National Repository of Grey Literature 6 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Alcohol dehydrogenases in parasitic protists
Šipková, Anna ; Mach, Jan (advisor) ; Smutná, Tamara (referee)
Bachelor's thesis summarizes alcohol dehydrogenases mainly in parasitic protists. These widespread enzymes have been identified in several organisms ranging from bacteria to human. Thanks to the diversity of the enzyme's structure and substrate specificity is its function variable. Structure of the model zinc-containing Adh1 Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tetrameric. Enzymes are responsible for reversible oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones with concomitant reduction of NAD(P)+ as a cofactor. In most organisms, Adh appears in several types. Classification of Adhs is quite difficult and incomplete due to the investigation progress. The current classification includes three groups: MDR ("medium chain" Adh), SDR ("small chain" Adh) and iron-containing Adh. Adhs in parasitic protists have a specific role in the flexibility of metabolism and the adaptability to environmental changes in the host. This thesis deals especially with anaerobic parasites, where Adh is important in fermentation metabolism. Adh also figures in the resistance to drugs like in Trypanosoma cruzi or Tritrichomonas foetus. Recently, Adh has become a promising enzyme for a biotechnological application like in pharmaceutical or chemical industry. Keywords: Alcohol dehydrogenases, classification, parasitic protists, resistance
Prokaryotic proteins of antioxidant defense in Trichomonas vaginalis hydrogenosomes
Smutná, Tamara
Parasitic protists with modified mitochondria represent important and exciting group of organisms, not only from the view of eukaryotic cell evolution but also because these parasites are causative agents of serious and widespread diseases. The study and understanding of their biology is thus necessary for the development of new antiparasitic drugs. These organisms reside in host body cavities with low concentrations of oxygen and while they lack typical mitochondria, they possess mitochondrion-related organelles which still integrate many physiologically important processes. Trichomonas vaginalis is an anaerobic flagellate inhabiting mucosal surface of vagina. Instead of canonical mitochondria, T. vaginalis possesses organelles termed hydrogenosomes. These organelles harbor pathways of ATP-generating metabolism via substrate-level phosphorylation, dependent on enzymes prone to oxidative damage, such as pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and Fe-Fe hydrogenase. Because the environment of trichomonads is not fully anaerobic, the parasite had to develop complex strategies to cope with both oxygen and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by host immune system cells. Recent data from T. vaginalis proteomic and genomic analyses revealed the presence of bacterial-type proteins potentially participating...
Prokaryotic proteins of antioxidant defense in Trichomonas vaginalis hydrogenosomes
Smutná, Tamara ; Hrdý, Ivan (advisor) ; Horváth, Anton (referee) ; Kopáček, Petr (referee)
Parasitic protists with modified mitochondria represent important and exciting group of organisms, not only from the view of eukaryotic cell evolution but also because these parasites are causative agents of serious and widespread diseases. The study and understanding of their biology is thus necessary for the development of new antiparasitic drugs. These organisms reside in host body cavities with low concentrations of oxygen and while they lack typical mitochondria, they possess mitochondrion-related organelles which still integrate many physiologically important processes. Trichomonas vaginalis is an anaerobic flagellate inhabiting mucosal surface of vagina. Instead of canonical mitochondria, T. vaginalis possesses organelles termed hydrogenosomes. These organelles harbor pathways of ATP-generating metabolism via substrate-level phosphorylation, dependent on enzymes prone to oxidative damage, such as pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and Fe-Fe hydrogenase. Because the environment of trichomonads is not fully anaerobic, the parasite had to develop complex strategies to cope with both oxygen and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by host immune system cells. Recent data from T. vaginalis proteomic and genomic analyses revealed the presence of bacterial-type proteins potentially participating...
Iron as a factor of virulence of parasitic protists
Glavanakovová, Marie ; Šuťák, Róbert (advisor) ; Smutná, Tamara (referee)
Iron is an essential nutrient for metabolism in almost all living organisms. Its importance for many crucial cellular processes originates primarily from the flexibility of available redox potentials. However, the high toxicity of free iron ions is well known. For most organisms, iron is simultaneously and paradoxically essential and toxic. Iron acquisition is crucial for parasitic organisms because it is needed for multiplication in hosts. Many studies have examined the relationship between iron availability and parasite development as a primary factor of virulence. These experiments commonly use chelators, chemical compounds that bind specifically and with high affinity iron ions, and are especially used for iron overload treatment. This thesis summarizes the influence of iron overload or deprivation in the host on the development of parasitic organisms and the impact of chelating agents on the virulence of selected parasitic protists, including the Plasmodium, Leishmania, Trypanosoma, Trichomonas and Tritrichomonas genuses.

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