National Repository of Grey Literature 28 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Trends in pancreatic cancer mortality in Europe in the years 1995-2018
Opltová, Michaela ; Kulhánová, Ivana (advisor) ; Altová, Anna (referee)
Trends in pancreatic cancer mortality in Europe in the years 1995-2018 Abstract Malignant neoplasm of the pancreas is one of the malignant diseases with the worst survival statistics. The death rate per year is currently almost equal to the incidence rate in the world. Europe, along with other developed regions, is among the most affected areas. The aim of this bachelor's thesis is to analyse the development of the intensity of mortality due to malignant neoplasm of the pancreas in selected European countries between 1995 and 2018 and the subsequent comparison of trends between countries and within individual regions. Standardized mortality rates and age-specific mortality rates were mainly used for this purpose. Data came from the WHO Mortality Database and the Human Mortality Database. All states experienced an increase in standardized mortality rates for pancreatic cancer in both sexes. The states of Central and Northern Europe recorded higher values for both sexes, while the lowest values were recorded by the states of Southern Europe. Specific mortality rates increased with age in both sexes also in all analysed states. Key words: mortality, malignant neoplasm of the pancreas, Europe, standardized mortality rate
Excess mortality due to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 and 2021 in selected Central European countries
Chlapec, Dominik ; Hulíková Tesárková, Klára (advisor) ; Kulhánová, Ivana (referee)
Excess mortality due to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 and 2021 in selected Central European countries Abstract The aim of this thesis is to compare excess mortality associated with the covid-19 pandemic in four Central European countries. The research focused on the years 2020 and 2021, during which the countries studies were most affected by the pandemic. Excess deaths and excess standardized mortality rates are used here for the international comparison. To calculate these indicators, it was first necessary to estimate the reference mortality levels, which were then compared with the recorded number of deaths and standardized mortality rates. Two models were used to estimate the reference mortality levels, which were based on weekly averages and Serfling's cyclical model. Based on these reference mortality levels, it was found that the highest increase of deaths compared to the expected number of deaths during the studied years occurred in Slovakia, while the lowest increase was recorded in Germany. Similar results were observed for other indicators, with higher overall excess mortality in Czechia and Slovakia and lower excess mortality in Germany and Austria. Differences in these results were observed when using the two different models. Keywords: covid-19, pandemic, excess mortality, Serfling model
Social Inequalities in Colorectal Cancer Screening (Non-)Attendance in Europe
Vančíková, Sabína ; Kulhánová, Ivana (advisor) ; Ngo, Ondřej (referee)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide, responsible for nearly a million deaths yearly. Due to its slow progression, there is a unique window of opportunity to detect (and remove) the precancerous lesions or early stages of tumors and reduce CRC incidence and mortality. Regularly repeated fecal occult blood tests for 50-74 years old individuals and a follow-up colonoscopy in case of a positive result is a recommended screening strategy in the European Union. However, each country plans its own CRC screening program, population-based or opportunistic, and the attendance rates vary across Europe. This diploma thesis aimed to characterize the main sociodemographic barriers to CRC screening attendance in Europe, utilizing comparable data from an international cross-sectional health survey EHIS wave 3. To understand the background, lifelong CRC screening non-attendance rates were calculated for each country. Social inequalities were studied on both levels - in the population of the entire Europe and the individual countries. Various socioeconomic and lifestyle factors were used in the analyses as potential predictors of CRC screening attendance behavior. Social inequalities in CRC screening non-attendance persist across Europe. The age- standardized...
Social inequalities in stroke prevalence in Europe
Šimka, Vojtěch ; Kulhánová, Ivana (advisor) ; Bruthans, Jan (referee)
This thesis analyses the relationship between the prevalence of stroke and the level of education in European countries. The aim of the thesis is to identify the factors that influence this relationship using data obtained from the EHIS study. The thesis focuses on the analysis of social inequalities in stroke prevalence in Europe. The results of the analysis confirm the existence of significant social inequalities in the prevalence of this disease in some European countries. Factors contributing to a higher chance of stroke in individuals with lower socioeconomic status have been identified. On the basis of these results, recommendations for governments of countries with a high prevalence of social inequalities are formulated in the final chapter of the thesis. These recommendations relate to access to health care, including stroke prevention and treatment, and aim to reduce social inequalities in this area.
