National Repository of Grey Literature 13 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Current knowledge about the influence of the intestinal microbiome on the development, course and consequences of lactose intolerance
Černá, Pavlína ; Tomešová, Jitka (advisor) ; Kohout, Pavel (referee)
The bachelor thesis investigates the current knowledge about the influence of the gut microbiome on the development and severity of lactose intolerance, as well as whether and how it can be changed to influence the course of existing lactose intolerance and its immediate and long- term consequences. In the first part of this bachelor thesis I discuss lactose itself and its metabolism, which shows its direct link to the gastrointestinal tract. Lactose intolerance (LI) is also described, how it is diagnosed, what it manifests itself as, and what its degrees are. The next chapter discusses the relationship between LI, the gut, and the gut microbiome. First, I focus here on the possible adaptability of the gut, which is mainly determined by the presence of the microbiome. There is also a link between LI and other gastrointestinal disorders in which gut bacteria play a role. The microbiome is a very dynamic population of different types of bacteria, fungi and viruses that can influence the course of lactose intolerance. This can be exploated in the subsequent therapy of LI with probiotics, which are included in part three. The most commonly used probiotic bacteria are representatives of the genus Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. However, probiotics are not the only option for using the gut microbiome...
Knowledge of pregnant women about the effect of nutrition on the fetus
Blažejovská, Klára ; Starnovská, Tamara (advisor) ; Tomešová, Jitka (referee)
A healthy diet is important at all ages, especially during fetal development. A number of metabolic changes occur in the body of a pregnant woman. The fetus is constantly increasing its demands, so the woman's body is more demanding than usual. A woman should, at least during pregnancy, adapt her eating habits to these requirements and thus ensure sufficient quality nutrients not only for the proper development and growth of the fetus, but also for her health. Adherence to a proper lifestyle reduces the risk of later health complications not only for the mother but also for the child. The aim of this bachelor thesis was to find out the level of awareness of the interviewed pregnant women about the importance of nutrition during pregnancy and whether they are provided with enough information to obtain this knowledge. The theoretical part focuses on the individual components of nutrition, general recommendations in the diet of pregnant women, the consequences of improper diet in pregnancy, physiological changes that occur during pregnancy. Mention is also made of the energy intake during pregnancy and the weight gain that many women fear. A non-interventional questionnaire method and an interview were chosen to obtain information on the set objectives. The questionnaire was used to obtain data on the...
Growth in children after allogenic hematopoetic stem cell transplantation
Tomešová, Jitka ; Sedlak, Petr (advisor) ; Keslová, Petra (referee)
Nearly 80 % of child oncological patients survive treatment nowadays and live in adulthood. Therefore, one of the main current children's oncology task is not only to cure the patient but to assure the life after treatment in as highest quality as possible. Related to the quality of life is the adequate adult body height which is in these children after hematooncological treatment ussualy known as impaired. The aim of this diploma thesis was to specify the frequency and level of impaired final body height in children after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and find its relation to sex, diagnosis and age at the time of transplantation. Thesis criteria met 89 children (35 female), who recieved the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between years 1989 and 2012 in University Hospital in Motol, Prague. Children were observed prospectively in Laboratory of Clinical Anthropology of the Pediatric Clinic of University Hospital in Motol since the date of their transplantation till they reach their final body height. Each survey consists of the measurement of body height and weight, BMI calculation, Tanner pubertal stages and bone age assessment by the TW3 method. These, completed by clinical data about diagnosis, growth hormone deficiency treatment, and menarche in girls, were compared to the...
Nutrition of women during pregnancy: needs, knowledge, awareness and real use of knowledge
Pelánová, Natálie ; Starnovská, Tamara (advisor) ; Tomešová, Jitka (referee)
Pregnancy is a crucial period in a woman's life, when many physical and mental changes take place. A woman must think not only of herself and consider what is best for her and her child. With the help of a nutritionally rich diet, it is possible to affect the health of the fetus into the distant future. This bachelor thesis deals with the nutrition of pregnant women, their needs, information and the use of acquired knowledge. The bachelor thesis is divided into two parts. In the first part I analyze the theoretical knowledge about pregnancy, energy intake and diet during pregnancy. In the second part, the evaluation takes place in the form of a questionnaire survey, when 196 questionnaires were obtained. The questionnaire includes questions on women's awareness and resources, diet, supplements, drinking regime and risky components of the diet. The aim of this work was to find out what needs the pregnant body has, what knowledge pregnant women have, whether they feel sufficiently informed, where they primarily obtain nutrition information and how they then use it. In evaluating the hypotheses, some were confirmed and others refuted. Unfortunately, the hypothesis of whether women are sufficiently informed was refuted, as most women did not feel that way. Another hypothesis regarding the primary use...
