National Repository of Grey Literature 7 records found  Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Trends in pancreatic cancer mortality in Europe in the years 1995-2018
Opltová, Michaela ; Kulhánová, Ivana (advisor) ; Altová, Anna (referee)
Trends in pancreatic cancer mortality in Europe in the years 1995-2018 Abstract Malignant neoplasm of the pancreas is one of the malignant diseases with the worst survival statistics. The death rate per year is currently almost equal to the incidence rate in the world. Europe, along with other developed regions, is among the most affected areas. The aim of this bachelor's thesis is to analyse the development of the intensity of mortality due to malignant neoplasm of the pancreas in selected European countries between 1995 and 2018 and the subsequent comparison of trends between countries and within individual regions. Standardized mortality rates and age-specific mortality rates were mainly used for this purpose. Data came from the WHO Mortality Database and the Human Mortality Database. All states experienced an increase in standardized mortality rates for pancreatic cancer in both sexes. The states of Central and Northern Europe recorded higher values for both sexes, while the lowest values were recorded by the states of Southern Europe. Specific mortality rates increased with age in both sexes also in all analysed states. Key words: mortality, malignant neoplasm of the pancreas, Europe, standardized mortality rate
Age-specific analysis of leukemia incidence and mortality
Soukupová, Alžběta ; Kulhánová, Ivana (advisor) ; Altová, Anna (referee)
The purpose of this bachelor's thesis is to analyze the trends in incidence and mortality from leukemia in Czechia with special focus on the trends by gender and age. The analysis of the incidence of leukemia was conducted between 1980 and 2018 and the analysis of mortality in the period between 2003 to 2020. The period for mortality had to be shortened due to the availability of the necessary data. For both analyses, standardized rates were calculated. Due to the low number of deaths, the standardized death rates were divided into larger age groups and combined into six-year periods. Based on the results, it was found that the incidence of leukemia is increasing in Czechia. The number of new cases of disease and death increases with age and is higher in men than in women. The trends in mortality in women is more stable than in men. Acute forms of leukemia dominate in childhood and cases of chronic leukemia begin to appear with age. In senior age, both types are represented equally. The largest number of people die each year from the acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and the least from the acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In the chronic types of this disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), there are frequent fluctuations over time and their development...
Mortality from most common cancer types in Czechia and neighbouring countries
Schůt, Martin ; Altová, Anna (advisor) ; Hulíková Tesárková, Klára (referee)
Mortality from most common cancer types in Czechia and neighbouring countries Abstract The main topic of this thesis is a comprehensive analysis of the development of mortality from the most common cancers in the Czech Republic and neighbouring countries. The main focus of the work is on the identification of the most important types of cancer in individual populations and on the analysis of the level and evolution of the intensity of mortality from these diseases between 2000 and 2019. The overall analysis is carried out in order to reflect the major trends of recent developments by comparing the situation in selected countries. In terms of mortality trends, the work focuses primarily on the most important risk factors that contribute most significantly to the increase in mortality intensity. The thesis also addresses changes in the basic structure of the most important cancer types, taking into account regional differences between countries. Keywords: mortality, cancer, mortality rate, Malignant neoplasm
COVID-19 pandemic from a demographic perspective: an international comparison
Březinová, Markéta ; Hulíková Tesárková, Klára (advisor) ; Altová, Anna (referee)
COVID-19 pandemic from a demographic perspective: an international comparison Abstract The main goal of this work is to compare the course and severity of the COVID-19 pandemic in five European countries (Czechia, Germany, Italy, Spain and Portugal) during the first wave of this pandemic roughly in the spring and summer of 2020. The key observed aspect is the sex and age structure, of both the total population and the population of individuals with confirmed COVID-19 infection and also those who have died. The first part of the work is devoted to the theoretical introduction, definition of basic concepts and summary of the pandemic in all selected countries. Subsequently, differences between countries, age groups and sexes are compared using both crude and standardized rates of incidence, lethality and fatality. The results show that the age and sex structure of the population of confirmed cases has a significant effect on the course and severity of the first wave of the pandemic. Furthermore, a comparison of the differences in the age structure of deaths with COVID-19 and deaths from respiratory diseases before this pandemic is made. A comparison of COVID-19 lethality rates for the first wave of the pandemic and pre-pandemic respiratory diseases lethality rates did not confirm any link between pandemic...
Development of total mortality and cause-specific mortality in V4 countries since the beginning of the millennium
Trejbal, Filip ; Altová, Anna (advisor) ; Kulhánová, Ivana (referee)
Development of total mortality and cause-specific mortality in V4 countries since the beginning of the millennium Abstract The main aim of this thesis is to describe and evaluate the development of total mortality and mortality by selected causes in V4 countries within the period 2000-2018. The thesis focuses especially on analysing the long-term, eventually incipient mortality trends and comparing individual countries, i. e. Czechia, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. Life expectancy at birth and at the age of 65 is used to analyze the development of total mortality. The development of cause- specific mortality is assessed using standardized mortality rates and the contributions of age groups and groups of causes of death to changes in the life expectancy at birth. Improving mortality conditions within the V4 were observed and evidenced by the increase in life expectancy at birth and at age 65 in all countries over almost the entire period. This favourable development was primarily due to a decrease of mortality from circulatory diseases, especially in older age (65+). It was also found that in the new millennium, the trend of increasing mortality from some causes of death, such as mental disorders and diseases of the nervous system, appeared in the V4 countries. There has also been a diversification of the...
Health systems in selected European countries and their impact on population development
Martínková, Kateřina ; Šídlo, Luděk (advisor) ; Altová, Anna (referee)
Health systems in selected European countries and their impact on population development Abstract The main objective of this thesis is the characterization of the current state of healthcare systems in six european countries (Germany, France, Czechia, Sweden, Spain and Hungary) and futher the comparison these countries in terms of health indicators of the population and the quality and effectiveness of their health care systems. The analytical part of the thesis is based on data from OECD (or Eurostat) and is focused on the comparison of demographic indicators, occurrence of risk factors in society, quality and availability of health care with a special emphasis on long-term care and expenditure on health. The results of the analysis mainly points to the efficiency of the Swedish healthcare system, which ranked highest, from selected countries, on all indicators used to rank different aspects of a healthcare system. Sweden is also facing some challenges, because of significant regional disparities. Conversely, the worst results were recorded in Hungary, which is affected by very low health-related expenditure and this results in a poor quality of health care. Keywords: healthcare, healthcare systems, health status, Europe
Breast, cervical and testicular cancer - epidemiology, screening and prevention
Altová, Anna ; Lustigová, Michala (advisor) ; Kulhánová, Ivana (referee)
The main concern of this thesis are breast, cervical and testicular cancer with focus on their epidemiology, screening and prevention. The epidemiological situation in Czechia and selected member states of EU is described by using indicators of incidence and mortality. The first main goal of this thesis is to analyze breast and cervical cancer screening coverage as well as the coverage by regular gynecologist check ups by using data from VZP health insurance company. It has been found that the breast cancer screening coverage rates are influenced by age structure. Cervical cancer screening coverage and gynecologist check-up coverage grow from 2009 to 2017. The other main task was to find out about knowledge of self-examination of Czech young people by using the data from questionnaires from educational programme "Healthy balls". Health knowledge among these students was low. There were found some differences in health behaviour and health literacy between gender and age groups.

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