National Repository of Grey Literature 9 records found  Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Characterization of migmatite fracturing using ultrasonic methods
Petružálek, Matěj ; Vilhelm, Jan (advisor) ; Vavryčuk, Václav (referee) ; Koktavý, Pavel (referee)
Submitted PHD thesis is focused on fracturing process of migmatite, which is a low porosity anisotropic rock. Migmatite, from a locality Skalka, was chosen as a suitable experimental material, namely due to its macroscopically visible, plane-parallel structure (foliation). The fracturing was studied by means of uniaxial loading experiments on cylindrical samples with different dip of migmatite foliation: 13ř (subhorizontal), 81ř (subvertical) and oblique (47ř and 67ř). The net of eight piezoceramic transducers was employed for ultrasonic sounding (US) measurement and acoustic emission (AE) monitoring during the loading experiments. Realized study of migmatite fracturing is based on the interpretation of both mentioned ultrasonic methods. Part of this work was a software development, including its testing for processing and interpretation of measured AE and US data. Methodical part of the thesis consists of: development and testing of algorithms for automatic P wave arrival detection; introduction of anisotropic velocity model to describe magnitude and orientation of velocity anisotropy, as well as to localize AE events in anisotropic velocity field; determination of crack initiation stress using first arrival amplitude of US. Based on the interpretation of AE and US data, there was found a...
Field measurement of natural electromagnetic emissions near the active tectonic and mass-movement fractures in caves
Trčka, T. ; Macků, R. ; Koktavý, P. ; Škarvada, P. ; Baroň, I. ; Stemberk, Josef
Laboratory tests on a wide range of solid materials shoved that the electromagnetic emission (EME) signals are generated during the samples mechanical stress. EME anomalies have been observed also under natural conditions in association to fracture processes, tectonic loading, stress redistribution and crack propagation prior to earthquake or in relation to deep-seated gravitational mass movements. This paper describes a first prototype of the Emission data logger, which was specially developed for the continual EME monitoring in field conditions. Our equipment has been installed and tested in Obir Caves (Austria) at an active tectonic fault. The pilot long-term EME measurement results from this location are also presented in this paper.
Characterization of migmatite fracturing using ultrasonic methods
Petružálek, Matěj ; Vilhelm, Jan (advisor) ; Vavryčuk, Václav (referee) ; Koktavý, Pavel (referee)
Submitted PHD thesis is focused on fracturing process of migmatite, which is a low porosity anisotropic rock. Migmatite, from a locality Skalka, was chosen as a suitable experimental material, namely due to its macroscopically visible, plane-parallel structure (foliation). The fracturing was studied by means of uniaxial loading experiments on cylindrical samples with different dip of migmatite foliation: 13ř (subhorizontal), 81ř (subvertical) and oblique (47ř and 67ř). The net of eight piezoceramic transducers was employed for ultrasonic sounding (US) measurement and acoustic emission (AE) monitoring during the loading experiments. Realized study of migmatite fracturing is based on the interpretation of both mentioned ultrasonic methods. Part of this work was a software development, including its testing for processing and interpretation of measured AE and US data. Methodical part of the thesis consists of: development and testing of algorithms for automatic P wave arrival detection; introduction of anisotropic velocity model to describe magnitude and orientation of velocity anisotropy, as well as to localize AE events in anisotropic velocity field; determination of crack initiation stress using first arrival amplitude of US. Based on the interpretation of AE and US data, there was found a...
Characterization of Secondary Created Structures in PN Junctions of Silicon Solar Cells
Šicner, Jiří ; Číp, Ondřej (referee) ; Navrátil, Vladislav (referee) ; Koktavý, Pavel (advisor)
This thesis describes the study and characterization of secondary created structures in PN junction of silicon solar cells. Secondary created structure is the term which means the structures created for the purpose of suppressing the negative influence of local defects and edges of the solar cell. This means in particular laser notches used to isolate the edges. Furthermore, the secondary created structure means modification defective area using focused ion beam milling. Theoretical part of this work deals with short introduction to the topic of solar cells. There are mentioned the physical nature of the solar cell and the technology associated with the issue of solar cells. Experimental section begins with a description of the experimental methods. For diagnostic methods were used both electrical (UI characteristics, noise characteristics) and optical methods (measuring local radiation - CCD camera, thermal imager, lock-in thermography). Furthermore, there was also used a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with technology using Focused Ion Beam (FIB). Sequentially there are presented individual results of characterization of created structures by laser. These partial results are incorporated into a comprehensive methodology developed for characterizing laser-created structures. The experimental part is finished by a presentation of the results of the research use of focused ion beam technology for sputtering defective areas of solar cells.
Application of Electromagnetic and Acoustic Emission for the Diagnostics of Advanced Composite Materials
Trčka, Tomáš ; Chobola, Zdeněk (referee) ; Lokajíček,, Tomáš (referee) ; Koktavý, Pavel (advisor)
The subject of this dissertation is a theoretical and experimental study of electromagnetic and acoustic emission generated in the course of crack formation in solid dielectric materials. Theoretical part of this work is focused on the electromagnetic emission method, because it is related to a number of unsolved problems in the field of generated emission signals measurement, as well as in the field of the correct interpretation of obtained experimental data. Consequently, issues of emission signals detection by capacitance sensors and the transformation of crack primary parameters on the measured variables within the proposed transfer system have been dealt with. The results in this area were an extension of application range of the electromagnetic emission method on composite materials (especially on fiber reinforced polymer composites), identification and evaluation of the most significant emission sources in investigated composites and developing a methodology for evaluating of the crack primary parameters based on the measured emission signals waveforms in time and frequency domain. The experimental part of this dissertation was focused on a complex methodology for emission signals (including data from additional sensors) continual recording, processing and evaluation and for monitoring the response of stressed material to an applied mechanical load in real-time. Partial results from different research areas were also implemented into this methodology. This included the detection of emission signals, design and implementation of the appropriate measuring apparatus, analysis of measured signals in the time and frequency domain and advanced methods for processing and evaluation of measured data.