Mikrocirculation in the diabetic foot syndrome
Tomešová, Jitka ; Lacigová, Silvie (advisor) ; Chlup, Rudolf (referee) ; Prázný, Martin (referee) ; Jirkovská, Alexandra (referee)
Abtrakt (EN) In spite of the fact that the diabetic foot syndrome is not considered a marginal complication of the patients with diabetes mellitus any more, its prevalence and incidence is not decreasing. The fact that early diagnosis and treatment or even prevention of foot ulcers is associated with a decrease in healthcare costs and, more importantly, with reducing patients' suffering, applies also in this case. The dissertation work originated in the Diabetologic Center of the Medical department I., University Hospital and Medical Faculty in Pilsen, Charles University in Prague, which has been dealing with diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in patients with diabetic foot syndrome for over 20 years. The examinations for diagnosis of the main etiologic factors, i.e. peripheral neuropathy and impaired perfusion, belong to already routine ordinary procedures here. My task was to move the diagnostics of this complication to earlier stages, even before the development of the ulcers, through diagnosing an impairment in skin microcirculation. The aim of the work was to evaluate reactivity of the skin microcirculation in patients with diabetes mellitus using laser doppler flowmetry and to introduce a new method - iontophoresis. Skin microcirculation assessment has become a center of interest of many studies...
Impact of adequate energy and nutrients intake on growth and body composition of youth football players
Iliopulu, Margarita ; Hubáček, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Tomešová, Jitka (referee)
The main topic of my diploma thesis was to compare the changes in anthropometric parameters in relation to the diet composition of young footballers (soccer players) of the category U14 and U15 in the year 2017, year 2018 respectively, three months before entering the all-day regime of the Regional Football Academy at home and three months after that. The theoretical part focuses on the specifcs of the age U14 and U15 category, maps the nutritional needs for youth footballers in terms of nutritional, hydration and other important requirements, such as the timing of food. Next there is described the history and basic information about the establishment of the Regional Football Academies. The practical part works with the measured results based on regular anthropometric checks, body composition analyses, monitoring of body growth and information about daily food intake records on daily basis, which the football players recorded before entering academies. These daily food intake records were evaluated in the software BeetFit Pro. From the results of the diploma thesis it can be found that, for the successful changes of the anthropometric parameters and to manage demanding regimes within the region, it is necessary not only suffcient diet composition including the food timing, but major long-term and...
Current knowledge about histamine intolerance and benefits of elimination diet
Krlínová, Michaela ; Tomešová, Jitka (advisor) ; Suchánek, Pavel (referee)
With increasing interest about one's own health and in relation to the development of research, a new nosological unit - histamine intolerance - appeared about ten years ago. Completely healthy people can experience its symptoms and histamines can be found in common food. Therefore, among the professional public there are disunited opinions on its importance and contribution of a precisely specified elimination diet. Bachelor thesis research through recent literature assesses the current knowledge about seriousness of this new nosological unit, its occurrence and impact on human health as well as the occurrence of histamines in common food. Thesis discusses already known conclusions and the possibilities of abide by the appropriate elimination diet, including its merit to alleviating symptoms and improving the health of individuals afflicted with histamine intolerance.
Sleep related neurohumoral regulation of weight management
Havelková, Jarmila ; Tomešová, Jitka (advisor) ; Suchánek, Pavel (referee)
Over the past three decades, it has been confirmed that the alarming increase in number of obese patients is related to the sleep duration and its quality. Neurohumoral response to short sleep duration and poor sleep quality leads to decreased levels of melatonin, leptin and orexin, asto increased levels of cortisol, ghrelin and neuropeptide Y. Such an inaccurate regulation contributes both to excessive intake of energy-dense diet and to the reduction of energy expenditure during physical activity. The bachelor thesis summarizes recent information about the relationship of sleep and obesity, focusing on hormones and peptides involved in the regulation of energy balance processes, including the posssibility to use their mechanisms for weight control.
Health benefits and risks of adherence to gluten-free diet
Pechová, Tereza ; Tomešová, Jitka (advisor) ; Kužela, Lubomír (referee)
During the last approximately ten years, an increasing precentage of the world population follow a gluten-free diet. On one hand is the reason more and more frequent diagnosis of celiac disease, allergy on gluten or nonceliac gluten intolerance, on the other hand there is a modern trend to connect gluten-free diet with healthy lifestyle and weight loss or shows gluten as human health endangering substance. Bachelor thesis complies recent data in literature about single nosologic units that require adherence to the gluten-free diet, as well as legitimacy or unfounded exclusion of gluten from diet without any medical cause.
Evolution of perception of physical proportions and the prevalence of obesity in different periods of human existence
Jungvirtová, Tereza ; Tomešová, Jitka (advisor) ; Zamrazilová, Hana (referee)
Perception of body proportion during human evolution has changed. At the beginning of human history was overweight seen as an advantage, especially in times of food shortages and was put on display. This time comes from the statue Venus of Willendorf. After the agricultural revolution began to change the perception of body porportion and began to be viewed positively for thinness. Perception of body proportions changes depends on the culture in which is evaluated. This is due to different cultural habits, determining which curves are considered attractive and which are not. Body perception is different among individuals with normal body weight, overweight or with obesity. Obese usually have a tendency to underestimate their body weight. We can observe differences in perception among childern, adolescents and adults. None of them is often satisfied with their body proportions. Children as well as adults underestimate their weight, while adolescents overestimate it. The biggest problem associated with the underestimation of body weight is obesity. Prevalence of obesity has rapidly increased over the last three decades in both developing and developed countries.

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