National Repository of Grey Literature 59 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Coherent dusty and gaseous structures near the Galactic center
Štofanová, Lýdia ; Karas, Vladimír (advisor) ; Kovář, Jiří (referee)
Sagittarius A*, a compact source in the centre of the Milky Way, is the nearest supermassive black hole (SMBH) in our cosmic neighbourhood, where various astrophysical processes take place. In consequence, variety of structures emerge near the Galactic centre and bow shocks that are closely studied in this work represent an example of them. The introductory part of this thesis is a brief review of the history of the Galactic centre research and its discovery in radio wavelengths. The main body of the thesis is focused on a simplified model of the bow- shock structures that are generated by stars moving supersonically with respect to the ambient medium. We discuss how these structures vary along the orbit. To this end, we consider four different models: (a) without the presence of any gaseous medium emerging from or accreting onto the SMBH, (b) taking an outflow from the SMBH into account, (c) the case of an inflow onto the SMBH, and finally (d) the combined model involving both an outflow and an inflow at the same time. We discuss symmetries of each model (or lack of them) and we find that the model considering the ambient medium at rest appears symmetrical with respect to the pericentre passage. The combined model manifests itself as the most asymmetrical one of them all. We show profiles for the...
Understanding the iron K alpha line emissivity profile with GR radiative transfer code
Zhang, Wenda ; Dovčiak, Michal ; Bursa, Michal ; Svoboda, Jiří ; Karas, Vladimír
In this work, we present calculations of the illumination and the iron K alpha emissivity profiles performed with the GR radiative transfer code Monk that employs the Monte Carlo method. In most previous studies the distinction between the illumination and emissivity profiles was not clearly made. For AGN discs, the emissivity profile has a similar shape with the illumination profile, but in the inner most region the former is steeper than the latter, where as for accretion discs in black hole X-ray binaries, the distinction between the two profiles is more dramatic. We find out that the different behavior between AGN and black hole X-ray binary discs is due to the different energy spectra of the illuminating radiation. This suggests that the emissivity profile of the iron Kαline cannot be determined by black hole spin and corona geometry alone and the energy spectrum of the illuminating radiation has to be taken into account. We also study the dependence of the emissivity profile on the geometry of the corona.
Missing bright red giants in the Galactic center: A fingerprint of its once active state?
Zajaček, Michal ; Araudo, Anabella ; Karas, Vladimír ; Czerny, B. ; Eckart, A. ; Suková, Petra ; Štolc, Marcel ; Witzany, V.
We propose a novel scenario for the bright red-giant depletion based onthe collisions between red giants and the nuclear jet, which was likely active in the Galactic center a few million years ago and could have led to the formation of the large-scaleγ-ray Fermi bubbles. The process of the jet-induced ablation of red giants appears to be most efficient within∼0.04 pc(S-cluster), while at larger distances it was complemented by star–accretion disc collisions and at smaller scales, tidal stripping operated. These three mechanisms likely operated simultaneously and createdan apparent core of late-type stars within∼0.5 pc.
Perturbing the accretion flow onto a supermassive black hole by a passing star
Suková, Petra ; Zajaček, M. ; Witzany, V. ; Karas, Vladimír
The close neighbourhood of a supermassive black hole contains not only accreting gas and dust, but also stellar-sized objects like stars, stellar-mass black holes, neutron stars, and dust-enshrouded objects that altogether form a dense nuclear star-cluster.These objects interact with the accreting medium and they perturb the otherwise quasi-stationary configuration of the accretion flow. We investigate how the passages of a star can influence the black hole gaseous environment with GRMHD 2D and3D simulations. We focus on the changes in the accretion rate and the associated emergence of outflowing blobs of plasma.
From gappy to ringed: signatures of an accretion disk radial structure in profiles of the reflection line
Štolc, Marcel ; Zajaček, M. ; Karas, Vladimír
We focus on the theoretical profiles of a spectral line produced by reflection of the surface of both gappy accretion disk and a ring-like structure near a black hole. We describe the relativistic effects in an approximative manner. While a smooth accretion disk leads to a typical, double-horn shape with unequal wings due to Doppler boosting and an additional peak due to the lensing amplification at high inclination angle, the gaps and rings give rise to a more complex dependence which reflects the location and the radial extent of the inhomogeneities in the accretion flow.