Analysis of Fluctuation Processes of Solar Cells
Macků, Robert ; Chobola, Zdeněk (referee) ; Franc,, Jan (referee) ; Koktavý, Pavel (advisor)
The thesis deals issue of the silicon solar cells non-destructive testing. The manufacturing technology of solar cells currently features a very high level of perfection. Its further development appears to be limited by amongst other issues imperfect diagnostic methods. The objective of presented research consists in non-destructive studies of processes that influence specimen life and reliability. To this end, I will employ mainly noise based analytical methods in connection with observation of defect optical activities, capacitance measurement etc. These methods are closely related to some specimen bulk imperfections, crystal-lattice defect induced traps, local-stress-subjected regions and, finally, breakdowns, which might bring about specimen destruction. Based on a detailed study and understanding of transport processes, regions in which noise is generated can be identified and appropriate technological measures can be proposed and adopted. Presented research focuses, first of all, on the real solar cell structures, which are inhomogeneous in their nature and are difficult to diagnose. The significant part of this study is attend to the random n-level (in most case just two-level) impulse noise, usually referred to as microplasma noise. This noise is a consequence of local breakdowns in micro-sized regions and brings about reduction of lifetime or destruction of the pn junction. The micro-sized regions have been studied separately by electrical and optical methods and defect properties have been put forward. Nevertheless, no less significant part of the thesis is devoted to the fluctuation modeling of the bulk imperfections in the semi-analytical form.
Microplasma Noise as a Diagnostic Tool for PN Junctions of High-Voltage Rectifier Diodes
Raška, Michal ; Chobola, Zdeněk (referee) ; Hájek, Karel (referee) ; Koktavý, Pavel (advisor)
The doctoral thesis deals with diagnostics of local defects in PN junctions and brings new information about microplasma noise behaviour and its usage for the temperature changes detection inside PN junctions. Defects in PN junctions are the source of microplasma noise. There were deviations observed in microplasma noise from the common known rectangle shape pulses during the measurements. These deviations were correlated with the temperature change directly in the defect area and in the defect area surroundings. Generation and recombination coefficients are commonly thought to be constant. However, these coefficients were observed to be not stable with time and this effect is explained in this work. The doctoral thesis then focuses on the PN junction parameters determination in the case when it is not possible to define unambiguously whether it is abrupt or linearly graded PN junction. The most significant parameters which are to be determined are barrier capacity, diffusion voltage and depleted area width in dependence on the voltage. The correlation between local avalanche discharge in PN junction and negative differential resistance appearance on VA characteristics of reverse-biased diode was qualitatively verified. The last important point in the work is computer modelling of temperature behaviour in the defect area and its surroundings during local avalanche breakdown. Thus the method of real diodes heating area parameters determination was introduced.
Application of electromagnetic and acoustic emission signals for localization of cracks generated during mechanical stressing of solids
Burděj, Václav ; Sadovský, Petr (referee) ; Koktavý, Pavel (advisor)
Terms of acoustic emission (AE) and electromagnetic emission (EME) designated physical effects and also as diagnostic methods based on these effects. These effects are caused by generated cracks in materials that rank among non-destructive techniques of material diagnostics. The advantage of them is that they do not affect the measured object and give us information about the current dynamic state of a tested material. One disadvantage of these effects is that they provide very low energy of signal emissions and make it difficult for broader usage. It is expected better localization of cracks in non-conductive materials by connecting of these two techniques (diagnostics). There are designed and described new methods for crack detection with usage of AE and EME signals in this work. Also there is description of measuring arrangement intended of crack detection and experimental sample for checking accuracy of methods for crack detection. There was performed comparison of accuracy of methods in crack detection.
Processing of electromagnetic and acoustic emission signals during mechanical stressing of solids
Šopík, Martin ; Holcman, Vladimír (referee) ; Koktavý, Pavel (advisor)
Electromagnetic emission and acoustic emission are physical phenomena evoked in non-conductive material by the sudden release of energy that generate rising cracks in material structure. The significant is a fact that these emission signals are detected already in stadium of materials loading whereof can be used e.g. at non-destructive diagnostics of building materials and constructions. In the appropriate manner processing of the emitted signals then make possible to obtain valuable informations for study physical properties of cracks. Master’s thesis describes methods designed for important signal data ascertainment in time, frequency even time-frequency domain. It can be e.g. start time, maximum value, dominant frequency in spectrum etc. All these methods are implemented into main program. Next load is formularization of source signal transformation which is given by used measuring circuit. Analytical method is chosen for solving. It means finding out reserve electrical circuit with constant element values. Resultant circuit approaches original circuit with less square error than existing way. The signal transformation is described by differential equation of second order with constant coefficients. MATLAB software is used for all computations and projections.

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