Diabetes mellitus and breast cancer screening in Czechia in the context of socio-economic factors
Vrchlavská, Eliška ; Kulhánová, Ivana (advisor) ; Brož, Jan (referee)
This thesis focuses on the relationship of diabetes mellitus and participation in mammography screening in women in the Czechia under the influence of socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors, and it is based on the assumption that women with diabetes mellitus participate in secondary prevention of breast cancer less frequently than women without diabetes. Logistic regression analysis methods were used to assess the relationship between participation in mammography screening and diabetes, age, SES (education, household income) and lifestyle (obesity, smoking, alcohol) using European Health Interview Survey (EHIS) data from 2019. The link between SES and lifestyle is assessed for women with diabetes, as well as for women without the diagnosis. The results of this study do not show a statistically significant relationship between diabetes and participation in mammography screening, however, do demonstrate a socioeconomic gradient in participation in screening, both in the diabetes-free and diabetic populations. At the same time, they demonstrate an increased probability of participating in screening for occasional alcohol consumers. Key words: diabetes mellitus, breast cancer, mammography, EHIS, socioeconomic status
Attitudes and awareness of genetic testing for BRCA genes in women in Czechia
Nejedlová, Pavlína ; Kulhánová, Ivana (advisor) ; Hirsch, Ivan (referee)
The thesis deals with the issue of awareness and attitudes of women towards genetic testing for BRCA genes in Czechia. Genetic testing reveals hereditary predispositions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations, which are associated with a high risk of hereditary cancers, especially breast and ovarian cancer. The thesis focuses on the importance of genetic testing, which can help to identify women at high risk of developing these diseases and to inform them sufficiently about appropriate preventive measures or recommendations for early treatment. Awareness and genetic counselling are important factors for individuals and their family members. Genetic mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are estimated to account for 5-10% of all breast and ovarian cancers. In this study, the association between social determinants and awareness of genetic testing is examined to determine whether these determinants are important in women's access to and awareness of testing. The analysis used data from 911 respondents who participated in the Sociological Survey of Citizens of the Czech Republic, a sample survey provided by the INRES agency. The binary logistic regression method was used to analyze the relationship between awareness of BRCA genetic testing and the attitude of women in Czechia towards undergoing such...
Owerwight and Obesity as a Risk Factor for Cancer and Diabetes
Rožeková, Katarína ; Lustigová, Michala (advisor) ; Kulhánová, Ivana (referee)
The present thesis contains a set of three related articles dealing with the influence of one of the most important risk factors namely overweight (BMI≥25kg/m2 ) and obesity (BMI≥30kg/m2 ) on mortality intensity of selected types of malignant neoplasms and prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes. (I) The first published article analyzed the attributable risk of population death for selected malignant neoplasms in 2016, which could be attributed to excessive BMI in the Czech population from 2008 according to sex. (II) In the second submission, the analysis was expanded, estimating and comparing mortality in the Czech and Slovak populations and between different age categories. The present studies were analyzed using the population attribute fraction (PAF). (III) The aim of the last analysis was to determine the prevalence of diabetes (DM) and pre-diabetes in the Czech population and to assess their risk factors. In their studies, the authors point to the continuing and growing problem of obesity and its consequences across Europe. They thus contribute to a deeper understanding of the long-term risk factor involved and the design of measures for the planning and subsequent implementation of prevention. The present analyzes were also published in "Demography" (I), "Epidemiology, Microbiology,...
Age-specific analysis of leukemia incidence and mortality
Soukupová, Alžběta ; Kulhánová, Ivana (advisor) ; Altová, Anna (referee)
The purpose of this bachelor's thesis is to analyze the trends in incidence and mortality from leukemia in Czechia with special focus on the trends by gender and age. The analysis of the incidence of leukemia was conducted between 1980 and 2018 and the analysis of mortality in the period between 2003 to 2020. The period for mortality had to be shortened due to the availability of the necessary data. For both analyses, standardized rates were calculated. Due to the low number of deaths, the standardized death rates were divided into larger age groups and combined into six-year periods. Based on the results, it was found that the incidence of leukemia is increasing in Czechia. The number of new cases of disease and death increases with age and is higher in men than in women. The trends in mortality in women is more stable than in men. Acute forms of leukemia dominate in childhood and cases of chronic leukemia begin to appear with age. In senior age, both types are represented equally. The largest number of people die each year from the acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and the least from the acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In the chronic types of this disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), there are frequent fluctuations over time and their development...
Gender differences in mortality from cardiovascular diseases in Europe
Trčková, Tereza ; Kulhánová, Ivana (advisor) ; Hulíková Tesárková, Klára (referee)
Genderdifferencesinmortalityfromcardiovascular diseases inEurope Abstract This thesis aims to analyze the difference in cardiovascular disease mortality between men and women in 21 selected European countries in the period 2001-2019. The intensity of gender differences across the selected countries is examined. With a stronger emphasis, the position of the Czech Republic within Europe is evaluated. To examine gender differences in cardiovascular mortality, the thesis uses standardized cause-specific mortality rates and a comparison of actual life expectancy with hypothetical life expectancy when cardiovascular mortality is suppressed for each country. Cluster analysis is used to identify how countries cluster together based on their similarity of health determinants. The results of the analysis showed that differences between men and women are present in all selected countries. The largest differences are found in Eastern and Central European countries.
Trends in stroke mortality in Czechia in the period 1995-2021
Prystaszová, Adéla ; Kulhánová, Ivana (advisor) ; Lustigová, Michala (referee)
Stroke is one of the most common causes of death in Czechia. The aim of this bachelor's thesis is to analyse trends in stroke mortality between 1995 and 2021 using data from the Czech Statistical Office. Standardized mortality rates, age-specific mortality rates, simple proportion calculations and two-dimensional decomposition method were used for this purpose. The thesis describes a significant decrease in the overall intensity of stroke mortality and intensity by age groups, as well as notable impact of stroke on the increase in life expectancy at birth. Furthermore, the thesis examines changes in the position of stroke among other causes of death, including cardiovascular diseases. The regional differentiation of stroke mortality is also analysed, revealing significant internal variability within Czechia. Additionally, the mortality trends of two main stroke types, ischaemic and haemorrhagic, are briefly outlined. Analysis of differences between men and women is included throughout the whole thesis. Keywords: mortality, stroke, standardized mortality rates, decomposition, Czechia Trends in stroke mortality in Czechia in the period 1995-2021

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