Emergence of magnetic null points in electro-vacuum magnetospheres of compact objects: The case of a plunging neutron star
Kopáček, Ondřej ; Tahamtan, T. ; Karas, Vladimír
We study the possible emergence of magnetic null points which are astrophysically relevant for the processes of magnetic reconnection. While the magnetic reconnection occurs in the presence of plasma and may lead to violent mass ejection, we show here that strong gravitation of the supermassive black hole may actively support the process by suit-ably entangling the field lines even in the electro-vacuum description. In this contribution we further discuss the case of a dipole-type magnetic field of the neutron staron the plunging trajectory to the supermassive black hole. While we have previously shown that given model in principle admits the formation of magnetic null points, here we explore whether and where the null points appear for the astrophysically relevant values of the parameters.
Magnetically ejected disks: Equatorial outflows near vertically magnetized black hole
Karas, Vladimír ; Sapountzis, K. ; Janiuk, A.
We show an example of an equatorial outflow driven by a large scale magnetic field. We initiate our computations with a spherically symmetric distribution of gas, which flows on to the domain from a large distance, r R+. After the flow settles in a steady (Bondi) solution, we impose an axially symmetric configuration of a uniform (Wald) magnetic field aligned with the rotation axis of the black hole. Then we evolve the initial configuration numerically by employing the MHD code that approaches the force-free limit of a perfectly conducting fluid. We observe how the magnetic lines of force start accreting with the plasma while an equatorial intermittent outflow develops and goes on ejecting some material away from the black hole.
The fields of current loops around black holes
Vlasáková, Zuzana ; Semerák, Oldřich (advisor) ; Karas, Vladimír (referee)
The field of a test current loop placed symmetrically in the equatorial plane around a Kerr black hole has been studied several times and solutions have been published in different forms. We compare these results and determine their limits in important places - in radial infinity, on the outer event horizon, on the static limit, in the equatorial plane and on the axis of symmetry. Furthermore, we show the behaviour of the field corresponding to the extreme black hole and verify Meissner effect. In the end we determine the field of a simple model of a current disc by a superposition of test current loops. This problem has an astrophysical motivation - the description of accretion discs in the vicinity of black holes. 1
Accretion discs in the context of tidal disruption of stars in nuclei of galaxies
Štolc, Marcel ; Karas, Vladimír (advisor) ; Schee, Jan (referee)
Stars can be stretched and ripped apart by the super-massive black hole at the core of a galaxy. The remnant gaseous trail gradually circularizes in a ring of mass that spreads by the viscous forces into an accretion disc. In this thesis we have studied the spectral line profle time evolution of radiation refected by the accretion disc located around a super-massive black hole. We assume the central body to be a slowly rotating or non-rotating super-massive black hole with no charge, in the frst approximation represented by the Schwarzschild solution. In a sense of Shakura-Sunyaev standard accretion disc model with the kinematic viscosity parameter α ≈ 1 we allow the accretion disc evolution to be guided by the angular momentum transfer equation with the initial mass ring located at the tidal radius being the product of tidal disruption of a star passing by a super-massive black hole. During the simulations we keep varying the mass of the central body while we keep the mass and the radius of the star constant (M = 1M⊙ and R = 1R⊙), i.e. taking into account the solar-type stars only. We defer the prospects of the full analysis involving spin (and charge) of the central body for the future study as it will be necessary to use the equations for the redshift factor and the accretion disc evolution...
Polarization properties of bow shock sources close to the Galactic centre
Zajaček, M. ; Karas, Vladimír ; Hosseini, E. ; Eckart, A. ; Shahzamanian, B. ; Valencia-S, M. ; Peissker, F. ; Busch, G. ; Britzen, S. ; Zensus, J. A.
Several bow shock sources were detected and resolved in the innermost parsec from the supermassive black hole in the Galactic centre. They show several distinct characteristics, including an excess towards mid-infrared wavelengths and a significant linear polarization as well as a characteristic prolonged bow-shock shape. These features give hints about the presence of a non-spherical dusty envelope generated\nby the bow shock. The Dusty S-cluster Object (also denoted as G2) shows similar characteristics and it is a candidate for the closest bow shock with a detected proper motion in the vicinity of Sgr A*, with the pericentre distance of only approx. 2000 Schwarzschild radii. However, in the continuum emission it is a point-like source and hence we use Monte Carlo radiative transfer modeling to reveal its possible three-dimensional structure. Alongside the spectral energy distribution, the detection of polarized continuum emission in the near-infrared Ks-band (2.2 micrometers) puts additional constraints on the geometry of the source.

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1 KARAS, Václav
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