and legacy data from historical monitoring (the 1960s) together with coupled erosion and C dynamics modelling using the SPEROC-C model. The study is conducted in the chernozem region, south Moravia, the Czech Republic. Our results showed that the change in SOC content tends to be positive after more than 50 years. Moreover,...
Analysis of spatial configuration of agriculture land in Czechia and its relation to natural conditions
Duspiva, Marek ; Chuman, Tomáš (advisor) ; Romportl, Dušan (referee)
The spatial configuration of agricultural land has a fundamental influence on the functioning and processes in the landscape. Its form is a reflection of natural conditions, but also of socioeconomic factors. This thesis deals with the issue in a broader context so that the connections and complexity of the studied phenomenon were outlined. The aim of the thesis was the analysis of the spatial configuration (distribution and size structure of agricultural areas, way, and intensity of land use) of agricultural land in Czechia in relation to natural conditions and evaluation of regional differences. For this purpose, very detailed spatial data of agricultural land use from the LPIS register were used. These data include details about so-called land blocks and parts of land blocks. The analysis was performed by observing several parameters, such as the size of agricultural areas, their altitude, slope, and productivity of agricultural land. These parameters were observed in the size categories of land blocks and parts of land blocks, as well as in landscape types of Czechia. The analysis showed significant differentiation in the size of agricultural areas. The majority of agricultural land is concentrated in a relatively small number of significantly above-average size agricultural areas. For example,...
Determination of the threat to the archaeological site Bylany by water and tillage erosion of soil
Derková, Nikola ; Chuman, Tomáš (advisor) ; Strouhalová, Barbora (referee)
The diploma thesis aims to determine the threat of archaeological site Bylany by soil erosion. Soil erosion was detected using a combination of field research and modeling in the WaTEM/SEDEM program. The results of the diploma thesis are beneficial to the knowledge of the rate of erosion and at the same time can be helpful in research and preservation of archaeological monuments. Based on a combination of erosion modeling and field investigation, the rate of erosion and accumulation in the locality was determined. Soil erosion was demonstrated at five studied sites out of a total of eight sites. Two sites showed questionable results and only one site showed accumulation of material with an average annual accumulation of 2,14 mm. The average annual value of soil erosion varied between 0,46 and 26,9 mm. A high intensity of soil erosion was demonstrated on the erosion model of water erosion also in the southern part of the slope, where the smaller roundel is located, but this could not be confirmed by field investigation as this roundel has not been studied and described by archaeologists. The ongoing soil erosion in the locality thus represents a significant threat to the Neolithic roundels in Bylany.
Estimate of carbon sequestration in the Czech Republic - afforestation of arable land, change of forest management, wetlands renaturations and tree lanes
Hruška, Jakub ; Pavelka, Marian ; Chuman, Tomáš ; Oulehle, Filip ; Vindušková, O. ; Cudlín, Pavel ; Trnka, Miroslav
Report acconunted quantitetivly as well qualitativly (for the year 2050) carbon sequestration for afforestation of arable land, change of forest management, wetlands renaturations and tree lanes.
The variability of soil organic carbon pool and the potential of ground penetrating radar in its estimating
Zajícová, Kateřina ; Chuman, Tomáš (advisor) ; Šamonil, Pavel (referee) ; Leopold, Matthias (referee)
In the context of ongoing climate change, more attention is being given to soil and its organic carbon pool. This is because soil could partially compensate for the increasing amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere or, on the other hand, be a vast pool of carbon dioxide if organic matter stored in soil mineralizes. Therefore, the precision of soil organic carbon pool estimation, development of monitoring methods, and revelation of factors controlling the pool have been more and more focused on by soil scientists. Conventional soil sampling for soil organic carbon pool estimation and modelling includes manual sampling, measuring forest floor depth and bulk density, and taking soil samples for carbon concentration analysis. These are time and labour demanding. Therefore, there is an effort to develop precise models predicting the carbon pool based on its driving factors that would limit the amount of fieldwork. The models often use remote sensing data, and, in addition, there is an effort to estimate soil organic carbon concentration from soil spectral characteristics. Nevertheless, another variable needed to estimate the organic carbon pool is the thickness of the soil profile or individual soil horizons. The thickness can hardly be determined from remote sensing data, so it has to be measured...
Physical-geographical aspects of vegetation succession and soil development with focus on abandoned mining sites
Zamazalová, Kateřina ; Chuman, Tomáš (advisor) ; Zádorová, Tereza (referee)
The thesis focuses on the background research of pedogenesis and vegetation succession within a primary succession. An attention is paid to abandoned mining sites. The role of a rock sub-soil is emphasized. The found facts was examined on samples, where the dependency of pH and amount of organic carbon in soil on substrate and type of vegetation was examined. Statistically significant differences in soil and vegetation development on different substrates were not found, however there was observed the influence of carbonate substrate from neighborhood. This substrate allowed in a sililic quarry a formation of nutrient rich vegetation similar to that described in limestone quarries. Humidity of the soil and groundwater table depth were suggested as more determining in vegetation succesion, especially in life forms domination. Primary successsion was influenced by neighborhood of the area in many aspects.
Physical-geographical analysis of the distribution of lynx in the Bohemian Forest
Sladová, Michaela ; Romportl, Dušan (advisor) ; Chuman, Tomáš (referee)
Natural landscape has been changed and forest habitats have been fragmented as a result of human activity. Consequently a decay of forest species has been registered and Eurasian lynx belongs to these threatened species. This wild beast had been exterminated in past in Czech Republic. The Czech and German parts of Šumava Mountains belong to the most forested areas in Europe and therefore they represent convenient areas for a steady occurrence of the mammals which need large areas for their existence. That is why the population of this wild beast was re-established through the use of 24 re-introducted specimen in Šumava Mountains during the 1980s. At present Šumava Mountains represent one of the main central areas of steady occurrence of eurasian lynx in Czech Republic. On the basis of radiotelemetric data coming from 10 individuals of Eurasian lynx (6 males and 4 females) the spatial requirements of this wild beast have been analysed by means of the three following methods: Minimum Convex Polygon, Kernel Home Range and Local Convex Hull. Also the impacts of human activities and relief character have been discussed together with the preference of the provincial cover. It has been found out that the spread of this wild beast is limited by the estate, the traffic infrastructure and fragmentation of...

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